Baseline Medication use in ADNI
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Pharmacoepidemiology of the Alzheimer\'s Neuroimaging Initiative.

Pharmacoepidemiology of the Alzheimer\'s Neuroimaging Initiative.

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Baseline Medication use in ADNI Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Baseline Medication Use in the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). Dr. Noam Epstein, MD, MS Board Certified Neurologist Board Eligible Clinical Pharmacologist
  • 2. Outline
    • Introduction
      • Current symptomatic Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) treatments
      • Polypharmacy and Beer’s list
      • ADNI
    • Objectives are to describe:
      • Polypharmacy
      • MCI and AD treatment in the ADNI cohort
    • Results and Conclusions
  • 3. Current AD Treatments
    • Cholinesterase inhibitors
      • Donepezil (mild to severe) [11][16][17]
      • Galantamine (mild to moderate) [12]
      • Rivastigmine (mild to moderate) [13]
    • NMDA partial antagonist
      • Memantine (moderate to severe) [16]
    • The combination of donepezil and memantine in moderate to severe stage AD is more effective and has a lower rate of discontinuation than donepezil monotherapy [17].
  • 4. Current MCI Treatments
    • Many physicians recommend using cholinesterase inhibitors for symptomatic treatment of cognitive dysfunction in MCI, considering this entity the earliest stage of AD.
  • 5. Current MCI Treatments
    • A recent meta-analysis of placebo-controlled trials of the cholinesterase inhibitors in MCI showed that none of these medications delayed the onset of AD and that their adverse effects were frequent [18].
    • The FDA has issued a health care provider alert for use of galatamine as a symptomatic therapy for MCI due to the greater number of deaths with galantamine treatment as compared with placebo in MCI in two recent double-blind placebo-controlled trials [19].
  • 6. Polypharmacy in the Elderly
    • Some have defined polypharmacy as subjects taking >5 daily medications [1-4]. Others have defined polypharmacy as >3 daily medications [5]. One study stratified polypharmacy categories by number; 2-3 medications (minor), 4-5 medications (moderate), and >5 medications (major) [6].
    • Variously 36% to 61% of elderly individuals have been reported to take ≥4 medications daily [5, 7].
  • 7. Polypharmacy and Adverse Effects
    • The probability of an adverse drug effect or interaction increases from 13% for two medications to 82% for more than seven medications[8] and nears 100% when ten or more medications are taken [9].
    • A previous study has suggested that while polypharmacy is a predictor of health outcomes, neither main diagnosis nor number of diagnoses on hospital admission are similarly good predictors of health outcomes [1].
  • 8. Beer’s List
    • The Beer’s list, generated by a US consensus panel of experts in pharmacology, represents a subset of medications which for various reasons such as; sedation, cardiovascular risk and mechanism of elimination, are potentially more dangerous in the elderly [10].
    • All subjects in ADNI are elderly and the medications detailed on the Beer’s list may be inappropriate or dangerous for them.
  • 9.  
  • 10. ADNI Study Design (n=800)
    • ADNI is the largest MCI longitudinal cohort study using frequent multimodal imaging over three years.
      • 200 AD subjects
      • 400 MCI subjects
      • 200 age matched controls
    • Outcomes
      • Rate of volume change of whole brain and other regions of interest
      • Neuropsychiatric testing
      • Plasma and CSF biomarkers
      • Rate of conversion from MCI to AD
      • Adverse events
  • 11. Medication Use in ADNI
    • A description of medication use at baseline in ADNI has not been reported in the literature.
    • ANDI subjects were taking many medications, some of which may have had beneficial effects on cognition and others of which may have been deleterious.
    • Therefore, the objectives of this study were to describe polypharmacy, and MCI and AD treatment patterns in the ADNI cohort.
  • 12. Results
  • 13. Polypharmacy Histogram in ADNI
  • 14. Top 10 Beer’s Medications in ADNI
    • Estrogen (29)
    • Celecoxib (22)
    • Doxazosin (21)
    • Naproxen (21)
    • Digitoxin (21)
    • Fluoxetine (15)
    • Nifedipine (8)
    • Oxybutynin (7)
    • Amiodarone (6)
    • Benzodiazepines (18)
      • Alprazolam (7)
      • Temazepam (3)
      • Lorazepam (3)
      • Diazepam (2)
      • Chlordiazepoxide
      • Clorazepate
      • Oxazepam
  • 15. Polypharmacy in ADNI
    • 85% of ADNI patients were taking 4 or more medications daily.
    • Mean number of medications per subject in ADNI is higher than previous reports [2, 5, 7] in the elderly.
    • The number of subjects taking one or more medications from Beer’s list was also high 22%.
    • Polypharmacy and number of Beer’s medications were not significantly different between the three diagnostic groups.
