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Nanyang Technological University School of Art Design and Media Building Science report

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  • 1. NANYANG TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF ART, DESIGN AND MEDIA SINGAPORE Designed by : CPG Consultants Project 1 : Case Study: Identifying innovative passive design strategies
  • 2. CONTENTS INTRODUCTION NATURAL AND MAN-MADE FACTOR CLIMATE ANALYSIS SUN ANALYSIS WIND ANALYSIS THERMAL ANALYSIS CONCEPT ANALYSIS REFERENCES 1 - 4 5 - 10 11 - 13 14 - 19 20 - 22 23 - 28 29 - 32 33 - 36 TITLE PAGE NO.
  • 3. INTRODUCTION : The Building “ we were awe with the design and creation of green roof building”
  • 4. Project: Location: Case Study: Identifying innovative passive design strategies Nanyang Technological University, School of Art Media and Design, Singapore Architect: Designed by CPG Consultants “As a group, we constantly push the frontier of infrastructural and architectural design trends to meet the needs of modern facilities and their usage. Thus, one of our most distinctive design niches is environmentalism. The team is concerned and mindful of the impact modern infrastructure can have on the environment and we are hence, constantly producing solutions that enable us to co-exist with nature in harmony.“ CPG Consultants, Green Approach Introduction Nanyang Technological University is one of the largest public universities in Singapore which boasts a 200 hectare campus. Each school has their own building on the campus ground. One of the new building inside the campus ground was built for its School of Art, Design and Media. The building is a green building designed and built by CPG consultants which caters to the environment by means of passive design relative to the tropical climate and is recognised by Singapore’s Green Mark System (Davis, 2012). Climate Climatically both Singapore and Malaysia are a hot and humid country; Singapore, a city-state, lies 1° north of the equator. This essentially contributes to it having a tropical rain forest climate along with its maritime exposure. Due to the country being Nanyang Technological University’s School of Art, Design and Media achieved the Green Mark Platinum Award (refer to Image 3) from the Building and Construction Authority for adopting best practices in environmental sustainability (Green Mark). Green Certification surrounded by water, its temperature has minimal fluctuations, negating the four seasons (Bruno, 2011). 1
  • 5. Top Image 1: View of the building as occupants walk up the stairs to the top of the green roof Middle Image 2: View of the stairs leading up to the open courtyard. Entrance to the build- ing from the courtyard can be seen. Bottom Image 3: Building and Construction Authority Green Mark Logo 2
  • 6. This unique building is situated in Singapore, specifically in the 200-hectare Yun- nan campus, adjacent to the Jurong West district of Singapore. It is situated at a crossroad between Nanyang Avenue and Lien Ying Chow Drive and is flanked by the Simtech Valley Block. The building is used mostly during the day when the students and staffs occupy it and is left empty during the night. It is spaced apart from nearby buildings as it houses the School of Art, Design and Media. SITE LOCATIONTop Image 4: Site Plan of Nanyang Technological University, School of Art, Design & Media 3
  • 7. Plans, Sections , drawings Image 5 Floor plan of Nanyang Technological University School of Art, Design and Media Image 6 Cross Section of Nanyang Technological University School of Art, Design and Media 4
  • 8. NATURAL AND MAN MADE FACTORS “ Components that affecting the comforbality of the building “
  • 9. Dense voysiamatrella grass turf The grass turf helps to absorb Singapore’s intense sun which decreases the temperature of the air surrounding the university. Moreover, thus eco-friendly attribute enhances the outdoor gathering spaces of the university. Top Image 7:Photograph of the dense voysiamatrella grass turf 5
