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English for university student

English for university student

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English for university student English for university student Presentation Transcript

  • Introduction General instructional aims : •Understand the basic principles of English •Communicate orally using simple Standard English. •Writing short essays, & •Understand the contents of a scientific paper written in English Evaluation : The student evaluation is based on the following components : •Assignments and Quiz 20% •Mid-term Examination 40% •Final-term Examination 40%
  • a. The verb to be and the tenses Specific instructional aims : Students are able to describe the use of verb to be in appropriate manner based on the subject and tenses. What are the verb to be and the tenses? •Verb to be is a verb that is used to modify other verb, an adjective, or an adverb. •The tenses is any of the inflected forms of a verb that indicate the time and continuance or completion of the action or state. There are three basic forms of tenses: present, past and future (will be discussed in detail in next lecture).
  • a. The verb to be and the tenses There are several verb to be that are used for different subjects and different tenses as indicated in Table Subject Present Past Future Present Perfect Past Perfect I am was will be have been had been We are were will be have been had been You are were will be have been had been They are were will be have been had been He is was will be has been had been She is was will be has been had been It is was will be has been had been
  • a. The verb to be and the tenses Examples: 1. Budi, Yanto, Mahmud and Ali are the members of a youth farmers organization in our village. 2. The price of fertilizers is expensive. 3. I am a first year student of Agricultural Faculty, University of Jambi. 4. She was a student of Soil Science Department in 1999. 5. We were in Bali last month to study the traditional irrigation system “Subak”. 6. Pak Ahmad will be happy because the government will provide him with a small business loan next month. 7. Pak Cecep was the president of Farmers Organization from 1970 to 1980. 8. He has been here since the Galunggung eruption in 1979. 9. We have been in this village since last week to carry out Student Community Services. 10. Danang had been an agricultural extension officer since he graduated from UNJA in 1980.
  • a. The verb to be and the tenses Using verb to be with the expletive expression THERE : Expletive expression THERE. In such sentence, the verb to be agrees with the subject that follows. Examples: 1. There are five mangoes, three oranges and ten bunches of celery in the basket. 2. There is an axillary bud in each leaf axils in dicotyledonous plants. 3. There were some nurseries in our village before 1997. 4. There was a Tungro virus attack in farmer’s farm in Desa Suka Jaya last year. Sentence transformation Can be transformed into a negative or interrogative sentence. Examples: Potato is a tuber crop. Potato is not a tuber crop. Is potato a tuber crop?
  • a. The verb to be and the tenses Vocabulary list Agricultural extension Axillary bud Cassava Cellery Chilli peppers Coffea Corn Crop Dicotyledonous plants Fertilizers Garlic Kamferia galanga Leaf axil Mangoes Nurseries Oil palm = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = penyuluhan pertanian tunas samping (tunas aksilar) ubi kayu (singkong) seledri (Apium graveolens) cabe/lombok (Capsicum annuum) kopi (Coffea arabica) jagung (Zea mays) tanaman budidaya tumbuhan dikotil (berkeping dua) pupuk bawang putih (Allium sativum) kencur ketiak daun mangga (Mangifera indica) pembibitan kelapa sawit (Elaeis guineensis)
  • a. The verb to be and the tenses Vocabulary list Onion Oranges Peanut = = = Potato Rice field Rubber Shallot ascalonicum) Subsistence = = = = Tea Tuber Vegetable Zingiber officinale = = = = = bawang (Allium cepa) jeruk (Citrus) kacang tanah (Arachis hypogaea) kentang (Solanum tuberosum) sawah/ladang karet (Hevea brassiliensis) bawang daun (Allium hanya untuk memenuhi kebutuhan sendiri teh (Camelia sinensis) umbi sayuran jahe
  • a. The verb to be and the tenses Assignment 1 Make your own sentences using the verb to be you have learned. Your sentences should concern with the field of agriculture. Assignment 2 Change the following sentences into negative and interrogative forms using the pattern you have learned. 1. There are chilli peppers in the basket. 2. The colour of garlic is white and yellowish. 3. Shallot is one of onion types. 4. Kamferia galanga and Zingiber officinale are of Indonesian native species. 5. The oil palm plantations were abundant in Sumatra before 1990. 6. The rubber plant was from Middle Asia. 7. Indonesia was the biggest rubber producer in the world during 1950 – 1970. 8. Most of farmers in Indonesia are poor. 9. The small chilli pepper (Capsicum frutescens) is very hot. 10.The organic fertilizers are good for horticultural crops.
