General introduction to acupoints
General introduction to acupoints <ul><li>Acupoints are the spots where qi and blood from the viscera and meridians effuse...
General introduction to acupoints <ul><li>The viscera, meridians and acupoints in the interior and exterior form an organi...
General introduction to acupoints meridians acupoints viscera General introduction to acupoints
<ul><li>The Names of Acupoints </li></ul><ul><li>1.According to the pictograph </li></ul><ul><li>2.According to the locati...
General introduction to acupoints General introduction to acupoints acupoints Channel  acupoints Extraordinary  acupoints ...
General introduction to acupoints Channel acupoints The points distributed along the course of the  fourteen channels (twe...
General introduction to acupoints Channel acupoints Zhen Jiu Feng Yuan (source of acupuncture and moxibustion)  compiled i...
General introduction to acupoints Extraordinary acupoints The points that have definite locations but have  not been recog...
General introduction to acupoints <ul><li>Ashi points actually refer to tenderness spots. Such points are marked by no fix...
General introduction to acupoints Rules for the effects of points  General introduction to acupoints Rules for the effects...
General introduction to acupoints Rules for the effects of points  local therapeutic effects This is a characteristic ther...
General introduction to acupoints Rules for the effects of points  remote therapeutic effect The remote therapeutic effect...
General introduction to acupoints Rules for the effects of points  special therapeutic effects Besides the above local and...
General introduction to acupoints <ul><li>Special acupoints refer to the acupoints on the fourteen channels with special c...
General introduction to acupoints Special acupoints  General introduction to acupoints crossing eight confluent Front-Mu B...
General introduction to acupoints Special acupoints  five-shu Five-Shu acupoints refer to Jing-Well, Ying-Spring,  Shu-Str...
 
General introduction to acupoints Special acupoints  yuan-source Yuan-Source acupoints, the regions where the primary qi o...
General introduction to acupoints Special acupoints  luo-connecting Luo-Connecting acupoints refer to the points where the...
General introduction to acupoints Special acupoints  Xi-cleft The Xi-Cleft acupoints are the sites where qi and blood from...
General introduction to acupoints Special acupoints  Xi-cleft Clinically Xi-Cleft acupoints  are used to treat severe acut...
General introduction to acupoints Special acupoints  eight Confluence The eight convergent acupoints refer to the eight ac...
General introduction to acupoints Special acupoints  lower He-sea The lower He-Sea acupoints refer to six acupoints on the...
General introduction to acupoints Special acupoints  Back-Shu The Back-Shu acupoints are located on the back and waist alo...
General introduction to acupoints Special acupoints  Front-Mu Front-Mu acupoints are those located on the chest  and abdom...
General introduction to acupoints Special acupoints  eight influential Eight confluent acupoints, located on the trunk and...
General introduction to acupoints Special acupoints  crossing Crossing acupoints are those at the intersection of two or m...
<ul><li>Methods for Locating Points </li></ul><ul><li>1.Measurement with Anatomic Landmarks </li></ul><ul><li>1.1 Fixed An...
Methods for Locating Points Anatomic Landmarks Fixed Anatomic Landmarks five sensory organs hair nails nipples umbilicus p...
 
Methods for Locating Points Anatomic Landmarks Moving Landmarks Moving landmarks refer to the depressions and folds on the...
Methods for Locating Points Bone-length Proportional Measurement Bone-length proportional measurement is a point locating ...
 
 
Methods for Locating Points Bone-length Proportional Measurement Bone-length proportional measurement is to measure the le...
Methods for Locating Points Finger Measurement Finger measurement is a point-locating method using the length and width of...
Methods for Locating Points Finger Measurement The middle finger measurement  When the patient's middle finger is bent, th...
Methods for Locating Points Finger Measurement Thumb Measurement  The width of the interphalangeal joint of the patient's ...
Methods for Locating Points Finger Measurement Four-Finger Measurement When the patient's four fingers extend and touch cl...
 
Methods for Locating Points Simplified Measurement A simple method used to locate points
<ul><li>谢 谢! </li></ul><ul><li>THANK YOU </li></ul>
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留学生 腧穴学总论,acupoints

