Spanish for Success

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  • Hi Nugalde,

    Could you please forward a copy to this mail (manjula.bhuma@gmail.com)
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Spanish for Success

  1. 1. Spanish for Success<br />
  2. 2. Hello <br />Bon Jour <br />Hola <br />Buon Giorno Guten Tag <br />Namaste <br />Shalom Konnichiwa<br />Salam <br />Alekum Aloha<br />Zdravstvuite<br />
  3. 3. Topics in Question<br />Why study Spanish?<br />Where is Spanish spoken?<br />What other languages/dialects are spoken in Spanish-speaking countries?<br />What politically correct terms are to be used for ethnicity and race in reference to Spanish-speaking cultures? <br />What are some successful memory techniques?<br />
  4. 4. Why study Spanish?<br />It’s official. Latinos have overtaken African Americans as the largest minority in the US (Nov. 2003). Numbering 38.8 million, Latinos now make up 13% of the nation’s demographic total. Latinos have more than doubled their presence in the US in the past 2 decades and added 3.5 million since the 2000 census. Over 350 million people speak Spanish worldwide, making it one of the largest markets for businesses and one of the most useful languages in the world for travel. In the past, learning Spanish used to be a way to open doors, but now it is a necessity.<br />
  5. 5. Why study Spanish<br />Employers are seeking applicants who can speak Spanish in nearly every profession (medical, government, legal, journalism, finance, education, sales, etc.).<br />A large body of literary work is written in Spanish and Spanish-language films continue to receive praise from the film industry and viewers. At last count, there were more than 16,000 Spanish publications, 250 Spanish TV stations and 5,100 Spanish radio stations.<br />
  6. 6. Why study Spanish<br />Learning Spanish can help you learn the other Latin-based languages such as French and Italian. These languages all have Indo-European roots and share some characteristics (such as gender and extensive conjugation) that are present in Spanish but not English.<br />Because of its Latin roots, nearly identical alphabet and pronunciation rules, Spanish is one of the easiest languages for an English speaker to learn.<br />
  7. 7. Why study Spanish<br />Knowing Spanish can make your travel experiences more enjoyable. It is estimated that U.S. citizens spend more travel time in Spanish-speaking countries than in any other foreign country (excluding English-speaking countries).<br />Spanish is the official language in 21 countries and an official language in the European Union, UNESCO, GATT and many other international organizations.<br />
  8. 8. Why study Spanish<br />A Spanish concentration gives you the opportunity to develop language proficiency while expanding your knowledge of Hispanic cultures and literature. Many Spanish concentrators combine their studies with fields such as political science (pre-law), pre-med, American culture, organizational studies, communications, psychology, and economics.<br />If you are majoring in another field, a Spanish minor gives you the opportunity to complement the knowledge gained in your principal field while focusing on linguistic competence and acquaintance with the culture and literature of the Hispanic world.<br />
  9. 9. Where is Spanish spoken?<br />Spanish is the most widely spoken of the Romance languages, both in terms of number of speakers and the number of countries in which it is the dominant language. Besides being spoken in Spain, it is the official language of all the South American republics except Brazil and Guyana, of the six republics of Central America, as well as Mexico, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, and Puerto Rico. Additionally it is spoken in the Balearic and Canary Islands, in parts of Morocco and the west coast of Africa, and also in Equatorial Guinea.<br />
  10. 10. Where is Spanish spoken?<br />In the United States it is spoken in Texas, New Mexico (co-official with English), Arizona, and California, in New York City due to large Puerto Rican population, and southern Florida due to Cuban population. A variety of Spanish known as Lad mo is spoken in Turkey and Israel by descendants of Jews who were expelled from Spain in 1492. <br />
  11. 11. Historical perspective<br />The purist form of Spanish is known as Castilian, originally one of the dialects that developed from the Latin of the common people (el latín vulgar) in contrast with the aristocratic Latin of the clergy. This Latin dialect developed after the Roman conquest of Hispania in the 3rd century A.D. After the disintegration of the Roman Empire, Spain was overrun by the Visigoths, and in the 8th century the Arabic-speaking Moors conquered all but the northernmost part of the peninsula. In the Christian reconquest, Castile, an independent kingdom, took the initiative (under the auspices of the king, Alfonso X) and by the time of the unification of Spain in the 15th century, Castilian had become the dominant dialect. <br />