  • a. The verb to be and the tenses Assignment 3 Fill in the brackets with the correct verb to (please note that the tenses rules apply here). 1. Many years ago, Indonesian farmers (……….) subsistence. 2. Gugun (……….) one of successful young farmers in our village. 3. Coffea, tea, corn, and cassava (……….) cash crops. 5. Both corn and cassava (……….) food crops. 6. There (……….) many vegetable growers in Kayu Aro, Kerinci. 7. The agricultural extension program (……….) important for farmers. 8. We (……….......) in the rice field for the next whole week. 9. The recipient of Kalpataru, Hasan and Husin, (………......) here tomorrow. 10. Jimmy Carter (……….) a peanut grower before becoming a US President.
  • b. The simple tenses Specific instructional aims Students are able to construct and describe the simple tenses according time and continuance. Sub topics •Simple present tense •Simple past tense •Simple future tense •Sentence transformation
  • b. The simple tenses The simple present tense There are two basic use of the simple present tense : to express the habitual actions, and to state general truths or facts. The formula of simple present tense: Subject + verb (type I). Note: the verb used should be with ‘s’ when the subject is singular third person (thing), otherwise it is without ‘s’. Examples: 1.The rust disease attacks corn crops in Desa Suka Maju. 2.The natural orchids are very expensive. 3.There are two buffaloes in my rice field. 4.Farmers in technical irrigation area grow the rice crops three times a year. 5.Ali studies the entomology in this semester.
  • b. The simple tenses The simple past tense The basic use of simple past tense is used to express the actions or to state the truths or facts that happen in the past. The time markers that are used to indicate the past (completed) action are: yesterday, ago, last, etc. or simply by the use the verb in the past tense form. The formula of simple past tense: Subject + verb (type II). Note: there is no difference in the verb used for either singular or plural subjects. Examples: 1.The rust disease attacked corn crops in Desa Suka Maju last year. 2.The natural orchids were very expensive during the last two decade. 3.There were two buffaloes in my rice field yesterday. 4.Farmers in technical irrigation area grew the rice crops three times a year. 5.Ali studied the entomology in last semester.
  • b. The simple tenses The simple future tense The simple future tense describes actions, activities, or conditions in the future. Time markers generally used are phrases employing the words such as: tomorrow, next, in, within, later, etc, or simply by the use the verb in the sentence. There are two formulae of simple future tense: Subject + shall/will + verb (type I) and Subject + verb to be + going to + verb (type I). Examples: 1.The new rice variety will be available in the market in next planting season. 2.I am going to harvest the vegetables next week. 3.The government will increase the price of fertilizers and pesticide next year. 4.We shall go to the meeting as soon as possible. 5.I will make decision later.
  • b. The simple tenses Sentence transformation To transform into a negative form is done by simply pot the words do/does/did /will/shall + not before the verb or the word not after verb to be; To transform the sentences into an interrogative form is done by placing the word do/does/did/will/shall, or verb to be at the beginning of the sentences. This can also be done by adding the question words (where, when, what, how, who, whom, or whose). Examples: 1. Farmers in Desa Suka Maju grow rice three times a year. - Farmers in Desa Suka Maju do not grow rice three times a year. - Do farmers in Desa Suka Maju grow rice three times a year? - Who do grow rice three times a year? - What do farmers in Desa Suka Maju grow three times a year? 2. There were two buffaloes in my rice field yesterday. - There were no two buffaloes in my rice field yesterday.
