Isotope Production Reactor Heat produced in reactor core is removed by cooling fluids and carried to steam generator (in power reactor) Cd or B, which absorb neutrons. They help to regulate the flux of neutrons. Inserted to slow down the neutrons to make them more easily captured. Samples are stable isotope for radionuclide production from neutron capture reaction. U-235 also can be the target of (n,f) reaction for radionuclide production. *water or D2O can be coolant and moderator at the same time.
Technetium-99m ( 6 h ): Used in to image the skeleton and heart muscle in particular, but also for brain, thyroid, lungs ( perfusion and ventilation ) , liver, spleen, kidney ( structure and filtration rate ) , gall bladder, bone marrow, salivary and lacrimal glands, heart blood pool, infection and numerous specialised medical studies .
Iodine-131 ( 8 d ): Widely used in treating thyroid cancer and in imaging the thyroid; also in diagnosis of abnormal liver function, renal ( kidney ) blood flow and urinary tract obstruction . A strong gamma emitter, but used for beta therapy .
Phosphorus-32 ( 14 d ): Used in the treatment of polycythemia vera ( excess red blood cells ). Beta emitter .
Samarium-153 ( 47 h ): Sm-153 is very effective in relieving the pain of secondary cancers lodged in the bone, sold as Quadramet . Also very effective for prostate and breast cancer . Beta emitter .
Molybdenum-99 ( 66 h ): Used as the 'parent' in a generator to produce technetium-99m .
Cobalt-60 ( 10.5 mth ): Formerly used for external beam radiotherapy .
Iodine-125 ( 60 d ): Used in cancer brachytherapy ( prostate and brain ) , also diagnostically to evaluate the filtration rate of kidneys and to diagnose deep vein thrombosis in the leg . It is also widely used in radioimmuno - assays to show the presence of hormones in tiny quantities .
Bismuth-213 ( 46 min ): Used for TAT .
Chromium-51 ( 28 d ): Used to label red blood cells and quantify gastro - intestinal protein loss .
Lutetium-177 ( 6.7 d ): Lu-177 is increasingly important as it emits just enough gamma for imaging while the beta radiation does the therapy on small ( eg endocrine ) tumours . Its half - life is long enough to allow sophisticated preparation for use .
Palladium-103 ( 17 d ): Used to make brachytherapy permanent implant seeds for early stage prostate cancer .
Potassium-42 ( 12 h ): Used for the determination of exchangeable potassium in coronary blood flow .
Rhenium-186 ( 3.8 d ): Used for pain relief in bone cancer . Beta emitter with weak gamma for imaging .
Rhenium-188 ( 17 h ): Used to beta irradiate coronary arteries from an angioplasty balloon .
Selenium-75 ( 120 d ): Used in the form of seleno - methionine to study the production of digestive enzymes .
Sodium-24 ( 15 h ): For studies of electrolytes within the body .
Strontium-89 ( 50 d ): Very effective in reducing the pain of prostate and bone cancer . Beta emitter .
Xenon-133 ( 5 d ): Used for pulmonary ( lung ) ventilation studies .
Ytterbium-169 ( 32 d ): Used for cerebrospinal fluid studies in the brain .
Ytterbium-177 ( 1.9 h ): Progenitor of Lu-177 .
Yttrium-90 ( 64 h ): Used for cancer brachytherapy and as silicate colloid for the relieving the pain of arthritis in larger synovial joints . Pure beta emitter .
Radioisotopes of caesium, gold and ruthenium are also used in brachytherapy .
Conclusion -Product atom has same charge -Low specific activity -Short half-life -expensive Disadvantage -Less expensive -Product atom has different charge -High specific activity Advantage -Target bombarded with neutron. -Target bombarded with charged particles (proton, deuteron). Definition of the method Nuclear reactor Accelerators
Thank You นางสาวปวิตรา หมะสะอะ 4937092 SIRS/M