  • 10. Exposed Facade The facade of the building is an expansive curtain wall facades of high-performance, double-glazed glass. It is longitudinally oriented east-west and more north and south exposures. The glass curtain walls maximizes interior daylight while minimizing heat penetration. Double-glazed windows are windows with two sheets of glass separated by an air tight gap. This creates an insulation barrier and helps prevent heat loss in winter and heat gain in summer. The combination of high insulation frame, twin compression seals and double glazed units gives a level of thermal efficiency that is unsurpassed. Double glazing is designed to minimize heat transfer. Top Image 8: Photograph of the Curtain wall facade 6
  • 11. Almond Shape Courtyard The courtyard expands access to daylight and cooling effect. It provides natural light into interior spaces as well as in providing cooling properties from the water attributes exuding a serene environment and emanating a refreshing breeze that cools the courtyard. Top Image 9: Photo- graph of the exterior scenery including the courtyard 7
  • 12. Raw Concrete Materials and Finishes Concrete is high energy efficient. Its thermal mass or ability helps in absorbing and retaining heat which helps in cutting heating and cooling bills. Moreover, concrete’s reflectivity properties minimizes the affects the produces urban heat island as it absorbs less heat and reflects more solar radiation. Top Image 10: Photo- graph of the material that been used in the building which is concrete and glass 8
  • 13. Curved Green Roof The curved green roof that casts in heavily ribbed, reinforced concrete which also forms the double curve layout The green roof reduces solar gain and slows run off during Singapore’s frequent downpour. The turfs are irrigated using rainwater collected in the storage tank. Moisture retention materials are installed beneath the soil helps keep the grass consistently damp that creates a surrounding temperature that is not too hot. This helps in creating a thermal environment that is comfortable for the occupants of the university. Top Image 11: Photo- graph of the curved green roof in the site 9
  • 14. Pictures Taken of Site Image 12 Panoramic View of Nanyang Technological University School of Art, Media and Design Image 13 User and Library Space in Nanyang Technological University School of Art, Design and Media Image 14 User and Space in the Interior Nanyang Technological University School of Art, Design and Media. Image 15 Concrete Material on the wall of Nanyang Technological University School of Art, Design and Media Image 16 Staircase along Green Roof on Nanyang Technological University School of Art, Design and Media 10
  • 15. CLIMATE ANALYSIS “The basic precedent study to analyse is the climate”
  • 16. Climate Data Climate Location Singapore Figure 1 Annual Relative Humidity for Singa- pore Figure 2 Annual Maximum Temperature for Singapore HUMIDITY TEMPERATURE 11
  • 17. Figure 3 Annual Minimum Temperature of Singapore Figure 4 Average Temperature of Singapore 12
  • 18. Singapore’s climate is character- ised by uniform temperature and pres- sure, high humidity and abundant rainfall because of its geographical location and maritime exposure. Relative humidity is in the range of 70% - 80%. Buildings constructed in high humidity locations need to have dehumidification capability to avoid moisture build up inside the building, causing discomfort and moulds. Humidity Singapore maintains its tem- perature throughout the year with little changes between its maximum and minimum temperature. The average temperature is between 23 degrees Celsius and 31 degrees Celsius. April is the warmest month, January is coolest month and November is the wettest month. In terms of building design, exposed heavy construction materials with low heat conductivity materials is highly favourable such as concrete which reduces heat gain into the build- ing and store cooling energy. Temperature Image 17 On Site Sketch of Nanyang Technological Univeristy 13
  • 19. SUN ANALYSIS “Sources that can’t be avoid as it always shine bright on the day”
  • 20. Sunpath Case Studies Image 18 January 8th 11:15 a.m Image 19 May 4th 11:30 a.m 14
  • 21. Image 20 September 25th 12:45 p.m Image 21 November 30th 15:00 p.m 15