  • b. The simple tenses Vocabulary list Entomology Food crops Legumes Lettuce Orchid Plant breeder Planting season Rust disease Subsistence Swainsona formosa Tomato Variety Vegetative = ilmu mengenai serangga = tanaman pangan = tanaman legum (kacang-kacangan) = selada (Lactuca sativa) = anggrek = pemulia tanaman = musim tanam = penyakit karat = subsisten (untuk memenuhi kebutuhan sendiri) = Sturt’s desert pea (suatu tanaman hias legum asli Australia) = tomat = varietas = vegetatif
  • b. The simple tenses Assignment 1 Complete the following sentences by filling in the blanks with the correct tense of the verb given in the brackets. 1.Swainsona formosa ………. (to be) one of Australian native legumes. 2.The farmers ………. (to harvest) their cabbages yesterday, and will sell them this morning. 3.Mr. Handoko ………. (to be) going to grow lettuce next month. 4.In 2000, we ………. (to go) to Agricultural Exhibition in Bogor. 5.Hasan and Husin ………. (to be) in their rice field last night. 6.The eggplant ………. (to grow) abundantly in Pal Merah. 7.Farmers in Kerinci ………. (to grow) potato for their living. 8.Next week my uncle ………. (to employ) many workers to pick the tomatoes. 9.The organic farming ………. (to be) now very popular in Australia. 10.The plant breeders ………. (to work) hard to improve crop quality via biotechnology.
  • b. The simple tenses Assignment 2 Change the following sentences into interrogatives using the helping verbs (do, does, did) or using the question words (what, where, when, who, how, whose, whom) given at the end of each sentences. 1.Indonesia was the largest rubber producer in the world in 1970s (When). 2.Mahmud is a successful orchid grower in our town (Who). 3.Hasan graduated from University of Jambi last year (When). 4.The grasshoppers attacked our rice plants (What). 5.Farmers in Kerinci solve the plant disease problem by applying pesticides (How). 6.Plant pest and disease are serious problems in vegetable crops during rainy season (What). 7.The agricultural extension will be held in Village Hall tonight (Where). 8.The eucalypts is growing in arid region of Australia (Where). 9.Jimmy Carter was a successful peanut grower in USA (Who). 10.Many food crops are propagated by using vegetative organs (How).
  • c. The Continuous And The Perfect Tenses Specific instructional aims Students are able to construct and describe the sentences that are using continuous and perfect tenses. Sub topics • Present and past continuous tenses • Present and past perfect tenses The present continuous tense The present continuous tense is used to describe actions or conditions that are taking place at the present time, and for a period of time which includes the present time. Time markers generally used for present time are: now, this moment, these days, nowadays, or simply use the continuous tense in a sentence. The formula of present continuous tense: Subject + verb to be (is, am, are) + verb (type I) + ing.
  • c. The Continuous And The Perfect Tenses Examples: 1.The virus diseases are attacking citrus farm in Kumpeh Ulu, Jambi. 2.Farmers in Kayu Aro are growing potatoes, carrots and other vegetables. 3.The extension officer is presenting the methods of making compost. 4.Budi is doing intercropping between lettuce and baby corn. 5.I am cultivating my land by using hand-tractor. The past continuous tense The past continuous tense is seldom used alone in a sentence. This type of tense is usually used in combination with an event in the past, which is stated or simply implied. The formula of past continuous tense: Subject + verb to be (was, were) + verb (type I) + ing.
  • c. The Continuous And The Perfect Tenses Examples: 1.For an action happening in the past: Tono was spraying the rice field with insecticides. 2.For two actions happening at the same time in the past: Tono was spraying the rice field while his wife was clearing the weeds. 3.For two actions happening in the past, one was continuing while the other interrupted: Tono and his wife were working the rice field when the flood suddenly came yesterday. The present perfect tense The present perfect tense is normally used in two situations as the following: 1.For a completed action or state at an indefinite time in the past. The time markers usually used are: just, already, yet, not yet, etc. 2.For an action or state that has continued for a period of time, from the point in the past until the present time (past-to-present). The time markers used are: since, for, so far, up to now, in all (time), until now, etc. The formula of present perfect tense: Subject + have/has + verb (type III).
