Menara Mesiniaga Building Science Report

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Menara Mesiniaga Building Science Report

  1. 1. MENARA MESINIAGA MALAYSIA Architect : Ken Yeang Project 1 : Case Study: Identifying innovative passive design strategies
  2. 2. CONTENTS INTRODUCTION NATURAL AND MAN-MADE FACTOR CLIMATE ANALYSIS SUN ANALYSIS WIND ANALYSIS THERMAL ANALYSIS CONCEPT ANALYSIS REFERENCE LIST 1 - 4 5 - 8 9 - 11 12 - 17 18 - 21 22 - 27 28 - 30 31 - 34 TITLE PAGE NO.
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION : The Building “The building that took benefits from natural renewable sources”
  4. 4. Project: Location: Case Study: Identifying innovative passive design strategies Subang Jaya, Malaysia. Building: Menara Mesiniaga “we’ll see green buildings long before 2020 — I think the movement is intensifying. Within the next 5-10 years we’ll see a lot more green buildings being built. Not just buildings but green cities, green environment, green master plans, green products, green lifestyles, green transportation. I’m very optimistic.” Ken Yeang, Quote Introduction Architect: Ken Yeang The futuristic bio-climatic tower, Menara Mesiniaga, also known as IBM tower was built in Subang Jaya, Malaysia in 1992. The tower which belongs to MesiniagaBerhad, was designed and built by the architect Kenneth Yeang using his 10 years research into bio-climatic design principle. According to the case study done by Bill Chan “ The bioclimatic high-rise is a tall building with passive low energy benefits, achieved through design responses to the climate of the place and through optimizing the use of the locality’s ambient energies, to enhance the quality of life and comfort for its occupants”. Climate Climatically both Singapore and Malaysia are a hot and humid country;The city of Kuala Lumpur is situated 3° North of the equator.According to the report by Safamanesh (1995), rainfall in Malaysia is heavier along the East coast than the West coast. Most urban and agricultural land is on the West coast and, consequently, so is most of the population. Due to its position relative to the equator, the country has no distinct winter or summer and temperatures are consistently somewhere between 20c and 40c with humidity level between 60 and 70 percent. Green Certification Menara Mesiniaga received the Aga Khan Award for Architecture. This is possible due to Kenneth Yeang’s ten-year research into bio-climatic principles for the design of medum-to- tall buildings. These concepts can be applied to many-storied structures in tropical climates (The Aga Khan Development Network, 2007). 1
  5. 5. Title Image 1 & 2 : Mesiniaga Logo and Aga Kahn Award Logo Top Image 3: View of the building from the main entrance Bottom Image 4: View of the building from its surrounding greenery. The sloped berm can be seen on the left side of the image. 2
  6. 6. The building sits beside a highway towering above a mixture of unplanned structure and environment; a lake which can be seen from every level of the building, some residential complexes and townhouses, office buildings, and a mosque. There is also a medical centre which is within view of the building. Overall, many of the surrounding buildings are low budget adaptations of older houses. The natural landscaping catches the eye’s attention with a substantial amount of growth within the area, in respect to community development. The traffic ranges from moderate to congested at certain hours of the day, due to the existence of the federal highway nearby. SITE LOCATIONTop Image 5: Site Plan of Menara Mesiniaga 3
  7. 7. Plans, Sections , drawings Image 6 Ground Floor Plan of Menara Mesiniaga Image 7 East Elevation of Menara Mesiniaga Image 8 South West Elevation of Menara Mesiniaga Image 9 Section of Menara Mesiniaga 4
  8. 8. NATURAL AND MAN- MADE FACTOR “How is the thermal environment of Menara Mesiniaga affected by natural and man-made factors?”