  • 22. Upon completion of our research, we have found out that the consultants took a lot of measures to design this building in accordance with the natural sun orientation as their idea were to build an open space university (2014). Referring to the site plan, this building is located in the housing area with a proper development from the Singapore’s government. As it is situated far from the main city, there is no natural shading from the surrounding building except for the location natural vegetation. Thus, the consultants built this building with a proper orientation by placing the facades facing north and south to minimize solar gain. After achieving the right orientation for build- ing, the facade is fixed with glass curtain walls. Benefits from Site Context During our site visit, we felt really comfortable when we were inside the building and also in the courtyard. According to D.K Ching, taking advantage of the land or ecology of the building is one way to enhance green building’s factor. Thus, the purpose of almond-shaped courtyard in the middle of the building is to provide natural lighting into the interior. Next, the consultant took advantage of the sun orientation by designing a green roof. According to Alwitra GMBH.co, the purpose of the green roof is to bring out the aesthetic value of the building from other conventional multi - storey buildings, in the campus and in the city (2013). Moreover, the green roof functions to cool the building environment by absorbing Singapore’s intense sun and slowing runoff during Singapore’s downpour (2014). Image 22 Site Plan Red Box : Nanyang Technological Universtiy Campus Blue Box : House / Residential Area Black Box : Nanyang Technological University School of Art, Design and Media 16
  • 23. Absorb Singapore's Intense Sun The Image 19 until Image 21 is a proof of the sun orientation on the Nanyang Technological University School of Art, Design and Media. The date and time was set through the analysis of Singapore’s season which are North-East Monsoon Season,Pre South-West Monsoon, South-West Monsoon Season and Pre North-East Monsoon. The consultant achieved their intention to make use of the building orientation, green roof and etc to overcome the Singapore’s intense sun. As the curtain glass wall is orientated to the north and south, there is no full exposure from the sun as it is only direct to the courtyard. Next, since the green roof is on top of the building, it is fully exposed to every direction of the sun to oppose the Sun heat. Sun Path Case Studies Beauty to the users and surrounding Building Material which is glass curtain that allows natural lighting to enter the building. Image 23 Sketches of Nanyang Technolog- ical University School of Art, Design and Media’s Elevation that shows the Function of the building that coorperate with the sun analysis information. 17
  • 24. - The facades of the building are facaing north and south to minimize solar gain - High Efficiency discharge lights are adopted throughout the building. (2013) Opening of the building facade from the Glass Wall Top Image 24 Sketches of floor plan of the site which shows the building orientation. Bottom Image 25 Perspective sketch of site to show the placement of courtyard and focus view on the glass wall 18
  • 25. Design Profile Building Profile Building Name Nanyang Technological University School of Art, Design and Media Architect Designed by CPG Consultants Location Building Type Singapore School / University Square Foot 215,000 sqft Solar Design Profile Latitude 1.3 Heating Degree Days mean ambient temperatures of around 26-27°C year around Cooling Degree Days Conservation Strategies N/A Energy Conservation in East Asia Passive Solar Strategies building position, open facade of the building, placement couryard with fountain, shading Active Solar Strategies Green Roof System Other renewable energy strategies None High Performance Strategies High Performance glazing and envelope, High Performance elevation, High performance roof 19
  • 26. WIND ANALYSIS “The Ventilation”
  • 27. Top Image 26 The courtyard of Nanyang Technological University The northeast monsoon season, from December to the beginning of March, is when north-easterly winds prevail. Whereas, the southwest monsoon season from June through September, is when south-easterly or south-west- erly winds blow. (Figure 5) Due to the 2 monsoon seasons and the location of Nanyang Technology University which is relatively near to the sea, the amount and speed of wind flows are higher and faster compared to the other months and locations.(Image 27) For the building itself, the verdant turfed roof and the courtyard are the two spaces that would be well ventilated. ( Image 29 ). Sun Path Case Studies The sliding doors and opened windows are also allowed the air ventilation to flow throughout the building. Winds are incorporated onto the roof and also the courtyard to allow students to feel cooled. Moreover, the presence of wind helps to lower down the temperature outside while the majority of interiors such as the counter area, halls, classes, studios, admission centre, and so on are ventilated by using air conditioners. ( Image 29 ). However, the air conditioning are switched off after 11pm every day. It is to be eco-friendly.For Nanyang Technology University, the wind flows helped to improve the thermal comfort. 20