  • c. The Continuous And The Perfect Tenses Examples: 1.Ani has taken the Agricultural Extension course for nearly one semester. 2.Mr. Madjid has already sold his farm products in the local market with a good price. 3.I have learned the breeding of tropical vegetables through genetic engineering since many years. 4.Anton and Susan have demonstrated the techniques of plant propagation by vegetative methods. 5.Some horticultural products have been rotten during transportation from field to market due to high temperature. The past perfect tense The past perfect tense is used to show an action that was completed before a particular event that also took place in the past. In a sentence, the past perfect tense is generally combined with a past tense, since both refer to events in the past. The time markers usually used in this combination are: before, after or when. The formula of past perfect tense: Subject + had + verb (type III).
  • c. The Continuous And The Perfect Tenses Examples: 1.Jono had sold his buffaloes before he bought a hand-tractor for cultivating the rice field. 2.Farmers in our village had cleared the weeds, bush and other materials before they cultivated the land using a hand-tractor. 3.They sprayed the pesticide after the aphids had attacked their tomato crops. 4.My uncle grew soybean after he had harvested the cabbages. 5.The birds had left when the farmer put up the scarecrow. Sentence transformation for present and past continuous tenses To transform sentences in the form of present and past continuous tenses into a negative, simply put the word not after the verb to be; and to transform the sentences into an interrogative, you should place the verb to be in the front of the statement (at the beginning of the sentence before the subject) or use the question words.
  • c. The Continuous And The Perfect Tenses Examples: 1.The virus diseases are attacking citrus farm in Kumpeh Ulu, Jambi. •The virus diseases are not attacking citrus farm in Kumpeh Ulu, Jambi. •Are the virus attacking citrus farm in Kumpeh Ulu, Jambi? •What are attacking citrus farm in Kumpeh Ulu, Jambi? 2.Farmers in Kayu Aro are growing potatoes and carrots. •Farmers in Kayu Aro are not growing potatoes and carrots. •Are farmers in Kayu Aro growing potatoes and carrots? •Who are growing potatoes and carrots? 3.The extension officer is presenting the methods of making compost. •The extension officer is not presenting the methods of making compost. •Is the extension officer presenting the methods of making compost? •What is the extension officer presenting?
  • c. The Continuous And The Perfect Tenses Examples: 4. • • • Tono was spraying the rice field with insecticides Tono was not spraying the rice field with insecticides. Was Tono spraying the rice field with insecticides? What was Tono spraying the rice field? 5. • • • Tono was spraying the rice field while his wife was clearing the weeds. Tono was not spraying the rice field while his wife was clearing the weeds. Was Tono spraying the rice field while his wife was clearing the weeds? Who was spraying the rice field while his wife was clearing the weeds? 6. Tono and his wife were working the rice field when the flood suddenly came yesterday. • Tono and his wife were not working the rice field when the flood suddenly came yesterday. • Where Tono and his wife were working when the flood suddenly came yesterday?
  • c. The Continuous And The Perfect Tenses Sentence transformation for present and past perfect tenses To transform sentences in the form of present and past perfect tenses into a negative, simply put the word not after the helping verbs (have, has, had) + verb (type III) or use the words did not + verb (type I); and to transform the sentences into an interrogative, you should place the helping verbs before the subject (and use the verb type III) or use the word did before the subject (and use the verb type I) at the beginning of the sentence; or use the question words. Examples: 1.Mr. Madjid has already sold his farm products in the local market. •Mr. Madjid has not already sold his farm products in the local market. •Has Mr. Madjid already sold his farm products in the local market? •Where has Mr. Madjid already sold his farm products?
