Racism in the united states


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Racism in the united states

  1. 1. Racism in the United StatesFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaPart of a series of articles onRacial segregationSegregation in the US Black Codes Jim Crow laws Redlining Racial steering Blockbusting White flight Black flight Sundown town Proposition 14 Indian Removal Act Indian Appropriations Immigration Act of 1924 Separate but equal Japanese American internment
  2. 2.  Racial segregation in Atlanta Chinese Exclusion ActAustraliaWhite Australia policySouth Africa under ApartheidBantustanRhodesia V T ERacism in the United States has been a major issue since the colonial era and the slave era. Legallysanctioned racism imposed a heavy burden on Native Americans, African Americans, Asian Americans,and Latin Americans. European Americans(particularly Anglo Americans) were privileged by law in mattersof literacy, immigration, voting rights, citizenship, land acquisition, and criminal procedure over periods of timeextending from the 17th century to the 1960s. Many non-Protestant European immigrant groups,particularly American Jews, Irish Americans, Italian Americans, as well as other immigrants from elsewhere,suffered xenophobic exclusion and other forms of discrimination in American society.Major racially structured institutions included slavery, Indian Wars, Native American reservations, segregation,residential schools (for Native Americans), and internment camps.[1]Formal racial discrimination was largelybanned in the mid-20th century, and came to be perceived as socially unacceptable and/or morally repugnantas well, yet racial politics remain a major phenomenon. Historical racism continues to be reflected in socio-economic inequality,[2]and has taken on more modern, indirect forms of expression, most prevalently symbolicracism.[3]Racial stratification continues to occur in employment, housing, education, lending, and government.Many people in the U.S. continue to have some prejudices against other races.[4][5][6]In the view of the USHuman Rights Network, a network of scores of US civil rights and human rights organizations,"Discrimination permeates all aspects of life in the United States, and extends to all communities ofcolor."[7]Discrimination against African Americans, Latin Americans, and Muslims is widelyacknowledged.[8]Members of every major American ethnic minority have perceived racism in their dealingswith other minority groups.[9][10]
  3. 3. Contents[hide]1 History by targeted racial groupo 1.1 Racism against Native Americans 1.1.1 Discrimination, marginalization 1.1.2 Assimilation efforts into American societyo 1.2 Racism against African Americans 1.2.1 Slavery and emancipation 1.2.2 Nadir of American race relations 1.2.3 African Americans in recent decades 1.2.4 Taking a nonviolent stando 1.3 Discrimination and racism against Asian Americanso 1.4 Discrimination against Latin Americanso 1.5 Antisemitismo 1.6 Racism against Middle Eastern and South Asian Americans 1.6.1 Racism against Iranian Americanso 1.7 Anti-European immigrant racismo 1.8 Racism against European Americans 1.8.1 White subgroups 1.8.2 Anti-White crimes2 History by regiono 2.1 West Coast racism3 Racism as a factor in U.S. foreign policyo 3.1 War on Drugs and Racism4 Conflicts between racial and ethnic minoritieso 4.1 Argument against minority-minority racismo 4.2 African and Mexican American gang violenceo 4.3 New Immigrant Africans and African Americanso 4.4 Strife, conflict and reconciliation5 Stereotypes and prejudiceo 5.1 Stereotypical images in the entertainment mediao 5.2 Contemporary images and protests
  4. 4. o 5.3 Congressional hearing6 Segregation and integrationo 6.1 Historyo 6.2 Contemporary issueso 6.3 Laws regarding raceo 6.4 Court cases regarding race7 Institutional racismo 7.1 Immigrationo 7.2 Wealth creationo 7.3 Slavery by non-whiteso 7.4 Impact on healtho 7.5 Health care inequality8 Political issueso 8.1 Affirmative actiono 8.2 Hate crimes9 Current hate groups10 Anti-racism11 See also12 References13 Further reading14 External links[edit]History by targeted racial group[edit]Racism against Native Americans
  5. 5. Members of the Muscogee (Creek) Nation in Oklahoma around 1877. Notice the members with European and African ancestry. TheCreek were originally from the Alabama region.Native Americans, who have lived on the North American continent for at least 20,000 years,[11]had anenormously complex impact on American history and racial relations. During the colonial and independentperiods, a long series of conflicts were waged, with the primary objective of obtaining resources of NativeAmericans. Through wars, massacres, forced displacement(such as in the Trail of Tears), and the imposition oftreaties, land was taken and numerous hardships imposed. In 1540, the first racial strife was withSpaniard Hernando de Sotos expedition who enslaved and murdered in many New World communities. In theearly 18th century, the English had enslaved nearly 800 Choctaws.[12]After the creation of the United States,the idea of Indian removal gained momentum. However, some Native Americans chose or were allowed toremain and avoided removal whereafter they were subjected to racist institutions in their ancestral homeland.The Choctaws in Mississippi described their situation in 1849, "we have had our habitations torn down andburned, our fences destroyed, cattle turned into our fields and we ourselves have been scourged, manacled,fettered and otherwise personally abused, until by such treatment some of our best men have died."[13]JosephB. Cobb, who moved to Mississippi from Georgia, described Choctaws as having "no nobility or virtue at all,"and in some respect he found blacks, especially native Africans, more interesting and admirable, the red manssuperior in every way. The Choctaw and Chickasaw, the tribes he knew best, were beneath contempt, that is,even worse than black slaves.[14]Ideological expansionist justification (Manifest Destiny) included stereotyped perceptions of all NativeAmericans as "merciless Indian savages" (as described in the United States Declaration of Independence)despite successful American efforts at civilization as proven with the Cherokee, Chickasaw, Creek,and Choctaw. An egregious attempt occurred with the California gold rush, the first two years of which saw thedeaths of thousands of Native Americans. Under Mexican rule in California, Indians were subjected to defacto enslavement under a system ofpeonage by the white elite. While in 1850, California formally enteredthe Union as a free state, with respect to the issue of slavery, the practice of Indian indentured servitudewasnot outlawed by the California Legislature until 1863.[15]Military and civil resistance by Native Americans has been a constant feature of American history. So too havea variety of debates around issues of sovereignty, the upholding of treaty provisions, and the civil rights ofNative Americans under U.S. law.[edit]Discrimination, marginalizationOnce their territories were incorporated into the United States, surviving Native Americans were denied equalitybefore the law and often treated as wards of the state.[16]See also: Native American reservations
  6. 6. Many Native Americans were relegated to reservations—constituting just 4% of U.S. territory—and the treatiessigned with them violated. Tens of thousands of American Indians and Alaska Natives were forced to attenda residential school system which sought to reeducate them in white settler American values, culture andeconomy, to "kill the Indian, save the man."[17][18]Further dispossession of various kinds continues into the present, although these current dispossessions,especially in terms of land, rarely make major news headlines in the country (e.g., the Lenape peoples recentfiscal troubles and subsequent land grab by the State of New Jersey), and sometimes even fail to make it toheadlines in the localities in which they occur. Through concessions for industries such as oil, mining andtimber and through division of land from the Allotment Act forward, these concessions have raised problems ofconsent, exploitation of low royalty rates, environmental injustice, and gross mismanagement of funds held intrust, resulting in the loss of $10–40 billion.[19]The Worldwatch Institute notes that 317 reservations are threatened by environmental hazards, while WesternShoshone land has been subjected to more than 1,000 nuclear explosions.[20][edit]Assimilation efforts into American societyBenjamin Hawkins, seen here on his plantation, teaches Creek Native Americans how to use European technology. Painted in1805.George Washington and Henry Knox believed that Native Americans were equals but that their society wasinferior.[citation needed]The government appointed agents, like Benjamin Hawkins, to live among the NativeAmericans and to teach them, through example and instruction, how to live like whites.[21]Washingtonformulated a policy to encourage the "civilizing" process.[22]Washington had a six-point plan for civilizationwhich included:1. impartial justice toward Native Americans2. regulated buying of Native American lands3. promotion of commerce4. promotion of experiments to civilize or improve Native American society