  • 28. Sunpath Case Studies Figure 5 The wind diagram shows the wind speed, the wind direction in Singapore Image 27 The google map picture showing the short distance between the sea and Nanyang Technological University 21
  • 29. Wind Symbol Image 28 Sketch of wind movement in Nanyang Technological University Image 29 Ventilation across Nanyang Technological Universtity School of Art, Design and Media 22
  • 30. THERMAL ANALYSIS “Comfortability”
  • 31. When people are displeased with their thermal environment, not only is it a potential health hazard, it also impacts on their ability to function effectively, their happiness/satisfaction at work, the likelihood they will remain a customer and so on. BS EN ISO 7730 defines thermal comfort as ‘…that condition of mind which expresses satisfaction with the thermal environment. ie the condition when someone is not feeling either too hot or too cold. The human thermal environment is not straight forward and cannot be stated in degrees. Nor can it be reasonably be defined by adequate temperature ranges. It is a personal experience dependent on a countless number of criteria and can be different from one person to another within the same space. Thermal Comfort Analysis For example, a person walking up stairs in a cold environment whilst wearing a coat might feel too hot, whilst someone sat still in a shirt in the same environ- ment might feel too cold. The Health and Safety Executive propose that an environment can be said to attain ‘reasonable comfort’ when at least 80% of its dwellers are thermally at ease. This means that thermal comfort can be assessed simply by surveying inhabitants to find out whether they are unhappy with their thermal environment. At one degree above the equator, the climate in Singapore is typically tropical; hot and humid throughout the year. The temperature usually lingers around 30 degrees Celsius (86 degrees Fahrenheit) with 75 per cent humidity. Rainfall is slightly higher during the winter with a monthly average of 260 millimeters (10 inches) and summer months averaging 170 millimeters (six and a half inches). 23
  • 32. Climate proportion to Thermal Analysis Figure 6 Singapore Climate Graph Figure 7 Singapore Climate table 24
  • 33. Enlivened by fountains, cascad- ing water and a “floating” performance platform, the reflecting pond of the building’s interior courtyard both creates ambience and cools a pleasant commu- nal area in the center. The main green feature of the building still remains the iconic curved green roof. A living or green roof is a roof that is substantially covered with vegetation. These have positive effects on buildings by reducing the stress on the roof sur- face and increasing their life, improving thermal comfort and reducing noise transmission inside the building, reducing the urban heat island effect, reducing storm water runoff, re-oxygenating the air and removing airborne toxins, recycling nutrients, and providing habitat for living organisms, all of this while creating peaceful environments. Therefore, green roofs do have an immediate effect on the thermal comfort of a building. Indoor temperature reduces in the buildings having green roofs with the increasing of the soil thickness.( Image 31 ) There is a significant influence of soil thicknesses in green roof for improving the indoor temperatures in the upper floors of buildings. However, soil thickness does not effect on the indoor temperature in the ground floor. The latter is affected by the curvilinear plan form of the building,creating an Top Image 30 Zone Floor Plan of Nanyang Technological University 25