  • c. The Continuous And The Perfect Tenses Examples: 2.I have learned the breeding of tropical vegetables through genetic engineering since many years. •I have not learned the breeding of tropical vegetables through genetic engineering. •Have I learned the breeding of tropical vegetables through genetic engineering since many years? •What have I learned since many years? 3.Some horticultural products have been rotten during transportation from field to market due to high temperature. •Some horticultural products have not been rotten during transportation from field to market due to high temperature. •Have some horticultural products been rotten during transportation from field to market due to high temperature? •What have been rotten during transportation from field to market due to high temperature?
  • c. The Continuous And The Perfect Tenses Examples: 4. Jono had sold his buffaloes before he bought a hand-tractor for cultivating the rice field. • Jono had not sold his buffaloes before he bought a hand-tractor for cultivating the rice field. • Had Jono sold his buffaloes before he bought a hand-tractor for cultivating the rice field? • What had Jono sold before he bought a hand-tractor for cultivating the rice field? 5. • • • They sprayed the pesticide after the aphids had attacked their tomato crops. They did not spray the pesticide after the aphids had attacked their tomato crops. Did they spray the pesticide after the aphids had attacked their tomato crops? What did they spray after the aphids had attacked their tomato crops? 6. • • • The birds had left when the farmer put up the scarecrow. The birds had not left when the farmer put up the scarecrow. Had the birds left when the farmer put up the scarecrow? What had left when the farmer put up the scarecrow?
  • c. The Continuous And The Perfect Tenses Vocabulary list Aphids Baby corn= Bush Cabbage Carrots Clearing Compost Cultivating Hay Intercropping Plant propagation Scarecrow Silos Vegetables Virus Weeds Wheat = sejenis serangga kutu jagung semi (jagung sayur) = semak belukar = kubis = wortel = membersihkan (rumput, belukar) = pupuk kompos = membudidayakan = jerami = tumpang sari = perbanyakan tanaman = orang-orangan di sawah untuk mengusir burung = silo (tempat menyimpan hasil panen biji-bijian) = sayuran = virus = gulma (tumbuhan pengganggu) = gandum
  • c. The Continuous And The Perfect Tenses Assignment 1 Please have a look at the following passage, then fill in the blanks with appropriate words (based on the word in the bracket). Modern Australian Farmers My family and I ……….. (fly) from Jakarta to Sidney on Qantas Airlines last year, and we ……….. (watch) a movie on the aircraft during the travel. This movie shows us the lives of farmers in a small town in Western Australia. There ……….. (to be) a man ……….. (stand) on nearby a shade. He ……….. (wear) a blue shirt and a striping jumper. The man ……….. (watch) his workers work in his farm by using modern equipments, such as tractors, drying machine, silos. Some people ……….. (harvest) wheat crops using harvesting tractors, while some others ……….. (unload) the harvested wheat from tractors and ……….. (take) them to the silos for storage. While their parents ……….. (work) on the field, the children ……….. (play) hide-and-seek in the hay. They ……….. (run) here and there happily. I think they ……….. (to be) really ……….. (enjoy) their lives as farmers.
  • c. The Continuous And The Perfect Tenses A Buffalo Attack I ……….. (watch) a TV program when I ……….. (hear) someone ……….. (call) my name. It ……….. (to be) my friend, Jono. He ……….. (wear) a red shirt with black trousers, and a cap ……….. (put) on his head. I ……….. (think) he ……….. (to be) about to go to his farm and asked me to accompany him. But suddenly, when he ……….. (walk) toward my house, a big black buffalo ……….. (run) after him. Jono ……….. (to be) very upset and he ……….. (shout) for help while ……….. (keep) on running for his life. Fortunately, the buffalo ……….. (stop) chasing him and run away. Jono ……….. (to be) not hurt but he ……….. (to be) very shocked. My mother ……….. (give) him a glass of plain water. Then Jono and I ……….. (spend) the whole day by watching TV while my mother ……….. (preparing) meals. Assignment 2 Try to construct 5 (five) sentences of each present continuous, past continuous, present perfect and past perfect tenses, then transform the sentences into negative and interrogative forms.