  9. 9. Mesiniaga’s verticality allows exposure to the full extent of heat, weather and temperatures. Mesiniaga’s exoskeleton which are the exposed steel and rein- forced concrete structure helps to reflect the sun, and the entirely exposed col- umns and beams are open to cross ventilated cooling. This single core services are built on the hot side which is on the east. Built FormTop Image 10: Part of Elevation on Menara Mesiniaga 5
  10. 10. In order to shelter and insulate the lowest three levels from the morning sun, artificial sloping landscape was created to connect the land to the verticality of the building. Moreover, its circular spiralling body with landscaped sky courts that helps cools, ventilates and provide a space for occupants to relief. Planting and Sky a GardenTop Image 11: Sky Garden in Menara Mesiniaga 6
  11. 11. Curtain wall glazing which are the garden insets provided on the north and south side helps reduce solar gain and provide thermal comfort for the occupants while the recessed and shaded windows are on the east and west side as a response to the tropical sun path. Moreover, cantilevering rooftop pool and a gym with curvilinear roof on the south facade helps provide thermal comfort for users of the facilities especially during the high-angled afternoon sun. Furthermore, the pool insulates and reflects the overhead sun. Solar orientation and shading devicesTop Image 12: Part of Elevation on Menara Mesiniaga that shows cantilevering roof top pool 7
  12. 12. Large multi-storey transitional spaces provides airflow in between the zones and provide better circulation of hot and cool air in and out of the building. Moreover, the permeable external walls of the building provides cross ventilation even in air conditioned spaces. Air movement is encouraged underneath the building, specifically at the lobby entrance as it is half open to the surrounding land while the other half is circled by the sloped berm. VentilationTop Image 13: The lobby entrance which is the half open to the surrounding land 8
  13. 13. CLIMATE ANALYSIS “The basic analysis to understand the character of the site, Climate”
  14. 14. Climate Data Climate Location Malaysia Figure 1: Annual Relative Humidity for Kuala Lumpur Figure 2: Annual Maximum Temperature for Kuala Lumpur Temperature Location Malaysia 9
  15. 15. Figure 3: Annual Minimum Temperature for Kuala Lumpur Figure 4: Annual Average Temperature for Kuala Lumpur 10
  16. 16. The Figure 1 shows that Kuala Lumpur has a high relative humidity in the range of 80% - 85%. Malaysia has a tropical wet climate with no dry or cold season as it is constantly moist due to year-round rainfall. With relations to building design, it is better to include passive ventilation by having windows open on opposite sides of the building to maintain a good cross air flow and eliminate interior humidity build up. Humidity Based on the Temperature’s graph (Figure 2, 3 and 4) the annual average temperature is around 26.6 degrees Celsius. On average, the warmest month is in April while the coolest is September. April would be also be the wettest month and June would be the driest month. For high rise building in high temperature locations, proper HVAC or adequate passive ventilation is necessary to maintain a cool temperature inside the building. Temperature Image 14 On-site Perspective sketch of Menara Mesiniaga 11
  17. 17. SUN ANALYSIS “Building that took benefit from renewable sources, the Sun”
  18. 18. Sunpath Case Studies Project Location Menara Mesiniaga, Malaysia Image 15 January 1st 1200 Image 16 May 15th 1315 12
  19. 19. Image 17 August 29th 1415 Image 18 November 1st 0915 13
  20. 20. In the design of Menara Mesiniaga, the architect purposely take advantage of all the sun light to penetrate inside the building. He intended to build the building in such a way to benefit natural sunlight and environment. (Safamanesh. K). When we went for a site visit to Menara Mesiniaga, we could feel the architect’s intention through every inner facade and spaces. Next, the enclosed rooms does not need much light and are located near the central core, which allows worksta- tions to be located on the outside edge where natural lighting and high quality views are available. The Advantages Annual and Daily Sun Pathway Image 15, 16, 17, and 18 is a proof of the annual and daily sun path of Menara Mesiniaga. It is proving that the architect’s intention is to benefit the natural sunlight from every direction into the Menara Mesiniaga. In addition, from the Image 18, 19 and 20 , it is proven that more shading elements been in- sert on East and West Elevation rath- er than North and South Elevation. Moreover, the lobby of the building is inserted further inside to be shaded by the second floor’s balcony of the menara. Lastly, the natural sunlight also enter through the sun roof of the basement parking to reduce the light’s man made source. Top Image 19 Lobby of Menara Mesiniaga that been shaded by the floor on top of it 14
