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    • The Linguistic Issue in Ireland
      • The Celts and the Celtic
      • Languages.
      • 2. Some notes about the
      • English language in Ireland.
      • 3. Nationalism, language
      • and identity.
      • 4. Language planning in Ireland.
      • The celts and the
      • celtic Languages.
    •  One of the main issues considered by Celtic Studies is the meaning of the term “Celtic” itself.  From a scientific point of view, the word “Celtic” is primarily a linguistic term, and it refers to a group of Indoeuropean languages which developped in the European Continent some 5,000 years ago.  Science does not consider, up to now, that the term “Celtic” has something to do with a distinctive culture, a particular ethnic group, a religion or a kind of music.
      • We do not know wether the Celts invaded Western
      • Europe or wether they just exported their languages
      • pacifically.
      •  The origins of the Celts are traditionally situated in a
      • region between Switzerland, the South of Germany
      • and the North of Italy.
      •  The Celts disappeared under the pressure of the
      • Germans (from the North of Europe) and the Latins
      • (from the South).
      •  There are two different groups of Celtic languages:
      • a) Continental Celtic (mainly in Northern Spain,
      • France and Germany)
      • b) Insular Celtic (in Britain and Ireland)
      • Continental Celtic totally disappeared, and the only
      • Celtic Languages that remain are Insular, including
      • Breton.
      •  Celtic migrations to Armorica and Northern Galicia.
      • The Celtic Languages today are the following:
      • Irish Gaelic.
      • Scottish Gaelic.
      • Welsh.
      • Breton .
      •  Cornish and Manx disappeared in the 17 th Century
      • a nd in the beginning of the 20 th Century respectively.
      • They are now dead languages, although several attempts
      • t o revive them have been made.
    • 2. Some notes about The english language In ireland
      • The first time that the Anglo-Normans landed in
      • Ireland was in 1169, on the request of a local lord.
      • It was in the area around the city of Dublin, known
      • as the Pale , where Anglo-Norman was spoken for
      • the first time in Ireland.
      • The first English settlers where quickly assimilated
      • by the Irish population and during the 14 th and 15 th
      • Centuries, English was not widely spoken in Ireland.
      • The Battle of Kinsale (Cork, 1601), which forced
      • the so-called “Flight of the Earls” in 1607, was a
      • turning point in the history of the Irish language.
      • During the 16 th century the first plantations took
      • place in Ireland, and the first people who moved
      • there were soon assimilated by the native population.
      • In the Ulster, the plantations were very different,
      • since it was common people who moved there, and
      • they did consequently not govern, but rather displace
      • the native Irish population.
      • The plantations later included two forms:
      • transplantation and transportation , which were quite
      • different from each other and which had very different consequences on the local population.
      • During the 18 th and 19 th century, the native
      • Irish population was deprived of education. Only
      • the hedge schools provided a means of gaining
      • access to education.
      • The Ascendancy , who used to live in
      • Big houses did have a right to be educated.
      • In 1840 the Great Famine took place, what
      • constituted a turning point for the Irish language.
    • 3. Nationalism, Language And identity
      • Man is a social being. Human societies are founded
      • on the principle of identity.
      • Identity may be based on ethnic group, religion,
      • language, gender, etc. and it implies both a personal
      • choice and an external acceptance.
      • Identity as a multidimensional reality vs. power
      • relations.
      • The denial of one’s identity.
      • The problem of identity in nations without a State
      • in modern Europe: frustrated national projects,
      • identities and the concept of “Nation-State”.
      • Nationalism and identity are usually related to power
      • relations within a given society: Catalan, Basque and
      • Galician nationalisms and identities. The bourgeoisie:
      • economical and political power.
      •  Power relations in Ireland. Religion and language.
      • Identity as a historical construction. Identity and myth:
      • The foundation of a nation and the need for myths.
      •  Galicia as a Celtic country: discovery or invention?
      • Other national myths: Spain and the “Reconquista”.
      • The American Dream. The French Revolution.
      • National identities founded in contrast to European
      • State identities: The Catalan and Basque orthography.
      • Catholicism in Ireland.
    • 4. Language planning In Ireland
      • Language normalisation vs. normativisation.
      • The three main fields of language planning
      • in which the Irish government operated were:
      • Education, the Gaeltacht and the public service.
      • Language and education in Ireland: From
      • Revivalism to Bilingualism.
      • Similar processes in France and Spain.The
      • concept of “lengua minorizada” in Spain.
      • Language promotion and power relations. What
      • language will the children speak? The playtime.
      • Final reflexion: The future of minority languages
      • within a globalised world.
    • The Linguistic Issue in Ireland