  • d. Modal Auxiliaries Specific instructional aims Students are able to describe and construct sentences employing modal auxiliaries appropriately according to the time markers. Sub topics Modal auxiliaries used in present tense. Modal auxiliaries used in past tense. Modal auxiliaries (also called modal verbs) are special verbs that has special meaning and function, and normally used to modify other verbs. Modal auxiliaries are only used in present or past tenses, but the present tense is also used to describe the future tense.
  • d. Modal Auxiliaries The formula of sentences employing modal auxiliaries are as follows: Present and future tense : Subject + modal (present) + verb (type I) Past tense : Subject + modal (past) + verb (type I) Subject + modal (past) + have + verb (type III) There are six words that are categorized as modal auxiliaries as indicated in the following table. Modal auxiliaries Present/future Past Can Can Could Could have May May Might Might have Shall Shall Should Should have Will Will Would Would have Must (have/has to) Must (have/has to) Must (had to) Must have Ought to Ought to Ought to Ought to have
  • d. Modal Auxiliaries Examples: 1.A strong insecticide can kill grasshoppers and bugs effectively. •A strong insecticide could kill grasshoppers and bugs effectively. •A strong insecticide could have killed grasshoppers and bugs effectively. 2.Severe virus infestation may cause great lost in crop production. •Severe virus infestation might cause great lost in crop production. •Severe virus infestation might have caused great lost in crop production. 3.Hasan shall go to the farm early in the morning. •Hasan should go to the farm early in the morning. •Hasan should have gone to the farm early in the morning. 4.We will grow pineapples in our back yard tomorrow. •We would grow pineapples in our back yard tomorrow. •We would have grown pineapples in our back yard tomorrow.
  • d. Modal Auxiliaries 5. They must spray the fungicide to solve the fungus infestation. • They had to spray the fungicide to solve the fungus infestation. • They must have sprayed the fungicide to solve the fungus infestation. 6. The government ought to provide us with adequate facilities for agricultural education. • The government ought to provide us with adequate facilities for agricultural education. • The government ought to have provided us with adequate facilities for agricultural education.
  • d. Modal Auxiliaries Please note that in the case of past tense of should have, ought to have and must have, there is a slight different in the meaning. In the first two, the modal auxiliaries indicate that the action is not performed or done yet. Therefore, the sentence saying “Hasan should have gone to the farm early in the morning” means that although it was advisable for Hasan to go early in the morning, he did not do so. This situation is referred as “unfulfilled actions”. Meanwhile, in the third modal auxiliary, there is an assumption that the action has been done completely. Thus, the sentence saying “They must have sprayed the fungicide to solve the fungus infestation” means that they have already done the fungicide spray. Ought to is sometimes used without a following verb if the meaning is clear, for example: Should we begin soon? Yes, we ought to. In a question and negative sentences, especially those with contractions, to is sometimes omitted, for example: Oughtn’t we be going soon? Although the omission of to was formerly possible in English, it is now considered nonstandard.
  • d. Modal Auxiliaries Sentence transformation The transformation of sentences using modal auxiliaries into a negative is done by adding the negation not after the modal verb. Whereas to transform the sentence into an interrogative can be done by putting the modal verb at the beginning of the sentence followed by subject and predicate (a verb), or by using a question word followed by the modal verb, subject and predicate. Examples: 1.They can grow the tomato in a plastic house. •They can not grow the tomato in a plastic house. •Can they grow the tomato in a plastic house? •Where can they grow the tomato? 2.We should do watering two times a day. •We should not do watering two times a day. •Should we do watering two times a day? •How many times should we do watering?
  • d. Modal Auxiliaries For the modal auxiliary have/has to, the auxiliary do/does is used for present or future, and did is used for the past tense. Examples: 1.The government has to increase the fund for agricultural development. •The government does not have to increase the fund for agricultural development. •Does the government have to increase the fund for agricultural development. •What does the government have to increase? 2.Farmers had to adopt the modern technology. •Farmers did not have to adopt the modern technology. •Did farmers have to adopt the modern technology? •Who did have to adopt the modern technology?
