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Competition, Complementarity or Integration? The relationship between professional and participatory media
Competition, Complementarity or Integration? The relationship between professional and participatory media
Competition, Complementarity or Integration? The relationship between professional and participatory media
Competition, Complementarity or Integration? The relationship between professional and participatory media
Competition, Complementarity or Integration? The relationship between professional and participatory media
Competition, Complementarity or Integration? The relationship between professional and participatory media
Competition, Complementarity or Integration? The relationship between professional and participatory media
Competition, Complementarity or Integration? The relationship between professional and participatory media
Competition, Complementarity or Integration? The relationship between professional and participatory media
Competition, Complementarity or Integration? The relationship between professional and participatory media
Competition, Complementarity or Integration? The relationship between professional and participatory media
Competition, Complementarity or Integration? The relationship between professional and participatory media
Competition, Complementarity or Integration? The relationship between professional and participatory media
Competition, Complementarity or Integration? The relationship between professional and participatory media
Competition, Complementarity or Integration? The relationship between professional and participatory media
Competition, Complementarity or Integration? The relationship between professional and participatory media
Competition, Complementarity or Integration? The relationship between professional and participatory media
Competition, Complementarity or Integration? The relationship between professional and participatory media
Competition, Complementarity or Integration? The relationship between professional and participatory media
Competition, Complementarity or Integration? The relationship between professional and participatory media
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Competition, Complementarity or Integration? The relationship between professional and participatory media

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Presentation held at the Future of Journalism Conference 2009, Cardiff/Wales …