  12. 12. Historical perspective<br />The various dialects of Spanish spoken in the Americas relate to the dialects in Spain for historical reasons. In the highland areas (Mexico City, Cuzco, Quito, Bogotá, La Paz) the dialects have elements evolved from the Spanish of the conquistadores, most representative of the Spanish spoken in Extremadura around 1520. The Spanish spoken in the coastal and Caribbean areas likewise have elements evolved from the Spanish spoken by the merchants from the Andalusian area, perhaps 50-75 years later.<br />
  13. 13. Variety of dialects of Spain<br />Current co-official languages of Spain:<br />Galicia – gallego y castellano<br />Cataluña – catalán y castellano<br />País Vasco (Basque Country) – euskera y castellano<br />
  14. 14. Variety of dialects of pre-conquest Americas<br />Inca – quechua<br />Maya:<br />words were in hieroglyphics, each picture with its own meaning<br />Only nobles % priests knew the whole language<br />Examples: Hi, How are you? = Bix (sh) a belex (sh).<br />I am ok. = Maloob. Thank you. = Yum botic.<br />Aztec – náhuatl <br />
  15. 15. Definition of terms<br />Orlando is from Buenos Aires and has white skin, blue eyes and blonde hair. Is he Hispanic, Latin or white?<br />Pls. copy the following list of terms and skip a line. With pencil, write a short definition of each term as you understand it. OK, so take a second to compare with your classmates!<br />
  16. 16. Terms<br />latin (latino/a)<br />America<br />American (americano/a)<br />North/Central/South America<br />Caribbean Islands<br />Latin America <br />Latin American (latinoamericano/a)<br />Spanish (Hispanic) America<br />hispanic (hispánico/a)<br />Spaniard (español/a)<br />lndigenous<br />Native American<br />Chicano<br />
  17. 17. Revise your definitions as necessary<br />The terms hispano and latino are confused with other racial terms such as indigenous/native, of color, white, Asian. The terms hispano and latino are not based on racial differences but rather on cultural differences. Latino describes those persons who speak any of the romance languages or those languages of Latin origin, such as Portuguese, French, Italian, Spanish. The term latino is as much cultural as linguistic in nature. The hispano is an inhabitant of the ancient Roman province of Hispania, today known as Spain.<br />
  18. 18. Coming to Terms<br />Latino and hispano carry no racial connotations since there are white, Asian and indigenous hispanos as well as hispanos of color. Latino is an abbreviation of latinoamericano, a term that includes the hispanos, the Brazilians and the Haitians. It excludes native inhabitants who do not speak Spanish or Portuguese and are not considered latinos. Neither hispanos nor mexicanos speak Mexican; both speak Spanish.<br />
  19. 19. Coming to Terms<br />Latinoamérica and Hispanoamérica are geographic-cultural terms. Latinoamérica includes all of the countries speaking Latin-based languages with their corresponding cultures while Hispanoamérica is composed of the 19 Spanish-speaking countries with Hispanic cultures. North, Central, South America and the Caribbean are strictly geographical. In Spanish, the term América refers to the continent that stretches from the Arctic to Tierra del Fuego. <br />
  20. 20. Coming to Terms<br />Because the word estadounidense is too formal and burocrático and because norteamericano includes Canada and Mexico, by default, the term americano has an implied reference to the people of the United States. Chicano refers to people of Mexican heritage.<br />
  21. 21. Coming to Terms<br />Geographically, Latinoamérica includes Canada, Mexico, Central and South America (including Brazil), and the Caribbean Islands. Hispanoamérica includes 19 Spanish-speaking countries but excludes Canada, Brazil, Haiti, British and French Guyana. Only the Spanish-speaking Spaniards are hispanos. The Spanish citizens of Spain are NOT latinoamericanos (latinos, for short) nor hispanoamericanos because they are European Spaniards, not americanos from the Américas.<br />
  22. 22. Un americano es . . .<br />norteamericano<br />centroameericano<br />caribeño<br />suramericano<br />estadounidense<br />canadiense<br />
  23. 23. How would you “label” the following people?<br />Some may have more than one category:<br />A. latinoamericano (latino)<br />B. hispano<br />C. hispanoamericano<br />D. americano<br />E. does not apply<br />