  21. 21. Design Profile Building Profile Building Name Menara Mesiniaga Architect Ken Yeang Location Building Type Subang Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia IT Offices Site Areas 6503 square meters Solar Design Profile Latitude latitude (3.0827 degrees) 3° 4’ 57” North of the Equator Heating Degree Days mean ambient temperatures of around 26-27°C year around Cooling Degree Days Conservation Strategies N/A ecological principles into high-rise architecture Passive Solar Strategies exterior shading, direct gain passive solar, open able windows, Thermal mass placed in the service core Active Solar Strategies Sun Roof System Other renewable energy strategies None High Performance Strategies High Performance glazing and envelope, Innovative performance in green building strategies 15
  22. 22. Sunshade Details LOUVRE A louvre that shade the offices and an uppermost floors that houses recreational areas, a swimming pool, and sun roof. SUN ROOF The sunroof is the skeletal provision for panel space for the possible future placing of solar-cells to provide back-up energy source. BAS (Building Automation System) is an active Intelligent Building feature used in the building for energy-saving. Top Image 20 Model of Menara Mesiniaga to show Louvres and Sun Roof Image 21 On the north and south facades, curtain wall glazing is used to control solar gain highlighted green colour 16
  23. 23. Image 22 On the east and west facades, external aluminium fins and louvers provide sun shading highlighted green colour Image 23 Model massing that shows the Glazing and Shading of Menara Mesiniaga higlighted green colour 17
  24. 24. WIND ANALYSIS “The Ventilation”
  25. 25. Due to various wind directions, the winds are nearly transferred equally.(Figure 5) Menara Mesiniaga main ventilation is by air conditioning and natural ventilation.The air conditioning systems for the counter area, offices, meeting rooms, cafeteria and few other areas are divided into two types. One of the air conditioning systems is the Energy Saving System which is used around the counter area and offices, as shown by the yellow ellipse, and the staying period in these areas are longer. (Image 21 & in Picture 33) Another one is called the Split Air Conditioner which is usually used in houses as it cools one or two rooms. For this building, Split AC are used in the meeting rooms and cafeteria for only a certain period of time. Moving on to natural ventilation¬¬, winds, the escape stairs are unenclosed and pushed to the edge of the building to allow wind to take part. The elevator lobby and washroom spaces have shaded window openings that gives in view and natural ventilation (Architectural review.V. 192 1993 Jan-June).The sliding doors on the terraces could be open up for natural ventilation to flow throughout the office areas. (Picture 32) Besides that, part of highest floor which is an opened space swimming pool area allows for natural ventilation. Moreover, tiny gap to allow the wind to ventilate into the gymnasium under the overhang-curved roofing is provided. Lastly,the basement parking area is also ventilated as the entrance and exit are opened. Ventilations (Picture 31) Since the energy consumption is reduced, the electricity costing of Menara Mesiniaga is maintained in certain amount which is cheaper compared to other building. Morevoer, the air of the site surroundings is also fresher due to the greener site context and also the flow of the wind. 18
  26. 26. Wind & weather statistics Morib/Kuala Lumpur Airport Figure 5 Table and WInd Rose of Wind and Weather statistic of Morib/Kuala Lumpur Airport 19
  27. 27. Image 24 The air flows(green arrows) and air conditioning air flows (yellow ellipse) throughout the building. Bottom Image 25 The basement parking area of Menara Mesiniaga 20
  28. 28. Top Image 26 Air Conditioning in the office spaces in Menara Mesiniaga Bottom Image 27 Terraces found at each levels. 21
  29. 29. THERMAL ANALYSIS “Comforbality in the site”
  30. 30. Left Image 28 Primary Shading Louvres Right Image 29 Secondary Shading Louvres A large part of the building, from stairways and lift lobbies to the toilet areas, was regarded as a penetrable membrane to enable natural aeration. The building is fitted out with an Energy Saving System which controls energy features including air-cooling system, elevators and other mechanical systems and it is used to monitor and reduce energy consumption in equipment. So, the main office areas are air-conditioned but the use of this system and the natural ventilation throughout the building, help to reduce its use to negligible levels, saving energy. Thermal Comfort The evident building features of the IBM tower not only visually express the high-tech style of the company and its conceptual organic character, but also define it as a bioclimatic high- rise. Firstly, the building’s overall form, structural methodology, module cores, glazed surfaces, is oriented for maxi- mum environmental efficiency shading against direct heat but allowing for natural daylight. Second, where the main components of the building and its orientation cannot shade the build- ing, inventively calculated shading devices are fitted on the building face for passive cooling. Lastly, the exten- sion of the land that starts at 22