  • d. Modal Auxiliaries Vocabulary list Acid soils Bugs Crude Palm Oil (CPO) Fungus Grasshoppers Insect Nut meg Pepper Plantation Remote area Seed Station Vector = = = = = = = = = = = = tanah masam hama kutu minyak sawit mentah cendawan belalang serangga kemiri lada perkebunan daerah terpencil balai benih serangga pembawa virus
  • d. Modal Auxiliaries Assignment 1 Change the following sentences into past tense form using appropriate modal auxiliary: 1.Farmers have to build an irrigation system in the area. 2.She may leave the plantation at 12.00 o’clock. 3.The virus attack can spread via insects as the vector. 4.The government must control the price of crude palm oil (CPO). 5.The increase in fuel price will affect the agricultural sector significantly. 6.We shall buy new farm machineries by the end of this year. 7.My aunty has to sell one of her rice fields to pay the her son’s tuition fee this year. 8.You ought to understand that the virus problem is not easy to solve. 9.The Minister of Agriculture will come to Kampus Pinang Masak to deliver a speech at the 42nd Unja Anniversary. 10.They must decide which rice variety that will be grown this year.
  • d. Modal Auxiliaries Assignment 2 Change the following sentences into negative and interrogative forms (you may use question word): 1.Nut meg can grow in acid soils. 2.Farmers in Sungai Landai will harvest their peppers within two weeks. 3.The rubber factory will operate next year. 4.Scientists must do some studies to search new rice varieties. 5.You shall grow good quality seeds from Seed Station to produce better harvest. 6.Rudi ought to go to the Balai Desa to attend the agricultural extension. 7.Many transmigrants can build a better living in the transmigration area in Rimbo Bujang. 8.The results of this research shall give benefit to poor farmers in remote area. 9.We can cultivate our land by using simple equipments. 10.I shall go to the university to become an agricultural expert.
  • e. Active And Passive Voices Specific instructional aims Students are able to understand, differentiate, and use the active and passive sentences correctly. Sub topics Active voice (present, past, future, continuous, perfect) Passive voice (present, past, future, continuous, perfect) The voice of verb shows whether the sentence is active or passive. The sentence is active if an action is performed by the subject, and the sentence is passive if an action was performed on the subject. The active voice is used in making a straight forward statement about an action, i.e. the “doer” of the action is the subject of the sentence. In the passive voice, the “doer” of the action is not important because the subject of the passive sentence generally obvious to everyone. Therefore, in a passive sentence the subject is often omitted. However, when it is important to show the subject, a prepositional word “by” is used. Please notice on the use of the active and passive voice in some basic sentences as indicated in the following sections.
  • e. Active And Passive Voices Simple tenses Active : Passive : Subject + verb (type I) Subject + verb to be + verb (type III) Examples A: Jono grows some flowers in his garden. P: Some flowers are grown by Jono in his garden. A: We kill the weeds with a herbicide. P: The weeds are killed with a herbicide. A: Farmers harvested their rice using “ani-ani”. P: The rice were harvested using “ani-ani”. A: Ali and Joko attended the agricultural extension yesterday. P: The agricultural extension was attended by Ali and Joko yesterday. A: Candra will present the agricultural research plan tomorrow. P: The agricultural research plant will be presented tomorrow. A: We are going to discuss the cause of production loss today. P: The cause of production loss is going to be discussed today.
  • e. Active And Passive Voices Continuous tenses Active : Subject + verb to be + verb (type I) + ing Passive : Subject + verb to be + being + verb (type III) Examples: A: Santi is planting shallots in the glasshouse. P: Shallots are being planted in the glasshouse. A: Farmers are clearing weeds manually. P: The weeds are being cleared manually. A: Jono was climbing the tree when suddenly the branch broke. P: The tree was being climbed by Jono when suddenly the branch broke. A: The soil scientists were surveying the area when the landslide happened. P: The area was being surveyed when the landslide happened.