  24. 24. Exercise:<br />___1. Canadian who speaks native French.<br />___2. Mexican American who speaks native Spanish.<br />___3. Spaniard who speaks only native Galician.<br />___4. Brazilian who speaks native Portugues.<br />___5. Spaniard who speaks native Spanish.<br />___6. Chilean who speaks native Spanish.<br />___7. Spaniard who speaks only native Basque (not a Latin-based language)<br />___8. Mexican who speaks native náhuatl (Aztec language)<br />___9. Puerto Rican who speaks only native English<br />__10. English-speaking U.S. student learning Spanish as a second language<br />
  25. 25. Answers:<br />AD 1. Canadian who speaks native French.<br />BD 2. Mexican American who speaks native Spanish.<br />E 3. Spaniard who speaks only native Galician.<br />AD 4. Brazilian who speaks native Portugues.<br />B 5. Spaniard who speaks native Spanish.<br />ABCD 6. Chilean who speaks native Spanish.<br />E 7. Spaniard who speaks only native Basque (not a Latin-based language)<br />AD 8. Mexican who speaks native náhuatl (Aztec language)<br />AD 9. Puerto Rican who speaks only native English<br />D 10. English-speaking U.S. student learning Spanish as a second language<br />
  26. 26. Power of the human mind:<br />The paomnnehil pweor of the hmuan mnid. Aoccdrnig to a rscheearch at Cmabrigde Uinervtisy, it deosn't mttaer in waht oredr the ltteers in a wrod are, the olny iprmoetnt tihng is taht the frist and lsat ltteer be at the rghit pclae. The rset can be a total mses and you can sitll raed it wouthit porbelm. Tihs is bcuseae the huamn mnid deos not raed ervey lteter by istlef, but the wrod as a wlohe. Amzanig eh? <br />
  27. 27. Memory Flow Chart<br />The flowchart for the theory of memory indicates that all incoming information first passes through Sensory Memory (SM) before it enters Short­Term Memory (STM). There it can be maintained by rehearsal and either successfully encoded for storage in Long­Term Memory (LTM) or forgotten. In retrieval, the information passes from LTM back to STM, where it enters our consciousness. A summary of the characteristics of each stage of memory follows. <br />
  28. 28. Three Stages of Memory<br />
  29. 29. Mnemonic<br />'Mnemonic' is another word for memory tool. Mnemonics are methods for remembering information that is otherwise quite difficult to recall. The basic principle of mnemonics is to use as many of the best functions of your brain as possible to store information.<br />
  30. 30. Use Your Whole Mind To Remember<br />By coding language and numbers in striking images, you can reliably code both information and the structure of information. You can then easily recall these later. <br />
  31. 31. You can do the following things to make your mnemonics more memorable:<br />Use positive, pleasant images. The brain often blocks out unpleasant ones <br />Use vivid, colorful, sense-laden images - these are easier to remember than drab ones <br />Use all your senses to code information or dress up an image. Remember that your mnemonic can contain sounds, smells, tastes, touch, movements and feelings as well as pictures.<br />
  32. 32. Mnemonics continued . . . <br />Give your image three dimensions, movement and space to make it more vivid. You can use movement either to maintain the flow of association, or to help you to remember actions. <br />Exaggerate the size of important parts of the image <br />Use humor! Funny or peculiar things are easier to remember than normal ones. <br />Similarly rude rhymes are very difficult to forget!<br /> Symbols (red traffic lights, pointing fingers, road signs, etc.) can code quite complex messages quickly and effectively. <br />
  33. 33. Association<br />Because memory works by association, we actively work to create an association between two bits of information. For example, for the plane that we need to catch at 2 P.M., we can imagine the plane in our mind, and notice that it has 2 wings. Two wings, 2 P.M. There's an association by means of a visualization. We are now ten times more likely to remember the take-off time long after it has faded from our short-term memory. <br />
  34. 34. Association<br />When pieces of information are not obviously related in any way, however, we have to be a bit more creative in linking things together. But it isn't as hard as it seems. Most of us learned rhymes and acronyms in school that helped us remember things. Do any of the following look familiar to you? <br />i before e except after c, or when sounded like a as in neighbor and weigh (rule for remembering ei or ie) <br />ROY G. BIV (colors of the rainbow) <br />All Cows Eat Grass; Every Good Boy Does Fine (notes of musical scale) <br />
  35. 35. Association exercise<br />To demonstrate how effectively this works, look at the following list of words, and try to come up with an association between the left word and the right word of each row. Some will be easy; others may be harder. As an example, for the first pair, you might want to imagine a mouse that has a long, wavy tail that is in the shape of the letter S. <br />