  7. 7. 5. presidential authority to give presents6. punishing those who violated Native American rights.[23]The Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 granted U.S. citizenship to all Native Americans. Prior to the passage of theact, nearly two-thirds of Native Americans were already U.S. citizens.[24]The earliest recorded date of NativeAmericans becoming U.S. citizens was in 1831 when the Mississippi Choctaw became citizens after the UnitedStates Legislature ratified the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek. Under article XIV of that treaty, any Choctawwho elected not to move to Native American Territory could become an American citizen when he registeredand if he stayed on designated lands for five years after treaty ratification. Citizenship could also be obtainedby:1. Treaty Provision (as with the Mississippi Choctaw)2. Allotment under the Act of February 8, 18873. Issuance of Patent in Fee Simple4. Adopting Habits of Civilized Life5. Minor Children6. Citizenship by Birth7. Becoming Soldiers and Sailors in the U.S. Armed Forces8. Marriage9. Special Act of Congress.“Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congressassembled, That all noncitizen Native Americans born within the territorial limits of the United States be,and they are hereby, declared to be citizens of the United States: Provided, That the granting of suchcitizenship shall not in any manner impair or otherwise affect the right of any Native American to tribal orother property. ”—-Indian Citizenship Act of 1924While formal equality has been legally granted, American Indians, Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians,and Pacific Islanders remain among the most economically disadvantaged groups in the country, andaccording to National mental health studies, American Indians as a group tend to suffer from high levels ofalcoholism, depression and suicide.[25][edit]Racism against African AmericansMain article: African American historyPerhaps the most prominent and notable form of American racism (other than imperialism against NativeAmericans) began with the institution of slavery, during which Africanswere enslaved and treated as property.Prior to the institution of slavery, early African and non-white immigrants to the Colonies had been regardedwith equal status, serving as sharecroppers alongside whites. After the institution of slavery the status of
  8. 8. Africans was stigmatized, and this stigma was the basis for the more virulent anti-African racism that persisteduntil the present.[26]African Americans were treated like second-class citizens. They were denied defense-industry jobs, and when the US entered World War II, they could only serve in segregated units.[27][edit]Slavery and emancipationThis section needsadditionalcitations for verification.(November2009)In colonial America, before slavery became completely based on racial lines, thousands of African slavesserved European colonists, alongside other Europeans serving a term of indentured servitude.[28]In somecases for African slaves, a term of service meant freedom and a land grant afterward, but these were rarelyawarded, and few former slaves became landowners this way.[citation needed]In a precursor to the AmericanRevolution, Nathaniel Bacon led a revolt in 1676 against the Governor of Virginia and the system of exploitationhe represented: exploitation of poorer colonists by the increasingly wealthy landowners where poorer people,regardless of skin color, fought side by side. However, Bacon died, probably of dysentery; hundreds ofparticipants in the revolt were lured to disarm by a promised amnesty; and the revolt lost steam.[29]Slaves were primarily used for agricultural labor, notably in the production of cotton and tobacco. Black slaveryin the Northeast was common until the early 19th century, when many Northeastern states abolished slavery.Slaves were used as a labor force in agricultural production, shipyards, docks, and as domestic servants. Inboth regions, only the wealthiest Americans owned slaves.[citation needed]In contrast, poor whites recognized thatslavery devalued their own labor. The social rift along color lines soon became ingrained in every aspect ofcolonial American culture.[citation needed]Approximately one Southern family in four held slaves prior to war.According to the 1860 U.S. census, there were about 385,000 slaveowners out of approximately 1.5 millionwhite families.[30]In the early part of the 19th century, a variety of organizations were established advocating the movement ofblack people from the United States to locations where they would enjoy greater freedom; someendorsed colonization, while others advocated emigration. During the 1820s and 1830s the AmericanColonization Society (A.C.S.) was the primary vehicle for proposals to return black Americans to greaterfreedom and equality in Africa,[31]and in 1821 the A.C.S. established the colony of Liberia, assisting thousandsof former African-American slaves and free black people (with legislated limits) to move there from the UnitedStates. The colonization effort resulted from a mixture of motives with its founder Henry Clay stating;"unconquerable prejudice resulting from their color, they never could amalgamate with the free whites of thiscountry. It was desirable, therefore, as it respected them, and the residue of the population of the country, todrain them off".[32]
  9. 9. Although the Constitution had banned the importation of new African slaves in 1808, and in 1820 slave tradewas equated with piracy, punishable by death,[33]the practice of chattel slavery still existed for the next halfcentury. All slaves in only the areas of the Confederate States of America that were not under direct control ofthe United States government were declared free by the Emancipation Proclamation, which was issued onJanuary 1, 1863 by President Abraham Lincoln.[34]It should be noted that theEmancipation Proclamation didnot apply to areas loyal to, or controlled by, the Union, thus the document only freed slaves where the Unionstill had not regained the legitimacy to do so. Slavery was not actually abolished in the United States until thepassage of the 13th Amendment which was declared ratified on December 6, 1865.[35]About 4 million black slaves were freed in 1865. Ninety-five percent of blacks lived in the South, comprising onethird of the population there as opposed to one percent of the population of the North. Consequently, fears ofeventual emancipation were much greater in the South than in the North.[36]Based on 1860 census figures, 8%of all whitemales aged 13 to 43 died in the civil war, including 6% in the North and an extraordinary 18% in theSouth.[37]Despite this, post-emancipation America was not free from racism; discriminatory practices continuedin the United States with the existence of Jim Crow laws, educational disparities and widespread criminal actsagainst people of color.[citation needed][edit]Nadir of American race relationsMain articles: Nadir of American race relations and Mass racial violence in the United StatesThe mob-style lynching of Will James, Cairo, Illinois, 1909.The new century saw a hardening of institutionalized racism and legal discrimination against citizens of Africandescent in the United States. Although technically able to vote, poll taxes, acts of terror (often perpetuated bygroups such as the Ku Klux Klan, founded in the Reconstruction South), and discriminatory laws suchas grandfather clauseskept black Americans disenfranchised particularly in the South but also nationwidefollowing the Hayes election at the end of the Reconstruction era in 1877. In response to de jure racism, protestand lobbyist groups emerged, most notably, the NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of ColoredPeople) in 1909.