  • e. Active And Passive Voices Perfect tenses Active : Passive : Subject + have/has + verb (type III) Subject + have/has + been + verb (type III) Examples: A: The young farmer has harvested his soybean two days ago. P: The soybean has been harvested two days ago. A: In order to increase soil fertility, farmers have used manure. P: Manure has been used in order to increase soil fertility. A: Farmers in Java had used buffaloes for land cultivation since many years . P: Buffaloes had been used for land cultivation since many years. A: The local government had provided more funds for agricultural sector. P: More funds had been provided for agricultural sector.
  • e. Active And Passive Voices Sentence transformation The negation in passive voice is performed in the usual manner, i.e. by placing the word not after the verb to be (auxiliary verb). Whereas the interrogative form is performed by placing the verb to be at the beginning of a sentence followed by the subject and past participle (verb type III). Examples: 1.The area was covered by smoke from bush fire. •The area was not covered by smoke from bush fire. •Was the area covered by smoke from bush fire? 2.Plant pests and diseases can be prevented by spraying pesticide. •Plant pests and diseases can not be prevented by spraying pesticide •Can plant pests and diseases be prevented by spraying pesticide? 3.The new apple clones have been created via plant biotechnology. •The new apple clones have not been created via plant biotechnology. •Have the new apple clones been created via plant biotechnology?
  • e. Active And Passive Voices 4. • • 5. • • Soil fertility is being investigated by soil scientists from Unja. The soil fertility is not being investigated by soil scientists from Unja. Is the soil fertility is being investigated by soil scientists from Unja? The plant tissue culture technique is applied widely in plant breeding. The plant tissue culture technique is not applied widely in plant breeding. Is the plant tissue culture technique applied widely in plant breeding?
  • e. Active And Passive Voices Vocabulary list Active ingredient Bush fire Chemicals Clay Crop protection Department of Forestry Dusting Filler Glasshouse Herbicide Iron wood Landslide Manure Root disease Shallot Talc Teak = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = bahan aktif kebakaran hutan bahan-bahan kimia liat (tanah liat) perlindungan tanaman Jurusan Kehutanan penyemprotan partikel debu bahan pengisi rumah kaca herbisida (racun pembasmi gulma) tanaman bulian (kayu bulian) tanah longsor pupuk kandang penyakit akar bawang daun talek (bahan mineral pembuat tepung talek) tanaman jati (kayu jati)
  • e. Active And Passive Voices Students’ activity Assignment 1 Change the following sentences into passive voice or active voice. Please look carefully on the verbs used. 1.Teak (Tectona grandis) are planted in East Java. 2.Scientists are studying agroforestry and its benefit to farmers in Jambi. 3.The Department of Forestry grows iron wood (Eusideroxylon zwagerii) in Senami restricted area. 4.My tomato plants were attacked by root disease. 5.Forty percent of rice field in Jambi have been destroyed by flood. 6.In 2000, the CVPD disease had caused total production loss of approximately 2 billions rupiah. 7.Water in our area is contaminated by pesticide. 8.The Agricultural Faculty Unja will open Forestry Department next year. 9.Farmers in Tanjung Jabung has exported coconut oil to China since 1998. 10.During harvest time, birds eat the rice in the rice field.
  • e. Active And Passive Voices Assignment 2 Read the following passage carefully and identify the verbs in passive voice. Crop Protection Using Chemical Dusts The problem of applying chemicals for crop protection is greater than of spreading fertilizers. This is because a very small amount of active ingredient has to be applied to a large crop area, often to a particular part of the plant where it can be most effective. These active materials are formulated for application in a number of ways. However, dusting is the method which will be discussed in this passage. In dusting, the finely ground active ingredient, is blended down with a local filler such as a talc or clay to give a dust, usually containing 2 – 4% of active ingredient. This can be applied to the crops by hand dusters, tractor drawn dusters that blow the dust out through a boom, aircraft, or by drift dusting. The characteristics of the finished blended dust should be determined by the method of application. However, in the tropical area such as Indonesia, there is a limited choice of fillers.