  36. 36. Association exercise<br />mouse S <br />fur R <br />train bridge <br />moat boat <br />popcorn chair <br />elephant pancake <br />toothbrush canal <br />umbrella triangle <br />
  37. 37. Association exercise<br />After you have formed the associations, cover up the right side of the list and then try to name the word associated with each word on the left. If you formed vivid, clear associations, you may be surprised at how quickly and easily you were able to remember everything! <br />
  38. 38. Association exercise<br />mouse <br />fur <br />train <br />moat <br />popcorn <br />elephant <br />toothbrush <br />umbrella <br />
  39. 39. Law of Recency<br />A list of 20 words will be read. Your job is to remember as many of the words as possible. Write down the words that you can remember immediately after reading the list.<br />
  40. 40. List of words<br /> cat apple ball tree square head house door box car king hammer milk fish book tape arrow flower key shoe <br />
  41. 41. Concrete Words, Abstract Words and “Foreign” Words <br />The ability to recall a word depends on how meaningful the word is to a person. Along with the meaningfulness of a word, the "concreteness" of a word is important for memory. Concreteness refers the ability of a word to form a mental image. A word with high concreteness is easy to "see"; a word with low concreteness (an "abstract" word) is difficult to visualize.<br />
  42. 42. Concrete words<br />Here are three lists of words: concrete words, abstract words and nonsense words. See which list is easier to memorize. You could also read these lists to other people to see how many words from each list they remember.<br />
  43. 43. Concrete words<br /> alligatorapplearrowbabybirdbookbutterflycarcornflower<br /> hammerhouselemonmicroscopeoceanpencilrockshoestablewindow<br />
  44. 44. Abstract words<br />angerbeliefboredomchanceconcepteffortfatefreedomgloryhappiness<br />honorhopeideainterestknowledgemercymoodmoraltheorytruth<br />
  45. 45. “foreign” words<br />amorfondoluegococinahastacabezanaranjacenanartillomariposa<br /> sillarelojcohetecasaheladotijerasmanzanahermoso<br /> moreno<br />
  46. 46. Short Term Memory Test<br />Directions:<br /> You are about do a small short term memory test. A few letters will flash on your computer monitor for 3 seconds. Your job is to write down as many letters as you can remember after they disappear. <br />
  47. 47. U M<br />
  48. 48. T Z L D<br />
  49. 49. KXCEJO<br />
  50. 50. AVCYISEH<br />
  51. 51. LBFQRPMAUX<br />
  52. 52. ZQECTBUMONRV<br />
  53. 53. STM exercise<br />
  54. 54. STM exercise<br />How did you do? Compare your results with the table on this page. How many letters from each trial did you remember? Is there a "pattern" to the letters that you remembered? For example, did you remember the first few letters better than the middle letters? Did you remember the last letters? <br />
  55. 55. Law of Vividness<br />We are much better at remembering pictures than we are at remembering words and names. When subjects are asked to recognize a small set of photos that they saw the previous day from a larger set, they typically recognize around 97%.<br />
  56. 56. Short Term Memory Test - Pictures<br />Draw a 4x4 grid of boxes.<br />Look at the objects that you should remember. The objects will stay on your screen for 30 seconds. Then write down the names of all the items you remember inside the appropriate boxes.<br />
  57. 57. Here are the pictures . . .<br />
  58. 58. Picture test<br />How many objects did you remember?<br /> Were the objects that you remembered also placed correctly on the grid?<br />What categories of objects did you remember: animals, food, building, animated objects, piano<br />
  59. 59. Interference: The Stroop Effect<br />Don't read the words on the right--justsay the colorsthey're printed in, and do this aloud as fast as you can.<br />You're in for a surprise!<br />redyellowgreenblueredblueyellowgreenbluered<br />
  60. 60. The famous "Stroop Effect" is named after J. Ridley Stroop who discovered this phenomenon in the 1930’s.<br />If you're like most people, your first inclination was to read the words, 'red, yellow, green...,' rather than the colors they're printed in, 'blue, green, red...'<br />You've just experienced interference. <br />When you look at one of the words, you see both its color and its meaning. If those two pieces of evidence are in conflict, you have to make a choice. Because experience has taught you that word meaning is more important than ink color, interference occurs when you try to pay attention only to the ink color. <br />
  61. 61. How to Improve Your Memory<br />There are many things you can do to improve your memory, among them the use of certain mental techniques, as well as special care with nutrition and medicines.<br />