  31. 31. the sloped berm spirals up the height of the building with planted terraces that fin- ishes at the inhabited rooftop. These ter- races not only provide for vertical gardens and transitional spaces, but also shades and ventilates the building. The simple extension of the tower’s base produces several positive environmental effects. The sloped berm circles around half the circumference of the building, the other half opens the mezzanine floors to the surrounding land. This allows for a functional connection with the site, avoiding how typical confined lobbies separate the building from its landscape. As well, it inspires air movement beneath the building, producing a lobby entrance that is shaded as well as ventilated without mechanical effort(Balfour A. & Yeang K. 1994). The program that is in the entresol requires slight daylight; therefore, by building the hollow berm up to these levels it increases the surface area for planting and provides a chance for the building to involve the nearby vegetation. The visible steel and reinforced concrete structure can be regarded as an exoskeleton that is suspending the differently shaped office floors with each floor’s main girders connecting to the concrete core for shear resistance. Where the general rule of thumb for buildings in colder regions is ‘skin outside, structure inside’, the tropical climate may have an exposed structure without contrary temperature effects. In fact, the structure that wraps around the curtain wall shields the sun off the building face and act as a heat sink. (Balfour A. & Yeang K. 1994)Of course, in a tropical climate where winter The core uses extensive passive heat- ing and cooling strategies and has no mechanical supportv because it’s programmed functions of circulation and washrooms involve low useperi- od. Instead of an internal service core, the concrete core of the building faces the outside and is located on the east side of the tower. This orientation allows the core to shade the building from direct sun rays and its material construction allows it to become a heat sink that will reradiate absorbed heat into the insides at night. The escape stairs are unenclosed and the elevator lobby and washroom spaces have shaded window openings that give in view and natural ventilation (Architectural review. V. 192 1993). The majority of the building’s dou- ble-glazed, operable curtain walls lie flush to the facade only on the north and south side. Most of the west half of the building, external solar shades are installed. The southwest and northwest are protected by alumi- num fins offset approximately 40cm away from the building face (Powell R. 1999). These devices are utilized where high-angled rays may hit the curtain walls. But for more far reaching direct light, deeper, single panel alu- minum louvers offset from the building twice as far as the fins is fixed.(Powell R. 1999) Where extensive west-side shading is concerned, the alternately shaped floor plates partners with terraces to create indentations in the building form that help it shade itself. The land- scaped terraces that appear on every office level also allows for full height sliding glass doors that let in fresh 23
  32. 32. air and greened intermediate spaces for a break from computer screens. The stepped terraces can be traced spiraling back down to the berm and the surround- ing landscape, generating a hall where employees may feel part of a progressive organization that has strong environmen- tal awareness. Inside, enclosed rooms are placed as a central core rather than being situated at the edge. This ensures good natural lighting and views out for the pe- ripherally located workspaces. Because the building is circular in plan, there are no dark corners.(Balfour A. & Yeang K. 1994) Thermal comfort in this building is more than effectively achieved by these specific features, where mechanical cool- ing system is put to optimum use, not overuse. Furthermore, studies have shown greater occupancy happi- ness and employee output where the building can offer a connection with external spaces whether it is natural daylight or sky gardens that let work- ers relax and feel as if they belong to a whole (Space Design. 9401-9403 1994). The major visible architectural ele- ments topping off the office levels in- clude a cantilevering rooftop pool and a gym with a curvilinear roof; these facilities are open to employees. The pool ‘greens’ the rooftop by insulat- ing and reflecting the overhead sun. The overhang of the curvilinear roof is enough to shade most of the entire south facade from the high angled afternoon sun. Crowning the building is a tubular steel trellis that shades the top floor amenities and is designed to accommodate solar panels in the future that will further increase the building’s ecological efficiency. 24