Presentation held at the Future of Journalism Conference 2009, Cardiff/Wales

(c) Christoph Neuberger/Christian Nuernbergk

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  • 1. Competition, C ii Complementarity or Integration? The relationship between professional and participatory media The Future of Journalism Conference 2009 Cardiff, 10 September 2009 Prof. Dr. Christoph Neuberger / Christian Nuernbergk M. A.
  • 2. Agenda A d New forms of news production Methodology and Research Dimensions Findings Fi di Competition Complementarity Integration Conclusion Christoph Neuberger & Christian Nuernbergk, University of Münster
  • 3. Intro What kind of change brought about by the network information environment is subject to journalism and current public spheres? Emergence of new decentralized approaches: participatory and technical media But will common social web applications like weblogs and collaborative edited platforms lead into a transformation of news journalism? Christoph Neuberger & Christian Nuernbergk, University of Münster
  • 4. Professional Participatory communication communication ( Competition) Identity (=Competition) Complementarity Integration News related types of communication Technical and their potential communication relations Christoph Neuberger & Christian Nuernbergk, University of Münster
  • 5. Theoretical and Empirical F Th i l d E i i l Foundations d i Grounding theoretical work and typologies g yp g Bowman/Willis (2003): “We the media” Bruns (2005) „Gatewatching“ ( 5) „ g Empirical research mostly focuses on single questions: Blogs rely to professional news sites: Reese et al (2007) al. Blogs as sources of traditional media: Messner/Watson DiStaso (2008) Audience participation within journalistic framework: Hermida/Thurman (2008) Christoph Neuberger & Christian Nuernbergk, University of Münster
  • 6. Research D i and M h d l R h Design d Methodology (1/4) ( / ) Are organisational forms like an editorial staff still needed in order to gather information and select and disseminate news? Or are alternative forms emerging? First part: content analysis of websites (2006) was conducted to identify websites which regularly offer „journalistic“ content journalistic units are specified by their identity and their qualities – not by structural parameters Second part: online newsroom survey ( S d t li (2007) ) Christoph Neuberger & Christian Nuernbergk, University of Münster
  • 7. Identifying J Id if i „Journalistic“ Websites on the Web (2/4) li i “ W b i h W b( / ) Step 1: Selection of media types Selection of media types which are relevant to news production also on the internet Step 2: Collecting a list of potential websites Scan of national media listings and implementation of special sample selection strategies (blogs) Step 3: Content analysis of all websites Criteria which were systematically checked: accessibility, autonomy, periodicity, actuality, universality Christoph Neuberger & Christian Nuernbergk, University of Münster
  • 8. „ „P2P-Journalism“ J „Search engine Journalism“ Christoph Neuberger & Christian Nuernbergk, University of Münster
  • 9. Tab. Population of J T b 1: P l i f Journalistic W b i li i Websites ( / ) (3/4) Located and Therefrom as analysed “journalistic“ websites ebs tes identified websites de t ed ebs tes Weekly newspapers 10 2 TV/radio 408 89 Daily newspapers 300 265 388 = 77% Magazines 241 30 (In affiliation News agencies 13 2 with traditional media) Community-edited news sites 5 5 Weblogs 97 18 Professional-edited news sites 59 40 115 = 23% News search engines 16 13 (Internet-only) Portals 53 39 Others 40 0 Total (as of May 2007) 1.242 503 Christoph Neuberger & Christian Nuernbergk, University of Münster
  • 10. Research D i and M h d l R h Design d Methodology (4/4) ( / ) Online newsroom survey (part 2) (subsequent to the content analysis) Selected respondents were either editors-in-chief of editors in chief traditional news branches on the internet, or responsible for the sampled web-only media Mail questionnaire; field time: June to October 2007 12 In-depth interviews helped to design the questionaire In depth (e. g. Spiegel Online, Focus, Bildblog, Wikinews, Google) Survey response rate: 44% (= 183) Christoph Neuberger & Christian Nuernbergk, University of Münster
  • 11. Research Dimensions (Survey) R h Di i (S ) Competition (RD 1) Do professional and participatory news 1): formats compete with each other? How does this possible competition affect professional journalism? Complementarity (RD 2): What kind of complementary relations do e ist between professional and participatory exist web news? Integration (RD 3): In which way do professional news organisations adopt participatory elements? What impact does i d increasing reader participation h ? i d ti i ti have? Christoph Neuberger & Christian Nuernbergk, University of Münster
  • 12. RD 1: Competition (1/2) - Fi di C i i ( / ) Findings In general: Respondents doubt the existence of a major threat to traditional journalism “Journalistic intermediation is less important on the internet because anyone can publish without much effort” (62%, b bli h ith t h ff t” (6 % “not appropriate”, n=172) Editors have different perceptions of the characteristics applying to blogs and journalism Journalism: neutrality, accuracy, credibility, continuity, relevancy, in-depth reporting Blogs: personal perspective, direct contact to authors, diversity of opinions, intensive discussions, and hyperlinks Christoph Neuberger & Christian Nuernbergk, University of Münster