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留学生 腧穴学总论,acupoints

  1. 1. General introduction to acupoints
  2. 2. General introduction to acupoints <ul><li>Acupoints are the spots where qi and blood from the viscera and meridians effuse and infuse in the body surface. </li></ul>
  3. 3. General introduction to acupoints <ul><li>The viscera, meridians and acupoints in the interior and exterior form an organic whole with close relation and harmonious unity. </li></ul><ul><li>effuse and infuse </li></ul><ul><li>exterior interior </li></ul><ul><li>run out and in </li></ul>meridians acupoints viscera General introduction to acupoints
  4. 4. General introduction to acupoints meridians acupoints viscera General introduction to acupoints
  5. 5. <ul><li>The Names of Acupoints </li></ul><ul><li>1.According to the pictograph </li></ul><ul><li>2.According to the location or function of human organs </li></ul><ul><li>3.According to the theories of Yin-yang,Zang-fu Organs,Channels and Collaterals,or Qi and Blood </li></ul><ul><li>4.According to the related anatomical knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>5.According to the therapeutic properties </li></ul>General introduction to acupoints
  6. 6. General introduction to acupoints General introduction to acupoints acupoints Channel acupoints Extraordinary acupoints Ashi points
  7. 7. General introduction to acupoints Channel acupoints The points distributed along the course of the fourteen channels (twelve regular channels plus the governor and conception vessels) are called the “points of the fourteen channels”, or “channel points” for short. General introduction to acupoints
  8. 8. General introduction to acupoints Channel acupoints Zhen Jiu Feng Yuan (source of acupuncture and moxibustion) compiled in the late qing dynasty recorded 361 points, which is the number of channel points still used today. General introduction to acupoints recorded 359 points Zhen Jiu Da Cheng (great compendium of acupuncture and moxibustion) recorded 354 points respectively Tong Ren Shu Xue Zhen Jiu Tu Jing(illustrated manual of points on bronze figure) Shi Si Jing Fa Hui(elaboration of the fourteen meridians ) recorded 349 points Zhen Jiu Jia Yi Jing (the ABC classic of acupuncture and moxibustion) and Qian Jin Yi Fang (supplement to the invaluable prescriptions) it mentioned “365 points”, but the actual number of points with their names recorded in the classic is around 160 Huang Di Nei Jing (huangdi’s internal classic)
  9. 9. General introduction to acupoints Extraordinary acupoints The points that have definite locations but have not been recognized as points of the fourteen channels have specific names and effective indications and are named as “extra points outside the channels” or “extra points” for short. Points in this category have relatively fixed indications, and most of them are indicated for some specific disorders . General introduction to acupoints
  10. 10. General introduction to acupoints <ul><li>Ashi points actually refer to tenderness spots. Such points are marked by no fixed location, no pertaining channels and no names. </li></ul><ul><li>Ashi points have no fixed location. They are actually tender spots. They often change because the affected regions vary with disease. Since they do not have fixed location, they have no names and no direct relationship with channels. </li></ul>Ashi acupoints General introduction to acupoints
  11. 11. General introduction to acupoints Rules for the effects of points General introduction to acupoints Rules for the effects points local therapeutic effects remote therapeutic effect special therapeutic effects
  12. 12. General introduction to acupoints Rules for the effects of points local therapeutic effects This is a characteristic therapeutic property for all points, including channel points, extra points ashi-points. All points can treat the disorders of their local and adjacent locations. General introduction to acupoints
  13. 13. General introduction to acupoints Rules for the effects of points remote therapeutic effect The remote therapeutic effect is a property of the channel points, especially for those of the twelve regular channel located distally to the elbow and knee joints. They are effective not only for local disorders but also for the disorders of remote locations on the course of their pertaining channels. This is what the saying “the indication extends to where the meridian reaches” General introduction to acupoints
  14. 14. General introduction to acupoints Rules for the effects of points special therapeutic effects Besides the above local and remote therapeutic effects, some points have certain special effects such as bi-directional regulation, general regulation, and other specific actions. General introduction to acupoints
  15. 15. General introduction to acupoints <ul><li>Special acupoints refer to the acupoints on the fourteen channels with special curative effect. A majority of the acupoints bear special effect and are commonly used in clinical treatment. </li></ul>Special acupoints General introduction to acupoints
  16. 16. General introduction to acupoints Special acupoints General introduction to acupoints crossing eight confluent Front-Mu Back-Shu eight convergent Xi-cleft lower He-sea luo-connecting yuan-source five-shu
  17. 17. General introduction to acupoints Special acupoints five-shu Five-Shu acupoints refer to Jing-Well, Ying-Spring, Shu-Stream, Jing-River and He-Sea which are five acupoints located on the twelve channels below the knees and elbows. They are situated in the above order from the distal extremities to the elbow or knees. These five acupoints reflect the indication of the acupoints below the knees and elbows.
  18. 19. General introduction to acupoints Special acupoints yuan-source Yuan-Source acupoints, the regions where the primary qi of the viscera flows by and retains, are usually located around the wrists and ankles, reflecting the pathological changes of the viscera. They are clinically used to diagnose and treat the disorders of the related viscera.