  • 16. MCI and AD Treatment in ADNI Treatment Number of Subjects MCI (n=400) AD (n=184) Donepezil 189 120(30%) 69(37%) Galantamine 30 16(4.0%) 14(7.6%) Rivastigmine 11 7 (1.7%) 4(2.2%) Memantine 21 8(0.1%) 13(7.1%) Donepezil and Memantine 88 33(8.3%) 55(30%) Galantamine and Memantine 13 2(0.5%) 11(6.0%) Rivastigmine and Memantine 7 1(0.3%) 6(3.2%)
  • 17. Cholinesterase Treatment by Diagnosis
    • A) MCI cohort
    • B) AD cohort
  • 18. Off Label MCI Treatment in ADNI
    • Combination therapy is common in both AD and MCI subjects.
    • Memantine therapy in MCI is not supported by professional society recommendations or evidence based clinical resources.
    • The use of cholinesterase inhibitors in MCI is supported by profession society recommendations with equivocal data from clinical prospective trials. In the case of galantamine, the FDA has specifically recommended against its use in MCI.
    • Despite the limited clinical evidence, there is biological plausibility for the idea that MCI precedes AD and AD therapies might be expected to have beneficial effect in MCI.
  • 19. Gender and Education are Associated with Cholinesterase Inhibitor Treatment of AD
    • There was a significant difference in cholinesterase inhibitor treatment by gender (p = 0.011).
      • Men 93.8%
      • Women 78.4%
    • The OR for cholinesterase inhibitor treatment for male gender was 3.6 with 95% CI of 1.4 to 9.7.
    • There was a significant positive association of cholinesterase inhibitor treatment with years of education (p = 0.036).
    • The OR for cholinesterase inhibitor treatment for each additional year of education was 1.17 with 95% CI of 1.01 to 1.35.
  • 20. Disease Severity is Associated with Memantine Treatment of AD
    • There was no significant association of cholinesterase treatment with disease severity defined by
      • Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT)
      • Clinical Dementia Rating Sum of Boxes (CDR-SB)
      • Left entorhinal cortex thickness
      • Left hippocampal volume (LHV)
    • There was a significant positive association of memantine treatment with disease severity defined by CDR-SB (p = 0.016).
    • The OR for memantine treatment for disease severity defined by each additional point of CDR-SB was 1.27 with a 95% CI of 1.05 to 1.53.
  • 21. Recruitment in the MCI Group
    • In the MCI group there was a difference in recruitment by gender.
    • In the normal elderly and AD groups 47.8% of subjects were female while in the MCI group 35.8% of subjects were female (corrected p <0.02).
    • In the MCI group 257 men were recruited as compared to only 143 women.
  • 22. Age and Disease Severity are Associated with Cholinesterase Inhibitor Treatment of MCI
    • Significant independent variables negatively associated with cholinesterase treatment in MCI included age (p = 0.009) and disease severity define by AVLT (p = 0.014) and LHV (p = 0.023).
    • Disease severity defined by CDR-SB (p = 0.003) was positively associated with cholinesterase treatment in MCI.
  • 23. Gender, Education, Age and Disease Severity are Associated with Memantine Treatment of MCI
    • There was a significant difference in treatment with memantine by gender (p = 0.025).
      • Men 13.6%
      • Women 6.3%
    • There was a significant positive association of memantine therapy with years of education (p = 0.023).
    • Significant independent variables negatively associated with memantine treatment in MCI included age (p = 0.008) and disease severity defined by AVLT (p < 0.001) and LHV (0.024).
  • 24. Logistic Regression Models
    • MCI Cholinesterase Treatment
    • MCI Memantine Treatment
    Previous analysis of the ADNI data [20] has shown that loss of hippocampal volume is the most sensitive MRI measure of disease progression from MCI to AD over one year. This data shows hippocampal volume is also negatively associated with baseline treatment in MCI. OR 95% CI P-value Age 0.959 0.930 0.989 0.0085 AVLT 0.969 0.945 0.994 0.0141 CDR-SB 1.453 1.137 1.856 0.0028 LHV 0.604 0.391 0.933 0.0231 OR 95% CI P-value Age 0.934 0.888 0.982 0.0079 Gender 2.577 1.106 6.001 0.0282 Education 1.157 1.020 1.312 0.0229 AVLT 0.913 0.868 0.960 0.0004 LHV 0.419 0.197 0.891 0.0239
  • 25. AD Treatment Summary
    • Men were nearly four times more likely to be treated with a cholinesterase inhibitor than women.
    • Subjects with more education were treated with a cholinesterase inhibitor more frequently than subjects with less education.
    • Cholinesterase inhibitors were given with no difference in treatment frequency by disease severity while memantine was preferentially given to subjects with more severe disease defined by CDR-SB.
    • These findings were expected because the most commonly prescribed cholinesterase inhibitor donepezil is FDA approved for all stages of AD while memantine is FDA approved only for the moderate and severe stages of AD.
  • 26. MCI Treatment Summary
    • All treatment was less frequent among older subjects.
    • Men were nearly three times more likely to be treated with memantine than women.
    • Subjects with more education were more likely to be treated with memantine than subjects with less education.
    • All treatment was prescribed more frequently to patients with more severe disease as expected.