  • 34. opening in the center which hosts a cooling courtyard. The green roof is applied here on NTU, which has upper floors, exposed to the direct sun light throughout the day time as a passive element. Studies and experiments car- ried out by professionals have shown that the indoor thermal performance of a green roof is better than the traditional roofs. As a reason of aging of buildings, the absorptivity of traditional roof mate- rials increase. However, in a well main- tained green roof, this remains same as newly constructed green roof. The glass curtain wall is an- other feature which adds on to the thermal comfort of NTU. Windows are complex and fas- cinating elements in the material of a building. They allow light and fresh air and provide views that link interior spaces with the outdoors. Unfortunately, windows can be a maincause of un- desirable heat gain in hot weather and significant heat loss in cold weather. Windows can have a severe impact on the heating and cooling loads of a building. Up to 40% of a building’s heating energy can be lost and up to 87% of its heat gained through win- dows. (http://www.yourhome.gov.au/ passive-design/glazing) Improving windows’ thermal per- formance reduces energy costs, green- house gas emissions and improves Top Image 31 sections showing air flow, red is warm, blue is cool 26
  • 35. thermal comfort within. Careful selection of window glaz- ing greatly increases thermal comfort for people near to windows, especially large windows. The sense of comfort is not just determined by air temperature: the temperature of surrounding surfaces has a great impact. The goal should be to attain an inside glass surface temperature as close as possible to the preferred room air tem- perature. This means glass that is nei- ther cold in winter nor hot in summer. Although we lacked the time to do an in depth mathematical thermal behavior room-by-room analysis/mea- surement of the entire building, we did get to measure the dry bulb temperature from certain areas of the building, out- side to inside the double glazed glassed walls. Room/Area Outside Main Entrance Inside Main Entrance Inside corridor to library Inside middle of library Library-window side facing courtyard Corridors on Floor below roof On top of grass roof Temperature Recorded/ ˚C 33 31 29.8 25.6 30.9 Avg. 31.2 Avg. 32.3 Top Figure 8 Table of on site tem- perature recordings of some spaces 27
  • 36. Top Image 32 ‘’heat map’’ of the NTU in section – darkest red is hottest darkest blue is coldest • The building is oriented with its facades facing north and south to minimize solar gain. During the day, the sun shines mostly on the green roof from east to west. • High efficiency discharge lights are adopted throughout the building, more light less heat gain. • High performance double glazed glass wall in place • The rain water collection system is fitted on the green roof for irrigation, this further keeps the coolness of the roof/inner roof area • The rain sensors are installed on the green roof to automate the irrigation process whereby irrigation is ceased when it rains. • The curved building is embracing a courtyard with water features and plants. The reflection of the trees and nature can been seen on the all-glass exterior. Some key features playing a role in the efficient thermal comfort of the building 28
  • 37. CONCEPT ANALYSIS “The Conclusion of Our Analysis”
  • 38. One of the main features of Nanyang Technological University that can be noticed is the exterior glass curtain walling. It is utilizing passive solar design to help maximize natural lighting by using proper orientation of the building and providing appropriate shading to reduce overheating. The building is specifically orientated facing the north and south ( Picture 1 ). This is to minimize the solar gain and heat load in the morning. The glass exterior facade allows natural views and sunlight into the building, allowing visual exchange between indoor and outdoor spaces. This give an amazing experience while being in the building and enjoying the surrounding at the same time. The glasses are double-glazed to reduce heat penetration into the building, while allowing maximum interior daylight to pass through ( Picture 2 ). It helps to reduce the temperature transfer between exterior and interior spaces. Glass openings are also placed throughout the interior walls to provide natural sunlight diffusing through each space. This allows continuity of lighting throughout the