  62. 62. To stimulate memory<br />Use your memory to the utmost. Challenge a novelty. Learn new skills. If you work in an office, learn to dance. If you are a dancer, learn to deal with a computer; if you work with sales, learn to play chess; if you are a programmer, learn to paint. This could stimulate your brain's neural circuits to grow.<br />
  63. 63. Pay attention<br />Don't try to memorize all the facts that happen, but focus your attention and concentrate in what you consider more important, avoiding all other thoughts. Exercise: take any object, such as a pen, and concentrate on it. Think on its various characteristics: its material, its function, its color, its anatomy, etc. Don't allow any other thought to occupy your mind while you are concentrating on that pen.<br />
  64. 64. Relax<br />It is impossible to pay attention if you are tense or nervous. Exercise: hold your breath for ten seconds, then release it slowly.<br />
  65. 65. Associate facts to images<br />Learn mnemonic techniques. They are a very efficient way to memorize large quantities of information.<br />
  66. 66. Visualize images<br />See figures with the "eyes of your mind". Use a visualizing technique to learn the following translations for “S/he is cool!”<br />Chile: Es genial. <br />Venezuela: Es chévere.<br />Costa Rica: Es taunis.<br />Ecuador: Es bestial.<br />Perú: Es mostro.<br />España: Es chulo. Ella es maja. <br />Mexico: Es genial, padre, chido (not polite).<br />
  67. 67. Foods<br />Some vitamins are essential for the proper working of memory: thiamin, folic acid, and B12 vitamin. They are found in bread and cereal, vegetables and fruits. <br />
  68. 68. Water<br />Water helps maintain the memory systems working, specially in older persons. According to Dr. Turkington, lack of water in the body has an immediate and deep effect on memory; dehydration can generate confusion and other thought difficulties.<br />
  69. 69. Sleep<br />To be able to have a good memory, it is essential that we allow the brain to have enough sleep and rest. While sleeping, the brain disconnects from the senses, and proceeds to revising and storing memory. Insomnia would produce a chronic fatigue and would impair the ability of concentration and the storing of information.<br />
  70. 70. Medication<br />Some medicines can cause loss of memory: tranquilizers, muscular relaxants, sleeping pills, and anti-anxiety drugs, such as valium. Some medicine for the control of high blood pressure (hypertension) may cause memory problems and depression.<br />
  71. 71. Alcohol<br />Alcohol interferes specially with short-term memory, which impairs the ability of retaining new information. Studies have shown that even the ingestion of low quantities of alcoholic beverage during one whole week will interfere with the ability of remembering.<br />
  72. 72. Smoking<br />Studies have shown that, when compared with non-smokers, individual smokers of one or more packs of cigarettes a day had difficulties remembering people's faces and names in a test of visual and verbal memory (Turkinaton 1996)<br />
  73. 73. Caffeine<br />Coffee and tea have a very positive effect to maintain attention and to end sleepiness, but the excitation promoted by these drinks may interfere with the memory function.<br />
  74. 74. Practice<br />Practice improves memory, but how you practice also affects it. The same amounts of practice, but distributed in the one case and massed in the other, lead to different outcomes. <br />Distributed practice is when practice is spread out over time. For example, you may study a total of 12 hours for a test but you did so over 6 days. <br />Massed practice is when practice is done all at once. For example, you study 12 hours the night before the test. <br />Many studies have confirmed that the first strategy is the better one. Subjects remember more and for longer periods of time when they distribute their practice.<br />
  75. 75. Overlearning<br />Overlearning is when practice is continued beyond the criterion of one error-free trial. Actors overlearn their lines. They will rehearse far beyond the time necessary for the criterion above. In the military, drills constitute overlearning. In all of the cases above, overlearning helps to negate the negative effects of stress on memory. Overlearned items can be recalled under higher levels of stress than can items that were not overlearned. <br />
  76. 76. How many of these associations do you remember now?<br />mouse <br />fur <br />train <br />moat <br />popcorn <br />elephant <br />toothbrush <br />umbrella <br />
  77. 77. In conclusion . . .<br />For the most part, memory does a magnificent job for us. Every time you spell a word, drive a car or pick up a telephone and recognize your mother's voice, it's a wonder.<br />
  78. 78. Success is at hand . . .<br />

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