ÍNDICE NEW YORK, NEW YORK Geography History Cityscape What to SeeCulture and Contemporary Life
GEOGRAPHY ● New York City is located on the coast of the Northeastern United States at the mouth of the Hudson River in southeastern New York state. The New York Harbor, with its deep waters and sheltered bays, helped the city grow in significance as a trading city. Much of New York is built on the three islands of Manhattan, Staten Island, and western Long Island, making land scarce and encouraging a high population density. ● The Hudson River flows from the Hudson Valley into New York Bay, becoming a tidal estuary that separates the Bronx and Manhattan from Northern New Jersey. The Harlem River, another tidal strait between the East and Hudson Rivers, separates Manhattan from the Bronx. ● The boroughs of New York City straddle the border between two geologic provinces of eastern North America. Brooklyn and Queens, located on Long Island, are part of the eastern coastal plain. Long Island is a massive moraine which formed at the southern fringe of the Laurentide Ice Sheet during the last Ice Age. The Bronx and Manhattan lie on the eastern edge of the Newark Basin, a block of the Earths crust which sank downward during the disintegration of the supercontinent Pangaea during the Triassic period. The Palisades Sill on the New Jersey shore of the Hudson River exposes ancient, once-molten rock that filled the basin. Tough metamorphic rocks underlie much of Manhattan, providing solid support for its many skyscrapers. ● The citys land area is estimated to be 321 mi² (831.4 km²). However, a more recent estimate calculates a total land area of 304.8 sq mi (789.4 km²). The highest natural point in the city is Todt Hill on Staten Island, which at 409.8 ft (124.9 m) above sea level is the highest hill on the Eastern Seaboard south of Maine. The summit of the ridge is largely covered in woodlands as part of the Staten Island Greenbelt.
HISTORY The history of New York begins around 10,000 BCE, when the first Native Americans arrived. By 1100 CE, New Yorks main tribes, the Iroquoianand Algonquian cultures, had developed. New York was discovered by the French in 1524 and first claimed in 1609 by the Dutch. As part of NewNetherland, the colony was important in the fur trade and eventually became an agricultural resource thanks to the patroon system. In 1664, Englandrenamed the colony New York. New York City gained prominence in the 18th century as a major trading port in the Thirteen Colonies. New York played a pivotal role during the Revolutionary War. The Battle of Saratoga was the turning point of the war. New Yorks constitution wasadopted in 1777, and strongly influenced the United States Constitution. New York City was the national capital at various times between 1785 and 1790,and Albany became the permanent state capital in 1797. New York was the eleventh state admitted to the Union, in 1787. New York hosted significant transportation advancements in the 19th century, including the first steamboat line in 1807, the Erie Canal in 1825,and Americas first regularly scheduled rail service in 1831. These advancements led to the expanded settlement of western New York. Far from any of its battles, New York sent the most men and money to support the Civil War. Thereafter, the state helped create the industrial ageand consequently was home to some of the first labor unions. During the 19th century, New York City became the main entry point for European immigrants to the United States. Millions came through CastleClinton in Battery Park before Ellis Island opened in 1892 to welcome millions more. The Statue of Liberty opened in 1886 and became a symbol of hope.New York boomed during the Roaring Twenties, before the Wall Street Crash of 1929. New York City hosted the tallest building in the world from 1913–74. World War II turned around the states economy, as hundreds of thousands worked to defeat the Axis powers. Following the war, the stateexperienced significant suburbanization, and most cities shrank. The Thruway system opened in 1956, signalling another era of transportation advances. Following a period of near–bankruptcy, New York City renewed its stature as a cultural center, attracted more immigration, and hosted thedevelopment of new music styles. The City became a media capital over the second half of the 20th century, hosting most national news channels andbroadcasts, as well as globally–renowned national newspapers. The states manufacturing base eroded over the period, as the state transitioned intoservice industries. The September 11 attacks destroyed the World Trade Center, killing almost 3,000 people; they were the largest terrorist attacks on United Statessoil.
CITYSCAPE MIDTOWN MANHATTAN DURING THE DAY
CITYSCAPEMIDTOWN MANHATTAN AT NIGHT
WHAT TO SEE New York has architecturally noteworthy buildings in a wide range of styles and from distinct time periods from the saltbox style Pieter ClaesenWyckoff House in Brooklyn, the oldest section of which dates to 1656, to the modern One World Trade Center, the skyscraper currently underconstruction at Ground Zero in Lower Manhattan and currently the most expensive new office tower in the world. Manhattans skyline with its manyskyscrapers is universally recognized, and the city has been home to several of the tallest buildings in the world. As of 2011, New York City had 5,937high-rise buildings, of which 550 completed structures were at least 100 meters high, both second in the world after Hong Kong, with over 50 completedskyscrapers taller than 656 feet (200 m). These include the Woolworth Building (1913), an early gothic revival skyscraper built with massively scaledgothic detailing. The 1916 Zoning Resolution required setback in new buildings, and restricted towers to a percentage of the lot size, to allow sunlight to reach thestreets below. The Art Deco style of the Chrysler Building (1930) and Empire State Building (1931), with their tapered tops and steel spires, reflected thezoning requirements. The buildings have distinctive ornamentation, such as the eagles at the corners of the 61st floor on the Chrysler Building, and areconsidered some of the finest examples of the Art Deco style. A highly influential example of the international style in the United States is the SeagramBuilding (1957), distinctive for its façade using visible bronze-toned I-beams to evoke the buildings structure. The Condé Nast Building (2000) is aprominent example of green design in American skyscrapers. The character of New Yorks large residential districts is often defined by the elegant brownstone rowhouses, townhouses, and shabby tenementsthat were built during a period of rapid expansion from 1870 to 1930. In contrast, New York City also has neighborhoods that are less densely populatedand feature free-standing dwellings. In neighborhoods such as Riverdale, Bronx, Ditmas Park, Brooklyn, and Douglaston, Queens large single-familyhomes are common in various architectural styles such as Tudor Revival and Victorian. Split two-family homes are also widely available across the outer-boroughs. Stone and brick became the citys building materials of choice after the construction of wood-frame houses was limited in the aftermath of theGreat Fire of 1835. A distinctive feature of many of the citys buildings is the wooden roof-mounted water towers. In the 1800s, the city required theirinstallation on buildings higher than six stories to prevent the need for excessively high water pressures at lower elevations, which could break municipalwater pipes. Garden apartments became popular during the 1920s in outlying areas, such as Jackson Heights.
CULTURE AND CONTEMPORARY LIFE New York City has been described as the cultural capital of the world by the diplomatic consulates of Iceland and Latvia and by New Yorks own Baruch College. A book containing a series of essays titled New York, culture capital of the world, 1940–1965 has also been published as showcased by the National Library of Australia. Numerous major American cultural movements began in the city, such as the Harlem Renaissance, which established the African- American literary canon in the United States. The city was a center of jazz in the 1940s, abstract expressionism in the 1950s and the birthplace of hip hop in the 1970s. The citys punk and hardcore scenes were influential in the 1970s and 1980s, and the city has long had a flourishing scene for Jewish American literature. The city prominently excels in its spheres of art, cuisine, dance, music, opera, theater, independent film, fashion, museums, and literature. The city is the birthplace of many cultural movements, including the Harlem Renaissance in literature and visual art; abstract expressionism (also known as the New York School) in painting; and hip hop, punk, salsa, disco, freestyle, and Tin Pan Alley in music. New York City has been considered the dance capital of the world. The city is also widely celebrated in popular lore, featured frequently as the setting for books, movies (see New York in film), and television programs.