building ( Picture 3 ). Strategic window placements for rooms and toilets that are placed underground enhancenatural lighting into the building. This allows sunlight to illuminate the spaces inside ( Picture 4 ). By adopting this, usage of electricity is reduced to minimal. The window openings also provide natural views in be- tween spaces ( Picture 5 ). Another passive design feature that is adopted by the building is the green roofing system ( Picture 6 ). This feature helps to moderate the temperature of a building by reducing solar gain, and generally improving air quality of the surrounding. Nanyang Technological University uses the extensive green roofing system due to the depth of growing medium used, which is up to six inches or less ( Picture 7 ). Other characteristics that define this green roof are its lower plant diversity and plant weight. By using the extensive green roof, maintenance and cost of the building is reduced. Green roofmainly helps in reducing the urban heat island effect, especially during the daytime. It insulates the building by having moisture retention materials installed beneath the soil. The thickness of soil used directly affects the indoor temperature of the building, as increase in soil thickness helps reduce the temperature within the building. This is effective and can clearly be seen on the upper floors of the building ( Picture 8 ). The roof provides savings benefit on heating and cooling systems. Besides that the grass used on the roofs collects rainwater during heavy downpour for landscaping irrigation ( Picture 9 ). This feature also contributes in the coolness of the roof area, as it allows the grass to be consistently damp and gives off a cooling effect. A green roof not only provides a beautiful landscape but it also enhances air quality by trapping air pollutants and re-oxygenating the air. GREEN ROOFING SYSTEM Passive Solar Design 29
  • 39. Top Image 33 Sketch of building orientation. Middle Image 34 Sketch of double-glazed glass. Bottom Image 35 Sketch of glass openings in interior spaces. 30
  • 40. Top Image 36 Sketch of window placement for under- ground lighting. Middle Image 37 Sketch of natural views for under- ground spaces. Bottom Image 38 Sketch of green roofing system found on the building. 31
  • 41. Top Image 39 Sketch of extensive green roofing components. Middle Image 40 Sketch of indoor temperature of upper floors. Bottom Image 41 Sketch of rainwater collection through green roofing system. 32
  • 42. REFERENCE LIST Balogh, A. (2014). What Makes Concrete a Sustainable Building Material? Retrieved May, 5, 2014 from http://www.concretenetwork.com/concrete/greenbuildinginformation/what_makes.html Bruno, G. (2011). What Is the Weather & Climate of Singapore? Retrieved from USA Today: http:// traveltips.usatoday.com/weather-climate-singapore-43250.html Chen, A. (2009). Nanyang Technological University.Retrieved April 28, 2014,from http://green- source.construction.com/projects/2009/05_Nanyang-Technological-University.asp Ching, D.K. (2014) Green Building Illustrated, pg 32. Canada: John Wiley & Sons Inc. Jason & April Ruggles (2008). Sim City: Singapore | Jason & April Ruggles. Retrieved April 29, 2014, from http://jasonruggles.com/2009/09/15/sim-city-singapore/ Davis, M. (2012). Green Roofs at Nanyang Technological University’s School of Art, Design, and Media. Retrieved from ARCH20: http://www.arch2o.com/green-roofs-at-nanyang-technological- universitys-school-of-art-design-and-media-cpg-consultants/ Double Glazing- The next step to energy efficiency. (2014). Retrieved May, 5, 2014 from http://www.armadacanberra.com/double-glazed-overview.html Exquisite Reflecting Pools fora Fluid and Tranquil Home. (2009). Retrieved May, 5, 2014 from http://www.decoist.com/2013-12-09/reflecting-pools-ideas/ Fauzi, M. A., Malek, N. A., & Othman, J. Evaluation of Green Roof System for Green Building Proj- ects in Malaysia. International Journal of Environment, 7.Retrieved , from http://waset.org/publi- cations/1385/evaluation-of-green-roof-system-for-green-building-projects-in-malaysia Green Mark. (n.d.). Green Mark Buildings Directory. Retrieved from BCAGreenMark: http://www. greenmark.sg/property-detail.php?id=464 Green Roof. (n.d.).Green Malaysia. Retrieved April 27, 2014, from http://green-malaysia.webnode.com/news/green-roof/ Green Roof Benefits. (2014, January 1). . Retrieved April 24, 2014, from http://www.greenroofs.org/index.php/about/greenroofbenefits Kriscenski, A. (2012, July 12). A Swirling Green Roof Tops Gorgeous Nanyang Technical Univer- sity in Singapore. . Retrieved April 27, 2014, from http://inhabitat.com/amazing-green-roof-art- school-in-singapore/ Principles of Passive Solar Design. (2008, January 1). Green Building. Retrieved April 26, 2014, from http://www.greenbuilding.com/knowledge-base/principles-passive-solar-design The Six Basic Factors.