  10. 10. This time period is sometimes referred to as the nadir of American race relations because racism in the UnitedStates was worse during this time than at any period before or since. Segregation, racial discrimination, andexpressions of white supremacy all increased. So did anti-black violence, including lynchings and race riots.In addition, racism which had been viewed primarily as a problem in the Southern states, burst onto thenational consciousness following the Great Migration, the relocation of millions of African Americans from theirroots in the Southern states to the industrial centers of the North after World War I, particularly in cities suchas Boston, Chicago, and New York (Harlem). In northern cities, racial tensions exploded, most violently inChicago, and lynchings--mob-directed hangings, usually racially motivated—increased dramatically in the1920s. As a member of the Princeton chapter of the NAACP, Albert Einstein corresponded with W. E. B. DuBois, and in 1946 Einstein called racism Americas "worst disease".[38][39][edit]African Americans in recent decadesWhile substantial gains were made in the succeeding decades through middle class advancement and publicemployment, black poverty and lack of education[40]deepened in the context of de-industrialization.[41]Prejudice, discrimination, and institutional racism (see below) continued to affect AfricanAmericans.From 1981 to 1997, the United States Department of Agriculture discriminated against tens of thousands ofAfrican American farmers, denying loans provided to white farmers in similar circumstances. The discriminationwas the subject of the Pigford v. Glickman lawsuit brought by members of the National Black FarmersAssociation, which resulted in two settlement agreements of $1.25 billion in 1999 and of $1.15 billion in 2009.[42]Many cite the 2008 United States presidential election as a step forward in race relations: White Americansplayed a role in electing Barack Obama, the countrys first black president.[43]In fact, Obama received a greaterpercentage of the white vote (43%),[44]than did the previous Democratic candidate, John Kerry (41%).[45]Racialdivisions persisted throughout the election; wide margins of Black voters gave Obama an edge during thepresidential primary, where 8 out of 10 African-Americans voted for him in the primaries, and an MSNBC pollshowed that race was a key factor in whether a candidate was perceived as being ready for office. In SouthCarolina, for instance,"Whites were far likelier to name Clinton than Obama as being most qualified to becommander in chief, likeliest to unite the country and most apt to capture the White House in November. Blacksnamed Obama over Clinton by even stronger margins — two- and three-to one — in all three areas.".[46][edit]Taking a nonviolent standIn February 1960, in Greensboro, North Carolina, four young African-American college students entered aWoolworth store and sat down at the counter but were refused service. The men had learned about non-violentprotest in college, and continued to sit peacefully as whites tormented them at the counter, pouring ketchup ontheir heads and burning them with cigarettes. After this, many sit-ins took place to non-violently protest against
  11. 11. racism and inequality. Sit-ins continued throughout the South and spread to other areas. Eventually, after manysit-ins and other non-violent protests, including marches and boycotts, places began to agree todesegregate.[47][broken citation][edit]Discrimination and racism against Asian AmericansA Sinophobic cartoon called "Yellow terror" appearing in the United States in 1899See also: Sinophobia, Chinese American history, and Anti-Chinese sentiment in the United States, Anti-Japanese sentiment in the United States, and Yellow PerilIn the Pacific States, racism was primarily directed against the resident Asian immigrants. Several immigrationlaws discriminated against the Asians, and at different points the ethnic Chinese or other groups were bannedfrom entering the United States.[48]Nonwhites were prohibited from testifying against whites, a prohibitionextended to the Chinese by People v. Hall.[49]The Chinese were often subject to harder labor on the FirstTranscontinental Railroad and often performed the more dangerous tasks such as using dynamite to makepathways through the mountains.[50]The San Francisco Vigilance Movement, although ostensibly a response tocrime and corruption, also systematically victimized Irish immigrants, and later this was transformed into mobviolence against Chinese immigrants.[citation needed]. Anti-Chinese sentiment was also rife in early Los Angeles,culminating in a notorious 1871 riot in which a mob attacked Chinese residents.[51]In the ensuing inquests and trials, all the perpetrators either were acquitted, or received only light punishmentsfor lesser offenses,[citation needed]because the testimony of Chinese witnesses was either completely inadmissible,or else considered less credible than that of others. Legal discrimination of Asian minorities was furthered withthe passages of the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882, which banned the entrance of virtually all ethnic Chineseimmigrants into the United States until 1943.
  12. 12. During World War II, the United States created internment camps for Japanese American citizens in fear thatthey would be used as spies for the Japanese.[52]Currently implemented immigration laws are still largelyplagued with national origin-based quotas that are unfavorable to Asian countries due to large populations andhistorically low U.S. immigration rates.[3][edit]Discrimination against Latin AmericansAmericans of Latin American ancestry (often categorized as "Hispanic") come from a wide variety of racial andethnic backgrounds. Latinos are not all distinguishable as a racial minority.After the Mexican-American War (1846–1848), the U.S. annexed much of the current Southwestern regionfrom Mexico. Mexicans residing in that territory found themselves subject to discrimination. It is estimated thatat least 597 Mexicans were lynched between 1848 and 1928 (this is a conservative estimate due to lack ofrecords in many reported lynchings). Mexicans were lynched at a rate of 27.4 per 100,000 of populationbetween 1880 and 1930. This statistic is second only to that of the African American community during thatperiod, which suffered an average of 37.1 per 100,000 population.[53]Between 1848 to 1879, Mexicans werelynched at an unprecedented rate of 473 per 100,000 of population.[54]During The Great Depression, the U.S. government sponsored a Mexican Repatriation program which wasintended to encourage Mexican immigrants to voluntarily return to Mexico, however, many were forciblyremoved against their will. In total, up to one million persons of Mexican ancestry were deported, approximately60 percent of those individuals were actually U.S. citizens.[55]The Zoot Suit Riots were vivid incidents of racial violence against Latinos (e.g. Mexican-Americans) in LosAngeles in 1943. Naval servicemen stationed in a Latino neighborhood conflicted with youth in the denseneighborhood. Frequent confrontations between small groups and individuals had intensified into several daysof non-stop rioting. Large mobs of servicemen would enter civilian quarters looking to attack Mexican Americanyouths, some of whom were wearing zoot suits, a distinctive exaggerated fashion popular among thatgroup.[56]The disturbances continued unchecked, and even assisted, by the local police for several days beforebase commanders declared downtown Los Angeles and Mexican American neighborhoods off-limits toservicemen.[57]Many public institutions, businesses, and homeowners associations had official policies to exclude MexicanAmericans. School children of Mexican American descent were subject to racial segregation in the publicschool system. In many counties, Mexican Americans were excluded from serving as jurors in court cases,especially in those that involved a Mexican American defendant. In many areas across the Southwest, theylived in separate residential areas, due to laws and real estate company policies.[58][59][60][61]During the 1960s, Mexican American youth rallied behind civil rights causes and launched the ChicanoMovement.