    • This was reflected by the increase in treatment frequency with higher CDR-SB or lower AVLT score and left hippocampal volume.
  • 27. Possible Explanations for the Treatment Differences by Gender
    • 1) Proxy treatment decisions [30, 31]
      • Male caretakers are less likely to select treatment
      • Spousal caregivers and women adult children or other caregivers are more likely to select treatment
    • 2) Male physicians
    • 3) Biological rational
      • Lower weight
      • Other physiological factors?
  • 28. Conclusions
    • In the MCI group there was a significant recruitment difference by gender. This difference may be difficult to adjust for when analyzing the results of ADNI.
    • In the MCI group, treatment was negatively associated with age.
    • All treatment was positively associated with years of education.
    • Finally, gender may play a role in the diagnosis of MCI and treatment of MCI and AD, both of which warrant further investigation.
  • 29. References
    • 1. Alarcon, T., et al., Factors predictive of outcome on admission to an acute geriatric ward. Age & Ageing, 1999. 28 (5): p. 429-32.
    • 2. Flaherty, J.H., et al., Polypharmacy and hospitalization among older home care patients.[see comment]. Journals of Gerontology Series A-Biological Sciences & Medical Sciences, 2000. 55 (10): p. M554-9.
    • 3. Satish, S., et al., Geriatric targeting criteria as predictors of survival and health care utilization. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 1996. 44 (8): p. 914-21.
    • 4. Shorr, R.I., et al., Incidence and risk factors for serious hypoglycemia in older persons using insulin or sulfonylureas. Archives of Internal Medicine, 1997. 157 (15): p. 1681-6.
    • 5. Jensen, G.L., et al., Screening for hospitalization and nutritional risks among community-dwelling older persons.[see comment]. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2001. 74 (2): p. 201-5.
    • 6. Veehof, L.J., et al., Adverse drug reactions and polypharmacy in the elderly in general practice. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 1999. 55 (7): p. 533-6.
    • 7. Cohen, I., et al., Predictors of medication use, compliance and symptoms of hypotension in a community-based sample of elderly men and women. Journal of Clinical Pharmacy & Therapeutics, 1998. 23 (6): p. 423-32.
    • 8. Goldberg, R.M., et al., Drug-drug and drug-disease interactions in the ED: analysis of a high-risk population. American Journal of Emergency Medicine, 1996. 14 (5): p. 447-50.
    • 9. Nolan, L. and K. O'Malley, Prescribing for the elderly. Part I: Sensitivity of the elderly to adverse drug reactions. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 1988. 36 (2): p. 142-9.
    • 10. Fick, D.M., et al., Updating the Beers criteria for potentially inappropriate medication use in older adults: results of a US consensus panel of experts.[see comment][erratum appears in Arch Intern Med. 2004 Feb 9;164(3):298]. Archives of Internal Medicine, 2003. 163 (22): p. 2716-24.
    • 11. Doody, R.S., et al., Open-label, multicenter, phase 3 extension study of the safety and efficacy of donepezil in patients with Alzheimer disease. Archives of Neurology, 2001. 58 (3): p. 427-33.
    • 12. Ortho-McNeil Neurologics Inc. Titusville, N., Razadyne [package insert]. 2005.
    • 13. Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corp. East Hanover, N., Exelon [package insert]. 2001.
    • 16. Reisberg, B., et al., Memantine in moderate-to-severe Alzheimer's disease.[see comment]. New England Journal of Medicine, 2003. 348 (14): p. 1333-41.
    • 17. Tariot, P.N., et al., Memantine treatment in patients with moderate to severe Alzheimer disease already receiving donepezil: a randomized controlled trial.[see comment]. JAMA, 2004. 291 (3): p. 317-24.
    • 18. Raschetti, R., et al., Cholinesterase inhibitors in mild cognitive impairment: a systematic review of randomised trials. PLoS Medicine / Public Library of Science, 2007. 4 (11): p. e338.
    • 19. US Food and Drug Administration . Rockville Maryland, Alert for healthcare professionals on galantamine hydrochloride
    • Available: http://www.fda.gov/cder/drug/InfoSheets/HCP/galantamineHCP.htm , 2005.
    • 20. Risacher, S., West, Shen, Firpi, McDonald, Baseline MRI Predictors fo Conversion from MCI to Probable AD in the ADNI Cohort. Current Alzheimer Research, 2009. 6 .
    • 30. Hirschman, K.B., et al., Would caregivers of Alzheimer disease patients involve their relative in a decision to use an AD-slowing medication? American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 2005. 13 (11): p. 1014-21.
    • 31. Karlawish, J.H., et al., How do AD patients and their caregivers decide whether to enroll in a clinical trial? Neurology, 2001. 56 (6): p. 789-92.
  • 30. Acknowledgements
    • Neurology
      • Dr. Martin Farlow, MD
    • Radiology
      • Dr. Andy Saykin, PsyD
      • Shannon Risacher
    • Biostatistics
      • Dr. Sujuan Gao, PhD