(n.d). Retrieved April 28, 2014, from http://www.hse.gov.uk/temperature/ thermal/factors.htm Thermal Performance.(2010). Retrieved April 28, 2014, from http://www.wanz.org.nz/ThermalPerformance Wind Finder (n.d.). Tide calendars / prediction Singapore Changi - Windfinder. Retrieved May 4, 2014, from http://www.windfinder.com/tide/singapore_changi 33
  • 43. IMAGE REFERENCE Image 1 : retrieved by http://jasonruggles.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/09/nanyang-technological-university.jpg Image 2 : retrieved by http://www.streetdirectory.com/stock_images/travel/simg_ show/12573075510024/1/school_of_art_design_and_media_nanyang_technological_university_ntu/ Image 3 : retrived by http://www.bca.gov.sg/greenmark/images/gm.jpg Image 4 : retrieved by Google Map Image 5 : retrieved by http://www.bodew.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/06/ Site-plan-Nanyang-Technological-University-in-Singapore-design.jpg Image 6 : retrieved by http://www.free-d.nl:8080/uploads/default/scale_1024x768_ q100/4ad7d444171d8ad49ab9ee9010a579331bc5574a.jpg Image 7 : Photograph taken by Adila ZAAS Image 8 : Photograph taken by Adila ZAAS Image 9 :Photograph taken by Adila ZAAS Image 10 : Photograph taken by Adila ZAAS Image 11 : Retrieved by http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-KiAVogA6ERk/TlfAiTkrNmI/AAAAAAAAA1U/ ioWdX1nzBok/s1600/IMG_3542.JPG Image 12 : Photograph taken by Adila ZAAS Image 13 : Photograph taken by Adila ZAAS Image 14 : Photograph taken by Adila ZAAS Image 15 : Photograph taken by Adila ZAAS Image 16 : Photograph taken by Adila ZAAS Image 17 : Sketched by Zhafri Azman Image 18 : Ecotech Analysis by Adila ZAAS Image 19 : Ecotech Analysis by Adila ZAAS Image 20 : Ecotech Analysis by Adila ZAAS Image 21 : Ecotech Analysis by Adila ZAAS Image 22 : Retrieved by Google Map Image 23 : Sketched by Adila ZAAS Image 24 : Sketched by Adila ZAAS 34
  • 44. Image 25 : Sketched by Adila ZAAS Image 26 : Photograph taken by Kee Ting Ting Image 27 : retrieved by https://www.google.com.my/maps/@3.0302815,101.5852174,13z?hl=en Image 28 : Sketch by Kee Ting Ting Image 29 : Edited by Kee Ting Ting Image 30 : Retrieved by http://www.free-d.nl:8080/uploads/default/scale_1024x768_q100/032269 1596b2655523756a460cd564b33f152355.jpg Image 31 : Edited and sketch by Trevor Nico Image 32 : Edited and sketch by Trevor Nico Image 33 : drawn and sketch by Sharifah Diyana Image 34 : drawn and sketch by Sharifah Diyana Image 35 : drawn and sketch by Sharifah Diyana Image 36 : drawn and sketch by Sharifah Diyana Image 37 : drawn and sketch by Sharifah Diyana Image 38 : drawn and sketch by Sharifah Diyana Image 39 : drawn and sketch by Sharifah Diyana Image 40 : drawn and sketch by Sharifah Diyana Image 41 : drawn and sketch by Sharifah Diyana 35
  • 45. FIGURE REFERENCE Figure 1 : Ecotech graph by Zhafri Azman Figure 2 : Ecotech graph by Zhafri Azman Figure 3 : Ecotech graph by Zhafri Azman Figure 4 : Ecotech graph by Zhafri Azman Figure 5 : Retrieved by http://www.windfinder.com/tide/singapore_changi Figure 6 : Retrieved by http://travelixe.com/info/singapore/singapore-weather Figure 7 : Retrieved by http://images.climate-data.org/location/4766/climate-table.png Figure 8 : Created by Trevor Nico COVER PAGE REFERENCE Cover page 1 : Photograph taken by Adila ZAAS Cover page 2 : Introduction : The Building Photograph taken by Adila ZAAS Cover page 3 : Natural and Man Made Factor Photograph taken by Adila ZAAS Cover page 4 : Climate Analysis Retrieved by http://www.marketresearchsingapore.com/images/singapore-map.jpg Cover page 5 : Sun Analysis Retrieved by http://www.solaripedia.com/images/large/3419.jpg Cover page 6 : Wind Analysis Photograph taken by Kee Ting Ting Cover page 7 : Thermal Analysis Photograph taken by Trevor Nico Cover page 8 : Concept Analysis Photograph taken by Nur Adila ZAAS 36