  • 13. RD 1: Competition (2/2) Tab. 2: Statements about Competition among Journalism, Blogs, and Community-edited Sites appropriate somewhat Statements rated as… (in %) to a high appropriate degree Competitive relations between journalism and blogs Weblogs have nothing to do with journalism (n=163) 44,2 25,2 Weblogs are a new type of journalism (n=163) 59,5 12,3 Bloggers perceive themselves as j gg p journalists ( (n=135) ) 61,5 19,3 Bloggers believe that journalists are reporting negatively about bloggers because they 57,0 20,3 perceive them as competitors (n=128) Information in the blogosphere is regularly accurate because of mutual control among g p g y g 52,2 52 2 17,4 17 4 bloggers (n=138) Competitive relations between journalism and community-edited sites Community-edited sites are a new type of j y yp journalism ( (n=162) ) 35,8 , , 18,5 Information is regularly accurate [in community-edited sites] 59,5 29,4 because of mutual control among users (n=163) In I community-edited sites b is avoided d to mutual control among users (n=159) d d bias d d due l l ( 159) 56,0 56 0 28,3 28 3 Community-edited sites need to be professionally moderated (n=162) 27,8 64,2 3-point-scale. Expression “not appropriate” is not shown. The expression "I cannot say" was not considered in the analysis. Christoph Neuberger & Christian Nuernbergk, University of Münster
  • 14. RD 2: Complementarity (1/4) Meta-Level: orientational reporting, reciprocal critics, i l iti quality assurance/control Follow-up Follow up conversation of the people – (formerly known as the audience) Blogs and MM can use each other as sources (story ideas etc.) Source: B /Willi ( ) Bowman/Willis (2003: 9) Christoph Neuberger & Christian Nuernbergk, University of Münster
  • 15. RD 2: Complementarity (2/4) p y ( /4) Tab. 3: Statements about Complementarity among Journalism, Blogs, and Community-edited Sites somewhat h t appropriate t pp p i t to Statements rated as… (in %) appropriate a high degree Complementary relations between journalism and blogs Weblogs and journalism complement each other and do not compete (n=161) 49,7 44,7 Within weblogs the audience communicates about mass media coverage (n=155) 63,9 29,7 The balance of power between journalism and the audience is changing towards the 51,7 14,5 audience because of the advent of weblogs (n=145) Weblogs foster the quality of journalism through their media criticism (n=148) 55,4 55 4 12,2 12 2 Blogging is spreading fast because of the press and broadcasting coverage (n=147) 41,5 16,3 Journalism is orientating about the blogosphere and criticizes it (n=136) (n 136) 62,5 8,1 Complementary relations between journalism and community-edited sites Community-edited sites and journalism complement each other and do not compete y j p p 39,4 39 4 55,2 55 2 (n=165) 3-point-scale. Expressions “not appropriate” is not shown. The expression "I cannot say" was not considered in the analysis. Christoph Neuberger & Christian Nuernbergk, University of Münster
  • 16. RD 2: Complementarity (3/4) C l i ( / ) Impact of blogs in terms of journalistic investigation p g j g 2007 survey: 76 % (n=131) of the online editors-in-chief stated that their staff members are using blogs 2006 survey: 41 % (n=90) of the interviewed non-internet newsrooms use blogs Impact of Wikipedia Almost all of the newsrooms claim to use Wikipedia: “not not used”2007: 1 % (n=145); 2006: 4 % (n=90) Source of topical background information Wikipedia is considered to be a reliable source: 83% (n=148) Christoph Neuberger & Christian Nuernbergk, University of Münster
  • 17. RD 2: Complementarity (4/4) Motifs for Using of Weblogs (in Terms of Work) (non-internet divisions) newsrooms 2006 survey (n=29-35) online newsrooms 2007 survey (n=81-87) 50 46 45 42 40 38 35 35 32 30 28 25 20 20 16 13 14 15 10 5 0 Watching weblogs as Range of opinion with Topic ideas Response to own Criticism on a phenomenon regard to a reporting companies, political controversial issue parties etc., which (**) may be taken up in %; only expression„often“ Christoph Neuberger & Christian Nuernbergk, University of Münster
  • 18. RD 3: Integration (1/1) I i ( / ) Integration of participatory formats within professional journalistic frameworks Spreading in 2007: 55 % (n=145) have implemented blogs, video blogs or podcasts Extensive citizen contributions within the news process are less common (“pro-am journalism”) ( p j ) Users are often encouraged to comment on stories written by editors (40%, n=161), and to send in photos (50%, n=163) Only few editorial offices allow their readers to support editors in writing/investigation (12%, n=161) Editors stated that more personal effort is needed if UGC opportunities are provided (56%, n=108) Christoph Neuberger & Christian Nuernbergk, University of Münster
  • 19. Conclusion – Th Future? C l i The F ? Only few German blogs and other social media perform in a traditional journalistic manner – competition is less likely Social web applications have become important sources in terms of journalistic investigation The integration of UGC within professional journalistic frameworks still lacks innovative and comprehensive approaches h Christoph Neuberger & Christian Nuernbergk, University of Münster
  • 20. Contact Christoph Neuberger neuberger@uni-muenster.de Christian Nuernbergk nuernbergk@uni-muenster.de nuernbergk@uni muenster de http://internetjournalismus.uni-muenster.de Christoph Neuberger & Christian Nuernbergk, University of Münster

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