  33. 33. Image 30 Cross section showing main green features Bottom Image 31 Sun Shaders and Garden Insets 25
  34. 34. Top Image 32 cross section showing natural ventilation thru building Bottom Image 33 heat map thru section-red is warmest, green is coolest 26
  35. 35. Image 34 basic air flow. Allowing for natural ventilation to interact with the internal cooling system cuts down on cooling costs. 27
  36. 36. CONCEPT ANALYSIS “The Conclusion of Our Analysis”
  37. 37. Menara Mesiniaga maximizes the passive solar design into their building. It plays with the sunlight that penetrates through the building and controlling it by using appropriate shading devices to reduce overheating and providing comfort ( Image 32 ). The circular exterior shape of the building and orientation affects the amount of sunlight passing through as it accepts sunlight from all angles ( Image 33 ). Glazing and shading of glass windows are incorporated into the design to minimize the solar gain and heat load in the morning. Glazed curtain walling is applied throughout the building to enhance natural lighting and also reduce temperature of the building and avoid overheating. Shading devices are also strategically placed at locations with high sunlight intensity ( Image 34 ). This is to give thermal comfort for users inside the building and reduce glaring as well. Natural lighting is also found in the basement of the building which illuminates the parking lot, toilets and air-conditioning generator. Window openings are placed on the ground directly above these spaces in order to provide sufficient lighting ( Image 35 ). This helps reduce cost of electricity. Open spaces and well planned ventilated areas can be found throughout the MenaraMesiniaga building. Spaces like garden terraces, rooftops, service core and stairs located in the building helps en- hances thermal comfort for the users of the area by providing natural sunlight and ventilation ( Image 36 ). The core uses extensive passive heating and cooling strategies and has no mechanical support because it’s programmed functions of circulation and washrooms involve low use period. Instead of an internal service core, the concrete core of the building faces the outside and is located on the east side of the tower. This orientation allows the core to shade the building from direct sun rays and its material construction allows it to become a heat sink that will reradiate absorbed heat into the insides at night. The escape stairs are unenclosed and the elevator lobby and washroom spaces have shaded window openings that give in view and natural ventilation. Thermal comfort in this building is more than effectively achieved by these specific features, where mechanical cooling system is put to optimum use, not overuse. Furthermore, studies have shown greater occupancy happiness and employee output where the building can offer a connection with external spaces whether it is natural daylight or sky gardens that let workers relax and feel as if they belong to a whole ( Image 37 ). The major visible architectural elements topping off the office levels include a cantilevering rooftop pool and a curvilinear roof. The pool on the rooftop helps by insulating and reflecting the overhead sun ( Image 38 ). The overhang of the curvilinear roof is enough to shade most of the entire south facade from the high angled afternoon sun. Thermal Comfort Passive Solar Design 28
  38. 38. Top Image 35 Sketch on different types of shading design used to reduce overheating. Middle Image 36 Sketch of sunlight direction due to circular exterior. Bottom Image 37 Sketch of glazed curtain walling and shading devices Drawing of our Concept Analysis 29
  39. 39. Top Image 38 Sketch of window placement on ground level Middle Image 40 Sketch of natural daylight for garden terraces Bottom Image 41 Sketch of reflection and absorption of sunlight. Middle Image 39 Sketch of natural sunlight and ventilation through spaces. 30