  13. 13. [edit]AntisemitismMain article: Antisemitism in the United StatesAntisemitism has also played a role in America. During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, hundreds ofthousands of Ashkenazi Jews were escaping the pogroms of Russiaand Eastern Europe. They boarded boatsfrom ports on the Baltic Sea and in Northern Germany, and largely arrived at Ellis Island, New York.[62]It is thought by Leo Rosten, in his book, The Joys of Yiddish, that as soon as they left the boat, they weresubject to racism from the port immigration authorities. The derogatory term kike was adopted when referringto Jews (because they often could not write so they may have signed their immigration papers with circles - orkikel inYiddish).[63]From the 1910s, the Southern Jewish communities were attacked by the Ku Klux Klan, who objected to Jewishimmigration, and often used The Jewish Banker in their propaganda. In 1915, Texas-born, New York Jew LeoFrank was lynched by the newly re-formed Klan, after being convicted of rape and sentenced to death (hispunishment was commuted to life imprisonment).[64]The events in Nazi Germany also attracted attention from America. Jewish lobbying for intervention in Europedrew opposition from the isolationists, amongst whom was FatherCharles Coughlin, a well known radio priest,who was known to be critical of Jews, believing that they were leading America into the war.[65]He preached inweekly, overtly anti-Semitic sermons and, from 1936, began publication of a newspaper, Social Justice, inwhich he printed anti-Semitic accusations such as The Protocols of the Elders of Zion.[65]A number of Jewish organizations, Christian organizations, Muslim organizations, and academics considerthe Nation of Islam to be anti-Semitic. Specifically, they claim that the Nation of Islam has engaged inrevisionist and antisemitic interpretations of the Holocaust and exaggerates the role of Jews in the African slavetrade.[66]The Jewish Anti-Defamation League (ADL) alleges that NOI Health Minister, Abdul Alim Muhammad,has accused Jewish doctors of injecting blacks with the AIDS virus,[67]an allegation that Dr. Abdul AlimMuhammad has denied.[edit]Racism against Middle Eastern and South Asian AmericansSee also: Anti-Arabism and Islamophobia
  14. 14. An Assyrian church vandalized in Detroit (2007). Assyrians, although not Arabs and mostly Christians, often face backlash in the USfor their Middle Eastern background.[68]People of Middle East and South Asian descent historically occupied an ambiguous racial status in the UnitedStates. Middle East, and South Asian immigrants were among those who sued in the late 19th and early 20thcentury to determine whether they were "white" immigrants as required by naturalization law. By 1923, courtshad vindicated a "common-knowledge" standard, concluding that "scientific evidence", including the notion of a"Caucasian race" including Arabs and many South Asians, was incoherent. Legal scholar John Tehranianargues that in reality this was a "performance-based" standard, relating to religious practices, education,intermarriage and a communitys role in the United States.[69]Recent studies have found that while officialparameters encompass Arabs as part of the White American racial category, many Arab Americans fromplaces other than the Levant feel they are not white and are not perceived as white by American society."[70]Racism against Arab Americans[71]and racialized Islamophobia against Muslims has risen concomitantly withtensions between the American government and the Islamic world.[72]Following the September 11, 2001attacks in the United States, discrimination and racialized violence has markedly increased against ArabAmericans and many other religious and cultural groups.[73]Scholars, including Sunaina Maira and EvelynAlsultany, argue that in the post-September 11climate, Muslim Americans have been racialized withinAmerican society, although the markers of this racialization are cultural, political, and religious ratherthan phenotypic.[74][75]Middle Easterners in particular were demonized which led to hatred towards Arabs and Iranians living in theUnited States and elsewhere in the western world.[76][77]There have been attacks against Arabs not only on thebasis of their religion (Islam), but also on the basis of their ethnicity; numerous Christian Arabs have been
  15. 15. attacked based on their appearances.[78]In addition, non-Arab peoples (Iranians, Assyrians, Yezidis, Kurds)who are mistaken for Arabs because of perceived "similarities in appearance" have been collateral victims ofanti-Arabism.Iranian people (who constitute a different ethnicity than Arabs), as well as South Asians of differentethnic/religious backgrounds (Hindus, Muslims and Sikhs) have been stereotyped as "Arabs". The caseof Balbir Singh Sodhi, a Sikh who was murdered at a Phoenix gas station by a white supremacist for "lookinglike an Arab terrorist" (because of the turban that is a requirement of Sikhism), as well as that of Hindus beingattacked for "being Muslims" have achieved prominence and criticism following the September 11 attacks.[79][80]Those of Middle Eastern descent who are in the United States military face racism from fellow soldiers. ArmySpc Zachari Klawonn endured numerous instances of racism during his enlistment at Fort Hood, Texas. Duringhis basic training he was made to put cloth around his head and play the role a terrorist. His fellow soldiers hadto take him down to the ground and draw guns on him. He was also called things such as "raghead", "sandmonkey", and "Zachari bin Laden"."[81][edit]Racism against Iranian AmericansSee also: Anti-Iranian sentimentA man holding a sign that reads "deport allIranians" and "get the hell out of my country" during a protest of the Iran hostagecrisis inWashington, D.C. in 1979.The November 1979 Iranian hostage crisis of the U.S. embassy in Tehran precipitated a wave of anti-Iraniansentiment in the United States, directed both against the new Islamic regime and Iranian nationals andimmigrants. Even though such sentiments gradually declined after the release of the hostages at the start of1981, they sometimes flare up. In response, some Iranian immigrants to the U.S. have distanced themselvesfrom their nationality and instead identify primarily on the basis of their ethnic or religious affiliations.[82]Ann Coulter called Iranians "ragheads."[83]Brent Scowcroft called the Iranian people "rug merchants."[84]Since the 1980s and especially since the 1990s Hollywoods depiction of Iranians has gradually shown signs ofvilifying Iranians.[85]Hollywood network productions such as 24,[86]John Doe, On Wings of
  16. 16. Eagles (1986),[87]Escape From Iran: The Canadian Caper (1981),[88]and JAG almost regularly host Persianspeaking villains in their storylines. On May 9, 1997, CBSaired an episode of JAG in whichseveral Hamas terrorists take a Washington hospital under siege. According to the film, they spoke in fluent"Persian", not "Arabic".[citation needed][edit]Anti-European immigrant racismMain article: Anti-Irish racismVarious non-Jewish European-American immigrant groups have been subject to discrimination either on thebasis of their immigrant status (known as "Nativism") or on the basis of their ethnicities (country of origin).Philadelphia Nativist Riots.New York Times, 1854 ad, reading "No Irish need apply."In the 19th century, this was particularly true of anti-Irish prejudice, which was partly anti-Catholic sentiment,partly anti-Irish as an ethnicity. This was especially true for Irish Catholics who immigrated to the U.S. in themid-19th century; the large number of Irish (both Catholic and Protestant) who settled in America in the 18thcentury had largely (but not entirely) escaped such discimination and eventually blended into the Americanwhite population.The 20th century saw racism against immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe (notably Italian-Americans and Polish Americans), partly from anti-Catholic sentiment (as against Irish-Americans), and partlyfrom Nordicism, which considered Southern Europeans and Eastern Europeans inferior – see Nordicism in theUSA.