  19. 20. General introduction to acupoints Special acupoints luo-connecting Luo-Connecting acupoints refer to the points where the fifteen collaterals stem from the twelve channels, the governor and conception vessels as well as the major collateral of the spleen. All the Luo-Connecting acupoints of the twelve channels are located below the elbows and knees.
  20. 21. General introduction to acupoints Special acupoints Xi-cleft The Xi-Cleft acupoints are the sites where qi and blood from the meridians are deeply converged. Each of the twelve channels and the four extraordinary vessels (Yin link and Yang link vessels, Yin heel and Yang heel vessels) has a Xi-Cleft acupoint on the limbs, amounting to sixteen in all.
  21. 22. General introduction to acupoints Special acupoints Xi-cleft Clinically Xi-Cleft acupoints are used to treat severe acute disorders of the meridians. The Xi-Cleft acupoints on the yin channels are usually used to treat various blood syndromes and the Xi-Cleft acupoints on the yang channels are often used to treat various pain syndromes.
  22. 23. General introduction to acupoints Special acupoints eight Confluence The eight convergent acupoints refer to the eight acupoints on the twelve channels that are connected with the eight extraordinary vessels. These eight acupoints are all located below the knees and elbows and are used to treat is orders involving the face, head and trunk related to the eight extraordinary vessels.
  23. 24. General introduction to acupoints Special acupoints lower He-sea The lower He-Sea acupoints refer to six acupoints on the three yang channels of the foot where qi from the six fu organs converges and are the key acupoints for the treatment of the disorders of the six fu organs.
  24. 25. General introduction to acupoints Special acupoints Back-Shu The Back-Shu acupoints are located on the back and waist along the first lateral line of the bladder channel(1.5 cun lateral to the back middle line) and are the regions where qi of the viscera is infused. The distributing order of Back-Shu acupoints is similar to that of th location of the viscera. Clinically these acupoints are used to treat the disorders of the related viscera, tissues and organs.
  25. 26. General introduction to acupoints Special acupoints Front-Mu Front-Mu acupoints are those located on the chest and abdomen where qi of the viscera is infused and converged. The location of the Front-Mu acupoints is similar to that of the related viscera. Front-Mu acupoints can be used to treat disorders of the related viscera, especially the disorders of the six fu organs. Front-Mu acupoints are usually needled with the combination of Back-Shu acupoints.
  26. 27. General introduction to acupoints Special acupoints eight influential Eight confluent acupoints, located on the trunk and four limbs below the knees and elbows, are the regions where the essence of qi, blood, tendons, vessels, bones, marrow, zang organs and fu organs converges.
  27. 28. General introduction to acupoints Special acupoints crossing Crossing acupoints are those at the intersection of two or more channels. Most of them are located on the head,face and trunk, except a few which are located on the lower limbs. Crossing acupoints are clinically used to treat diseases related to the channel proper and the channels crossed with the channel proper.
  28. 29. <ul><li>Methods for Locating Points </li></ul><ul><li>1.Measurement with Anatomic Landmarks </li></ul><ul><li>1.1 Fixed Anatomic Landmarks </li></ul><ul><li>1.2 Moving Landmarks </li></ul><ul><li>2.Bone-Length Proportional Measurement </li></ul><ul><li>3.Finger Measurement </li></ul><ul><li>3.1 Middle Finger Measurement </li></ul><ul><li>3.2 Thumb Measurement </li></ul><ul><li>3.3 Four-Finger Measurement </li></ul><ul><li>4. Simplified Measurement </li></ul>General introduction to acupoints
  29. 30. Methods for Locating Points Anatomic Landmarks Fixed Anatomic Landmarks five sensory organs hair nails nipples umbilicus prominences and depressions of bones and muscles
  30. 32. Methods for Locating Points Anatomic Landmarks Moving Landmarks Moving landmarks refer to the depressions and folds on the joints, muscles, and skin with reference to specific body movements.
  31. 33. Methods for Locating Points Bone-length Proportional Measurement Bone-length proportional measurement is a point locating method by taking the bones and joints of the body as major markers used to measure the length and size of certain body parts and converting their length or size into proportional units based on the measuring criteria for locating points
  32. 36. Methods for Locating Points Bone-length Proportional Measurement Bone-length proportional measurement is to measure the length and width of all parts of the body by means of anatomic landmarks on the body surface. Actually, this method is the extension of the anatomic landmarks measurement, and supplements the limitation of the latter measurement. It is considered to be an accurate points-locating method, thus bone-length proportional measurement is most ofter used clinically and is widely applicable for most points.
  33. 37. Methods for Locating Points Finger Measurement Finger measurement is a point-locating method using the length and width of the patient's finger as a standard to locate points. The middle finger measurement Thumb Measurement Four-Finger Measurement
  34. 38. Methods for Locating Points Finger Measurement The middle finger measurement When the patient's middle finger is bent, the distance between the two medial ends of the creases of two interphalangeal joints is taken as one cun
  35. 39. Methods for Locating Points Finger Measurement Thumb Measurement The width of the interphalangeal joint of the patient's thumb is taken as one cun
  36. 40. Methods for Locating Points Finger Measurement Four-Finger Measurement When the patient's four fingers extend and touch closely together, the width of the four fingers at the level of the crease of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the middle finger is measured to be three cun.
  37. 42. Methods for Locating Points Simplified Measurement A simple method used to locate points
  38. 43. <ul><li>谢 谢! </li></ul><ul><li>THANK YOU </li></ul>
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