  40. 40. REFERENCE LIST Architectural review. V. 192 1993 Jan-June Space Design. 9401-9403 1994 Jan-Mar Balfour A. &Yeang K.Bioclimatic Skyscrapers – Ken Yeang, 1994 retrieved from http://www.world- cat.org/title/bioclimatic-skyscrapers/oclc/154770772 Bill Chan, M. F. ARCH 366: Environmental Design Case Study. Ching, D.K. (2014) Green Building Illustrated, pg 32. Canada: John Wiley & Sons Inc. Google Maps. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.google.com.my/maps/@3.0302815,101.5852174 ,13z?hl=en Law J.H.Y. The Bioclimatic Approach to High-rise Building Design: An Evaluation of Ken Yeang’s Bioclimatic Principles and Responses in Practice to Energy Saving and Human Well-being, De- cember 2001. Powell R.Rethinking the Skyscraper: The Complete Architecture of Ken Yeang, 1999re- trieved from http://www.worldcat.org/title/rethinking-the-skyscraper-the-complete-architec- ture-of-ken-yeang/oclc/43097372 Principles of Passive Solar Design. (2008, January 1). Green Building. Retrieved April 26, 2014, from http://www.greenbuilding.com/knowledge-base/principles-passive-solar-design Passive Design. (1994, January 1). . Retrieved April, 2014, from http://wiki.naturalfrequency.com/ wiki/Passive_Design What is thermal comfort?.(n.d.).HSE. Retrieved May , 2014, from http://www.hse.gov.uk/tempera- ture/thermal/explained.htm Safamanesh, K. (1995). Technical Reviw Summary. The Aga Khan Development Network. (2007). Menara Mesiniaga. Retrieved from Aga Khan Award for Architecture: http://www.akdn.org/architecture/project.asp?id=1356 Wind Finder (n.d.). Wind & weather statistics Morib/Kuala Lumpur Airport (near Putrajaya Lake) - Windfinder. Retrieved May 4, 2014, from http://www.windfinder.com/windstatistics/morib_kua- la_lumpur?fspot=putrajaya_lake Webkey (2008). Solaripedia | Green Architecture And Green Building. Retrieved April 28, 2014, from http://www.solaripedia.com/images/large/3414.jpg Yeang K. & Hamzah T. R. Menara Mesiniaga Features Bioclimatic, 2010 retrieved from http://www.solaripedia.com/13/302/3419/menara_mesiniaga_sun_roof.html 31
  41. 41. 32 IMAGE REFERENCE Image 1 : retrieved by http://mssb.mesiniaga.com.my/asset/scms/image/public/mesiniaga.jpg Image 2 : retrieved by http://www.akdn.org/assets/7/1573.JPG Image 3 : retrived by https://farm9.staticflickr.com/8046/8085414843_4f4e66e12c.jpg Image 4 : retrieved by http://mw2.google.com/mw-panoramio/photos/medium/62479721.jpg Image 5 : retrieved by Google Map Image 6 : retrieved by http://www.solaripedia.com/images/large/3411.jpg Image 7 : retrieved by http://img.docstoccdn.com/thumb/orig/134430345.png Image 8 : retrieved by http://www.solaripedia.com/images/large/3413.jpg Image 9 : retreived by http://www.archilibra.com/thesis/case_studies/menara_mesiniaga/east-west-section.jpg Image 10 : Photograph taken by Adila ZAAS Image 11 : Photograph taken by Adila ZAAS Image 12 : Photograph taken by Adila ZAAS Image 13 : Photograph taken by Adila ZAAS Image 14 : Sketch by Zhafri Azman Image 15 : Ecotech Analysis by Zhafri Azman Image 16 : Ecotech Analysis by Zhafri Azman Image 17 : Ecotech Analysis by Zhafri Azman Image 18 : Ecotech Analysis by Zhafri Azman Image 19 : Photograph taken by Adila ZAAS Image 20 : Massing Model edited by Adila ZAAS Image 21 : Massing Model edited by Adila ZAAS Image 22 : Massing Model edited by Adila ZAAS Image 23 : Massing Model edited by Adila ZAAS Image 24 : Retrieved by http://myweb.wit.edu/oakess/Catalog/MM_ventilation.html Image 25 : Photograph taken by Kee Ting Ting Image 26 : Photograph taken by Kee Ting Ting
  42. 42. 33 Image 27 : Photograph taken by Kee Ting Ting Image 28 : Photograph and Edited by Trevor Nico Image 29 : Photograph and Edited by Trevor Nico Image 30 : Edited by Trevor Nico Image 31 : Edited by Trevor Nico Image 32 : Edited by Trevor Nico Image 33 : Edited by Trevor Nico Image 34 : Edited and sketched by Trevor Nico Image 35 : drawn and sketch by Sharifah Diyana Image 36 : drawn and sketch by Sharifah Diyana Image 37 : drawn and sketch by Sharifah Diyana Image 38 : drawn and sketch by Sharifah Diyana Image 39 : drawn and sketch by Sharifah Diyana Image 40 : drawn and sketch by Sharifah Diyana Image 41 : drawn and sketch by Sharifah Diyana
  43. 43. 34 FIGURE REFERENCE Figure 1 : Ecotech graph by Zhafri Azman Figure 2 : Ecotech graph by Zhafri Azman Figure 3 : Ecotech graph by Zhafri Azman Figure 4 : Ecotech graph by Zhafri Azman Figure 5 : Retrieved by http://www.windfinder.com/windstatistics/morib_kuala_lumpur?fspot=putrajaya_lake COVER PAGE REFERENCE Cover page 1 : Photograph taken by Adila ZAAS Cover page 2 : Introduction : The Building Photograph taken by Adila ZAAS Cover page 3 : Natural and Man Made Factor Photograph taken by Adila ZAAS Cover page 4 : Climate Analysis Retrieved by http://pws.yeesiang.com/upload/wysiwyg/image/blank_ malaysia_map/blank_malaysia_map.png Cover page 5 : Sun Analysis Retrieved by http://www.solaripedia.com/images/large/3419.jpg Cover page 6 : Wind Analysis Photograph taken by Kee Ting Ting Cover page 7 : Thermal Analysis Photograph taken by Trevor Nico Cover page 8 : Concept Analysis Photograph taken by Nur Adila ZAAS

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