  17. 17. “Biological laws tell us that certain divergentpeople will not mix or blend. The Nordicspropagate themselves successfully. With otherraces, the outcome shows deterioration on bothsides. ”—Future US president Calvin Coolidge, 1921.[89]Nordicism led to the reduction in Southern European and Eastern European immigrants in the National OriginsFormula of theEmergency Quota Act of 1921 and the Immigration Act of 1924, whose goal was to maintain thestatus quo distribution of ethnicity by limiting immigration in proportion to existing populations. This reduced theinflow from the average prior to 1921 of 176,983 from Northern and Western Europe, and 685,531 for othercountries, principally Southern and Eastern Europe, to a 1924 level of 140,999 for Northern and WesternEurope, and 21,847 for other countries, principally Southern and Eastern Europe (from a 1:3.9 ratio to a 6.4:1ratio).There was also racism against German-Americans and Italian-Americans due to these being enemy countriesin World War I(Germany) and World War II (Germany and Italy). This resulted in a sharp decrease in German-American ethnic identity and a sharp decrease in the use of German in the United States following WWI, whichhad hitherto been significant, and to German American internment and Italian American internment duringWWII; see also World War I anti-German sentiment.Specific European-American ethnicities significantly diminished as a political issue in the 1930s, being replacedby a bi-racialism of Black/White, as described and predicted by Lothrop Stoddard, due to numerous causes.The National Origins Formula significantly reduced inflows of non-Nordic ethnicities; the Great Migration (ofAfrican-Americans out of the South) displaced anti-White immigrant racism with anti-Black racism; andthe Great Depression brought economic concerns to the fore.Anti-Catholic sentiment remained evident in the presidential campaign of John F. Kennedy, who neverthelesswent on to become the USs first Catholic (and indeed non-Protestant) president.In the 1960s and 1970s, ethnic jokes most notably Jew Jokes and Polish Jokes were popular, but areconsidered offensive to people of Irish, Italian, Polish, Jewish and otherWhite ethnic descent.[citation needed]After the fall of the Berlin Wall and collapse of the Soviet Union in the late 1980s early 1990s many immigrantscame to the United States from Eastern Europe. A new type of racism which is based on the former Cold Warstereotypes began to target white people from the former Soviet states. There are many jokes refer to acommunist past, corruption, alcohol consumption, prostitution, and unemployment. Some people began to usewords like Eurotrash, mafia, cracker, commie, Borat, and Russki when refer to Russians, Ukranians,Belarusians, or Balcans: Serbs, Albanians and others. During the Olympic Games in Vancouver NBCscommenter Mike Milbury used the term Eurotrash to describe Russian hockey team. A ska band from Boston
  18. 18. called Dropkicks Murphys wrote a song called "Eurotrash" which promotes violence against Europeans andEuropean culture. Jokes about Russian mail brides, Eastern European prostitutes, and fashion models becamepopular among young people in the United States.[edit]Racism against European AmericansThis section needsadditionalcitations for verification.(January2010)This article or section appears to contradict itself. Please see the talk page for moreinformation. (May 2011)In addition to racism against European immigrants on the basis of their immigrant status or country of origin,there has also been racism against European Americans on the basis of their ethnicity, regardless of country oforigin. A general anti-white slur is "cracker".Some policies adopted as affirmative action, such as racial quotas or gender quotas for collegiate admission,have been criticized as a form of "reverse discrimination".[90]Affirmative action is sometimes called "reverseracism" by its opponents;[91]some sociologists argue that the term "racism" can only be applied to structuredsystems of racial supremacy, and that opponents would more correctly call affirmative action"reverse discrimination."[92]In Hawai‗i, there is an alleged tradition dating at least to the 1950s of the last day of school called "Kill HaoleDay", "Haole" originally referring to foreigners, and more generally to white people. There is a custom, reportedin Cleveland, Ohio in 2003, of May Day (May 1) being "Beat Up a White Kid Day."[edit]White subgroupsCertain subgroups of White Americans, while not identifying as separate races (often identifying as having"American ethnicity"), have distinct heritages and experience discrimination and low socio-economic status asan ethnicity.The status of poor rural whites has often been compared to that of blacks, being also seen as suffering fromslavery (because unable to compete with the free labor of slaves). Such descriptions date to the 19th century,as is Uncle Toms Cabin, and poor rural whites continue to lag on numerous socio-economic indicators (health,income, and the like) – see social and economic stratification in Appalachia.Other white subgroups who are sometimes subject of offensive humor, jokes, and stereotypesare Mormons (due to their religion) and French-Canadians (because their mother language is French).[edit]Anti-White crimesMain article: Hate crimes against white people
  19. 19. One series of unprovoked crimes that specifically targeted White Americans is the Zebra murders that occurredin San Francisco between 1973 and 1974. The Zebra murders were carried out by a group known as DeathAngels (a radical splinter group of the Nation of Islam) that intended to kill whites to spread terror and earnfavor and status within their sect.Another series of crimes that specifically targeted whites is the 2002 Beltway sniper attacks which planned tokill six whites a day for 30 days,[93]and resulted in 10 deaths and 3 critical injuries. One of the snipers Lee BoydMalvo testified that John Allen Muhammad was driven by hatred of America because of its "slavery, hypocrisyand foreign policy" and his belief that "the white man is the devil."According to the Southern Poverty Law Center, national anti-white hate groups that are currently activeinclude Nation of Islam and New Black Panther Party.According to FBI statistics from 1995–2002, whites are the second most targeted group for racially motivatedhate crime in New York City.[94][edit]History by regionIn the popular imagination, racism is particularly associated with the American South, with its legacy of slaveryand Jim Crow. However, all regions of the United States have exhibited racism in various forms and at varioustimes. For example, the Great Migration of African Americans (1910–1930) from the South to the Northeast,Midwest, and West, led to increased Black/White contact, racism, and segregation in the destinations.[edit]West Coast racismThe Pacific and Western states were often portrayed to those on the East Coast as more liberal in terms ofrace relations in the 1960s and 1970s, but California legally allowed racial segregation of public facilities untilthe 1950s and other forms of racism were felt there as well.Over the winter spanning 1929 and 1930, anti-Filipino racism exploded in the Central Coast areasurrounding Watsonville over labor tensions and general xenophobia. Filipinofarm workers were terrorized for"taking jobs from whites," and for mixing with white women; in California, and many states, Filipinos werebarred from marrying White Americans(a group which included Hispanic Americans). Violence was doneagainst Filipinos, some resulting in deaths, and a Filipino establishment was even dynamited. A race war brokeout in the Bay Area, with roving gangs of whites pulling Filipinos from their homes and dwellings, until theviolence subsided. As a result of the riots, Californias attitude changed towards importing cheaper Asian labor,ironically moving towards utilizing cheaper Mexican labor instead.[95]See also: History of Oregon Racial DiscriminationA variety of laws were enacted to prevent African American migration to the Pacific Northwest. While slaverywas criminalized in the Oregon Territory in 1844, a so-called "lash law" subjected blacks found guilty of
