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Who am I?
• Security Consultant at Cigital Inc.
• Areas of interest
– Static analysis
– Helping developers fix security bugs
– Web App pen testing
– Curious about all things security
What are we talking about?
• Why review code?
• Automated v/s Manual review
• Manual review – 10,000 ft. view
• Manual code review in 60 seconds
Why review code?
• Finding bugs early in the lifecycle is cheaper
• Different visibility to code
– Reach all parts of code
– Some issues only visible in code review (examples in the
– Helps in identifying “where” the problem is
Why review code?
• So, pen testing is useless, right? Not quite.
– Don’t want to be killed by a room full of pen-
– Better at proving “exploitability”
– Makes it easier to evangelize security it an
– Coverage different from code review (e.g.: Issues
in application sever configuration)
– Understand what a hacker is looking at
Automated v/s Manual
This topic never ends. Here are some highlights:
• Automated tools can plough through more code
at lesser time. Very useful for large applications
• Manual code review uses knowledge available to
• Tool support for certain programming languages
stronger than the other (Java v/s Perl)
• Quality of manual review depends on individual
And so on…..
Bottom line: Use both in a complimentary manner
Manual review – 10,000 ft. view
• Understand the application
– Purpose of the application
– Flow of the application
– Technologies used
– Environment (type of DB, frameworks, AppServer etc.)
– Business logic
• Understand the approach to security controls:
– Authentication and Authorization
– Handling un-trusted data
– Handling sensitive information
– Session handling
– Network boundaries
– Error handling and logging
– Misuse of security related APIs (crypto, randomness etc.)
• Look for specific vulnerabilities
– Issues common to most applications (e.g.: Race condition, resource management, information leakage,
– Language specific issues (e.g.: Format string attacks in C)
– Framework specific issues (e.g.: review ACEGI configuration)
– Looking for malicious code/ Insider threat