  20. 20. violating the law to whippings—no less than 20 and no more than 39 strokes of the lash—every six months"until he or she shall quit the territory." An exclusion law, barring African Americans from entering the territorywas passed in 1847, repealed in 1854, and added to the new Oregon state constitution in 1857. While AfricanAmericans have been present at some level since 1805, the demographic reverberations of these laws remaintoday.[96][edit]Racism as a factor in U.S. foreign policyThe earliest decades of expansionist United States foreign policy making was often accompanied by racialistideological justifications. While pursuing a series of expansionist wars (see "Racism against Native Americans"above), American leaders embraced an ideology of white racial supremacy. George Washington predicted atthe end of the U.S. Revolutionary War, ―The gradual extension of our settlements will as certainly cause thesavage, as the wolf, to retire; both being beasts of prey, tho they differ in shape."[97]The successful slaverevolution in Haiti alarmed the United States leadership, and the country refused diplomatic recognition fordecades. The United States conquest ofFlorida and the Seminole Wars were fought in part to confront thedanger of "mingled hordes of lawless Indians and negroes," in the words of President John Quincy Adams.[98]Early 20th-century President Theodore Roosevelt declared, "The most ultimately righteous of all wars is a warwith savages" and openly spoke of cementing the rule of "dominant world races."[98]In line with the concepts ofthe "Manifest Destiny" of white Anglo-Americans to conquer lands inhabited by "inferior" races of NativeAmericans and Mexicans, and the "White Mans Burden" of Europeans obligation to introduce civilization to the"primitive" people of Africa, Asia and the Pacific, American foreign policy in the early 20th century had racialovertones of a "superior" race destined to rule the world.Critics such as Gore Vidal and Noam Chomsky have suggested that racism has played a significant role in U.S.foreign policy in the Middle East and its treatment of the Arabs. Various critics have suggested that racismalong with strategic and financial interests motivated the Bush Administration to attack Iraq even thoughthe Baathist regime ofSaddam Hussein did not possess weapons of mass destruction nor had any ties to AlQaida.[99][100][101]On the other hand, some scholars believe that the United States has softened racialrestrictions based on foreign policy concerns. For example, Congress eliminated racial bars on Asianimmigration during World War II and the Vietnam War to recognize American allies.[102]When the SupremeCourt decided Brown v. Board of Education, the government argued that the Supreme Court should ruleagainst racial segregation to counter Communist propaganda and improve Americas image overseas.[103][edit]War on Drugs and RacismMain article: Race and the War on DrugsThe "War on Drugs", a term coined by President Nixon, was a law enforcement effort by US presidents startingfrom Nixon to oppose the sale, distribution and usage of illegal drugs. This term as well as the effects of this
  21. 21. war, has become controversial for the way it has hurt Black people, racial minorities and poor people in the US.A big part of this effort has involved in the arresting of Americans (over 13 million) mostly of color.One of every nine black families has a close relative in prison over aggressive arrests done by US lawenforcement.[104]Even though usage of illegal drugs are roughly the same along racial lines, the Drug PolicyAlliance Network shows that blacks constitute 13 percent of drug users, but are 38 percent of people arrestedfor drug offenses, and 59 percent of those convicted.[105]The Human Rights Watch supported this claim as well,stating that of blacks convicted of drug crimes 71% are incarcerated, compared with 63% of convictedwhites.[106]US laws have a much higher penalty for possession and distribution of crack cocaine, a frequentlyused drug among African Americans and this affects the Black community as well.[edit]Conflicts between racial and ethnic minorities[edit]Argument against minority-minority racismMinority racism is sometimes considered controversial because of theories of power in society. Some theoriesof racism insist that racism can only exist in the context of social power to impose it upon others.[107][edit]African and Mexican American gang violenceThere has been ongoing violence between African American and Mexican American gangs, particularlyin Southern California.[108][109][110][111]There have been reports of racially motivated attacks against MexicanAmericans who have moved into neighborhoods occupied mostly by African Americans, and viceversa.[112][113]According to gang experts and law enforcement agents, a longstanding race war betweenthe Mexican Mafia and the Black Guerilla Family, a rival African American prison gang, has generated suchintense racial hatred among Mexican Mafia leaders, or shot callers, that they have issued a "green light" on allblacks. This amounts to a standing authorization for Latino gang members to prove their mettle by terrorizing oreven murdering any blacks sighted in a neighborhood claimed by a gang loyal to the Mexican Mafia.[deadlink][114]There have been several significant riots in California prisons where Mexican American inmates andAfrican Americans have targeted each other particularly, based on racial reasons.[115][116][edit]New Immigrant Africans and African AmericansThe rapid growth in African immigrants has come into conflict with American blacks. Interaction andcooperation between African immigrants and black Americans are, ironically, debatable. One can argue thatracial discrimination and cooperation is not ordinarily based on color of skin but more on shared common,cultural experiences, and beliefs.[117][118][edit]Strife, conflict and reconciliationThis section needsadditionalcitations for verification.(November
  22. 22. 2009)This section may contain original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims madeand adding references. Statements consisting only of original research may beremoved. (November 2009)The U.S. has long had experienced conflict and reconciliation between ethnic minority groups.Historians point out after a period of conflict, ethnic and racial groups can band together in solidarity. Forexample, the competing Irish-American and Italian-American groups once held animosity against each other inthe early 20th century, would later merge and also with Polish-Americans, German-Americans and French-Canadians in the U.S. because of the commonality as "ethnics" and Roman Catholics in a primarily ProtestantAnglo America by the 1940s and 50s. The modern American consciousness on race will consider descendantsof European ethnic groups assimilated to become part of the larger "White American" group.In the 1960s & 70s, African-American and Puerto Rican political activism banded together to battle thecommon problems of racial discrimination, poverty and underpresentation in many urban areas across the USlike in New York City. Also to note there was substantial intermarriage between the newly-arrived IndianAmerican, later came the Filipino and Hispanic communities in California under similar working conditions andshared cultural values in the 1920s (see Punjabi Mexican American).The current-day social melange of "minorities" and "people of color" echoes the previous experience ofEuropean ethnic groups sense of "otherness" about 2 or 3 generations ago.[edit]Stereotypes and prejudiceThis section requires expansion.(October2007)
  23. 23. This racist postcard from the 1900s shows the casual denigration of black women. It states "I know youre not particular to a fault /Though Im not sure youll never be sued for assault / Youre so fond of women that even a wench / Attracts your gross fancy despiteher strong stench"[edit]Stereotypical images in the entertainment mediaSee also: Stereotypes of African Americans, Stereotypes of East Asians in the Western world, and Stereotypesof Native AmericansPopular culture (songs, theater) for European American audiences in the 19th century created and perpetuatednegative stereotypes of African Americans. One key symbol of racism against African Americans was the useof blackface. Directly related to this was the institution of minstrelsy. Other stereotypes of African Americansincluded the fat, dark-skinned "mammy" and the irrational, hypersexual male "buck".Other stereotypes include the portrayal of East Asians as very small people with huge front teeth; the portrayalof Native Americans as dangerous savages; the portrayal of Australians as blonde rednecks who do nothingbut ride kangaroos and cook food on the barbie; and the portrayal of Frenchmen who wear berets and stripedshirts, smoke, love watching Jerry Lewis and give up too easily.[edit]Contemporary images and protestsIncreasing numbers of African-American activists have asserted that rap music videos utilize African-Americanperformers commonly enacting tropes of scantily clothed women and men as thugs or pimps. Churchorganized groups have protested outside the residence of Phillipe Dauman (Upper East Side (New York, NY))(president and chief executive officer of Viacom) and the residence of Debra L. Lee (Northwest WashingtonDC) (chairman and chief executive of Black Entertainment Television, a unit of Viacom). Rev. Donald Coates,leader of a protest organization formed around the issue of the videos, "Enough is Enough!" said, ―In the wakeof the Imusaffair, I began to think that the African-American community must be consistent in its outrage.‖ TheClifton, Maryland minister has also said, ―Why are these corporations making these images normative andmainstream?‖ ... ―I can talk about this in the church until I am blue in the face, but we need to take it outside.‖The NAACP and the National Congress of Black Women also have called for the reform of images on videosand on television. Julian Bond said that in a segregated society, people get their impressions of other groupsfrom what they see in videos and what they hear in music.[119][120][121][122]In a similar vein, activists protested against the BET show, Hot Ghetto Mess, which satirizes the cultureof working-class African-Americans. The protests resulted in the change of the television show name to We Gotto Do Better.[119][edit]Congressional hearingIn September, 2007 Rep. Bobby Rush of Illinois initiated a Congressional hearing on African-American imagesin the media, ―From Imus to Industry: The Business of Stereotypes and Degrading Images.‖[119]
  24. 24. [edit]Segregation and integrationMain article: Racial segregation in the United States[edit]HistoryThe Jim Crow Laws were state and local laws enacted in the Southern and border states of the UnitedStates and enforced between 1876 and 1965. They mandated "separate but equal" status for black Americans.In reality, this led to treatment and accommodations that were almost always inferior to those provided to whiteAmericans. The most important laws required that public schools, public places and public transportation, liketrains and buses, have separate facilities for whites and blacks. (These Jim Crow Laws were separate from the1800-66 Black Codes, which had restricted the civil rights and civil liberties of African Americans.) State-sponsored school segregation was declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court of the United States in1954 in Brown v. Board of Education. Generally, the remaining Jim Crow laws were overruled by the CivilRights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act; none were in effect at the end of the 1960s.Segregation continued even after the demise of the Jim Crow laws. Data on house prices and attitudes towardintegration from suggest that in the mid-20th century, segregation was a product of collective actions taken bywhites to exclude blacks from their neighborhoods.[123]Segregation also took the form of redlining, the practiceof denying or increasing the cost of services, such as banking, insurance, access to jobs,[124]access to healthcare,[125]or even supermarkets[126]to residents in certain, often racially determined,[127]areas. Although inthe United States informal discrimination and segregation have always existed, the practice called "redlining"began with theNational Housing Act of 1934, which established the Federal Housing Administration (FHA). Thepractice was fought first through passage of the Fair Housing Act of 1968(which prevents redlining when thecriteria for redlining are based on race, religion, gender, familial status, disability, or ethnic origin), and laterthrough the Community Reinvestment Act of 1977, which requires banks to apply the same lending criteria inall communities.[128]Although redlining is illegal some argue that it continues to exist in other forms.[edit]Contemporary issuesBlack-White segregation is declining fairly consistently for most metropolitan areas and cities. Despite thesepervasive patterns, many changes for individual areas are small.[129]Thirty years after the civil rights era, theUnited States remains a residentially segregated society in which Blacks and Whites inhabit differentneighborhoods of vastly different quality.[130][131]Some researchers suggest that racial segregation may lead to disparities in health and mortality. ThomasLaVeist (1989; 1993) tested the hypothesis that segregation would aid in explaining race differences in infantmortality rates across cities. Analyzing 176 large and midsized cities, LaVeist found support for the hypothesis.Since LaVeists studies, segregation has received increased attention as a determinant of race disparities inmortality.[132]Studies have shown that mortality rates for male and female African Americans are lower in areas
  25. 25. with lower levels of residential segregation. Mortality for male and female Whites was not associated in eitherdirection with residential segregation.[133]Researchers Sharon A. Jackson, Roger T. Anderson, Norman J. Johnson and Paul D. Sorlie found that, afteradjustment for family income, mortality risk increased with increasing minority residential segregation amongBlacks aged 25 to 44 years and non-Blacks aged 45 to 64 years. In most age/race/gender groups, the highestand lowest mortality risks occurred in the highest and lowest categories of residential segregation, respectively.These results suggest that minority residential segregation may influence mortality risk and underscore thetraditional emphasis on the social underpinnings of disease and death.[134]Rates of heart disease amongAfrican Americans are associated with the segregation patterns in the neighborhoods where they live (Fang etal. 1998). Stephanie A. Bond Huie writes that neighborhoods affect health and mortality outcomes primarily inan indirect fashion through environmental factors such as smoking, diet, exercise, stress, and access to healthinsurance and medical providers.[135]Moreover, segregation strongly influences premature mortality in theUS.[136][edit]Laws regarding raceMain article: Race legislation in the United StatesThis section is empty. You can helpbyadding to it. (April 2012)[edit]Court cases regarding raceThis section is empty. You can helpbyadding to it. (April 2012)[edit]Institutional racismInstitutional racism is the theory that aspects of the structure, pervasive attitudes, and established institutions ofsociety disadvantage some racial groups, although not by an overtly discriminatory mechanism.[137]There areseveral factors that play into institutional racism, including but not limited to: accumulated wealth/benefits fromracial groups that have benefited from past discrimination, educational and occupational disadvantages facedby non-native English speakers in the United States, ingrained stereotypical images that still remain in thesociety (e.g. black men are likely to be criminals).[138][edit]ImmigrationAccess to United States citizenship was restricted by race, beginning with the Naturalization Act of 1790 whichrefused naturalization to "non-whites." Many in the modern United States forget the institutionalized prejudiceagainst white followers of Roman Catholicism who immigrated from countries suchas Ireland, Germany, Italy and France.[139]Other efforts include the 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act and the
  26. 26. 1924 National Origins Act.[140][141]The Immigration Act of 1924 was aimed at further restrictingthe Southern andEastern Europeans who had begun to enter the country in large numbers beginning in the1890s. While officially prohibited, U.S. officials continue to differentially apply laws on illegal immigrationdepending on national origin (essentially declining to enforce immigration laws against citizens of rich countrieswho overstay their visas) and personal economy (differentially awarding visas to foreign nationals based onbank accounts, properties and so on).[edit]Wealth creationMassive racial differentials in account of wealth remain in the United States: between whites and AfricanAmericans, the gap is a factor of twenty.[142]An analyst of the phenomenon, Thomas Shapiro, professor of lawand social policy at Brandeis University argues, ―The wealth gap is not just a story of merit and achievement,it‘s also a story of the historical legacy of race in the United States.‖[143]Differentials applied to the SocialSecurity Act (which excluded agricultural workers, a sector that then included most black workers), rewards tomilitary officers, and the educational benefits offered returning soldiers after World War II. Pre-existingdisparities in wealth are exacerbated by tax policies that reward investment over waged income, subsidizemortgages, and subsidize private sector developers.[144]However, according to the US Census, the highestpercentage of citizens in America living below the poverty line are white Americans, and not AfricanAmericans.[145][edit]Slavery by non-whitesSee also: Slavery in the United StatesBefore removal and "under white influence", some Southern Native American tribes owned African Americanslaves. The Cherokee, Choctaw, and Chickasaw were known to have had slaves. However, unlike whiteslaveholders, they encouraged the young black slaves to attend the schools opened for the Indian children.The children they had with black women and men were raised in practical equality with their full bloodedoffspring." [146]Unlike the United States before Emancipation, African Americans (and European Americans)were allowed to become citizens of their respective Native American nations; however, it was rare for AfricanAmericans to become citizens of Native American nations. For example, a small number of "Free People ofColor" lived in many Native American nations as Cherokee, Choctaw, or Creek citizens.[147]There were alsoAfrican-American slave owners.[edit]Impact on healthSee also: Race and healthIn the US racial differences in health and quality of life often persist even at equivalent socioeconomics levels.Individual and institutional discrimination, along with the stigma of inferiority, can adversely affect health.Residence in poor neighborhoods, racial bias in medical care, the stress of experiences of discrimination and
  27. 27. the acceptance of the societal stigma of inferiority can have deleterious consequences for health.[148]Using TheSchedule of Racist Events (SRE), an 18-item self-report inventory that assesses the frequency of racistdiscrimination. Hope Landrine and Elizabeth A. Klonoff found that racist discrimination is rampant in the lives ofAfrican Americans and is strongly related to psychiatric symptoms.[149]A study on racist events in the lives ofAfrican American women found that lifetime experiences of racism were positively related to lifetime history ofboth physical disease and frequency of recent common colds. These relationships were largely unaccountedfor by other variables. Demographic variables such as income and education were not related to experiences ofracism. The results suggest that racism can be detrimental to African Americans well being.[150]Thephysiological stress caused by racism has been documented in studies by Claude Steele, Joshua Aronson,and Steven Spencer on what they term "stereotype threat."[151]Kennedy et al. found that both measures ofcollective disrespect were strongly correlated with black mortality (r = 0.53 to 0.56), as well as with whitemortality (r = 0.48 to 0.54). These data suggest that racism, measured as an ecologic characteristic, isassociated with higher mortality in both blacks and whites.[152][edit]Health care inequalitySee also: Race and healthThey are major racial differences in access to health care and in the quality of health care provided. A studypublished in the American Journal of Public Health estimated that: "over 886,000 deaths could have beenprevented from 1991 to 2000 if African Americans had received the same care as whites." The key differencesthey cited were lack of insurance, inadequate insurance, poor service, and reluctance to seek care.[153]Ahistory of government-sponsored experimentation, such as the notorious Tuskegee Syphilis Study has left alegacy of African American distrust of the medical system.[154]Inequalities in health care may also reflect a systemic bias in the way medical procedures and treatments areprescribed for different ethnic groups. Raj Bhopal writes that the history of racism in science and medicineshows that people and institutions behave according to the ethos of their times and warns of dangers to avoidin the future.[155]Nancy Krieger contended that much modern research supported the assumptions needed tojustify racism. Racism she writes underlies unexplained inequities in health care, including treatment for heartdisease,[156]renal failure,[157]bladder cancer,[158]and pneumonia.[159]Raj Bhopal writes that these inequalitieshave been documented in numerous studies. The consistent and repeated findings that black Americansreceive less health care than white Americans—particularly where this involves expensive new technology.[160][edit]Political issues[edit]Affirmative actionMain article: Affirmative action in the United States
  28. 28. Affirmative action is a policy or program intended to promote access to education or employment for minoritygroups and women. Motivation for affirmative action policies is to redress the effects of past discrimination andto encourage public institutions such as universities, hospitals, and police forces to be more representative ofthe population.Affirmative action programs may include targeted recruitment efforts, preferential treatment given to applicantsfrom historically disadvantaged groups, and in some cases the use of quotas. Most American universities andsome employers practice affirmative action.[citation needed]Some opponents of affirmative action view the greater access by women and minority groups to be at theexpense of groups considered dominant (typically white men). This view is typically associated with symbolicracism, a modern, indirect form of racism that values equality of opportunity but sees these minority groups asreceiving more than they deserve and violating traditional White merit norms. [161]In their view, these policiesdemonstrate an overt preference for applicants from particular backgrounds over better-qualified (or equally-qualified) candidates from other backgrounds. Some opponents of affirmative action believe the onlyconsideration in choosing between applicants should be merit. Some also criticize affirmative action becausethey believe it perpetuates racial division instead of minimizing the importance of race in American society.[162]Supporters of affirmative action believe that the perceived injustice to the dominant group is not supported byfacts. They point to statistics that suggest that affirmative action has not resulted in fewer opportunities forwhite people. For example, white enrollment in universities has increased along with minority enrollment. In1973, 30% of white high school graduates attended universities; in 1993, after widespread implementation ofaffirmative action policies, that number had risen to 42%.[163]Some supporters of affirmative action point outthat, even in the absence of affirmative action, college admissions rarely are purely merit-based: athletes,musicians, and legacy students (children of alumni) have always been given preferential treatment. Forexample, Harvard University admits 35-40% of legacy applicants, and a rejected white applicant is more likelyto have been displaced by a legacy student than by one who benefited from affirmative action.[citation needed][edit]Hate crimesMain article: Hate crimeMost hate crimes in the United States target victims on the basis of race or ethnicity (for Federal purposes,crimes targeting Hispanics based on that identity are considered based on ethnicity). Leading forms of biascited in the FBIs Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program, based on law enforcement agency filings are: anti-black, anti-Jewish, anti-white, anti-homosexual, and anti-Hispanic bias in that order in both 2004 and2005.[164]There are more hate crimes against whites than against Hispanics, Asians, American Indians, andmultiracial groups - a statistically expected trend given that there far more whites than other ethnic groups puttogether. By contrast, the National Criminal Victimization Survey, finds that per capita rates of hate crimevictimization varied little by race or ethnicity, and the differences are not statistically significant.[165]
  29. 29. The New Century Foundation, a white nationalist organization founded by Jared Taylor, argues that blacks aremore likely than whites to commit hate crimes, and that FBI figures inflate the number of hate crimes committedby whites by counting Hispanics as "white".[166]Other analysts are sharply critical of the NCFs findings,referring to the criminological mainstream view that "Racial and ethnic data must be treated with caution.Existing research on crime has generally shown that racial or ethnic identity is not predictive of criminalbehavior with data which has been controlled for social and economic factors."[167]NCFs methodology andstatistics are further sharply criticized as flawed and deceptive by anti-racist activists Tim Wise and theSouthern Poverty Law Center.[168][169]The first post-Jim Crow era hate crime to make sensational media attention was the beating death of VincentChin, an Asian American of Chinese descent in 1982. He was attacked by a mob of white assailants who wererecently laid off from a Detroit area auto factory job and blamed the Japanese for their individualunemployment. Chin was not of Japanese descent, but the assailants testified at the criminal court case that he"looked like a Jap", an ethnic slur used to describe Japanese and other Asians, and that they were angryenough to beat him to death. They served no jail time and were acquitted of all charges.[citation needed][edit]Current hate groupsMain article: Hate groupsSupremacist, separatist, racist, and hate groups still operate in the United States. The Ku Klux Klan,the National Alliance, National Socialist Movement (United States), New Black Panther Party, Nation ofIslam, United Nuwaubian Nation of Moors, Aryan Nations, League of the South, Voz de Aztlán, Nation ofYahweh, the Jewish Defense League, and the White Order of Thule are among the institutions most commonlyidentified in this way.[edit]Anti-racismMain article: Anti-racismOrganizations known for anti-racist and civil rights activism are the NAACP (National Association of theAdvancement of Colored People), the SPLC (Southern Poverty Law Center), the ADL (Anti-DefamationLeague), the Mexican American Legal Defense and Education Fund, the National Council of LaRaza representing Latinos, the American-Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee, the National Italian AmericanFoundation, the Japan Society of America, and the National Congress of American Indians among others.[citationneeded]. There are also many individual and grassroots websites and movements that are against racism, suchas: Islamophobia-watch.com, AgainstRacism.Info and numerous others across the World Wide Web. They aimto expose the racism and discrimination in its many forms in order to combat them.