NORTHEASTERN UNIVERSITY INTRAMURAL SPORTS OFFICIATING BASKETBALL
All officials should
maintain the semblance of
a wide triangle to cover
Trail – Same side as the
Lead and closest to half-court
Lead – Ball side and on
Center – Foul line extended
Lead and Trail
Lead, Trail, & Center Positioning
Positioned on the base line at a good depth and distance
Responsible for the endline boundary
Watches primarily post play and rebounds.
Position on the same side as the L
Watches front court action:
Ball handling action
Responsible for sideline and halfcourt line
Dual Coverage for L and T
Lead and Trail Dual Area
The L and T both can make calls in the designated area
Drives to the hoop
Shots and fouls
Except for this area there should NEVER be Double Whistles
Positioned at the foul line extended
Watch for illegal contact on drives across the middle of the lane
Signals 3 point attempts in this area.
Weak side rebounding
Positions in Transition
Transitioning The Center should move with the speed of the ball as it progresses up the court. The “ Trail to Lead ” official is responsible for the front 1/3 of the pack moving up the floor. The “ Lead to Trail ” is responsible for the back 2/3 of the players moving up the court. Look back over your shoulder and observe the status of the play. Do not relax and turn your head away from the play during transition.
Live Ball Rotation
The officials must adjust their
positions to the location of the
ball and the positioning of the
Rotations occur when the L ead moves to the ball side which dictates the change of the C enter and T rail
The C becomes the new T
The T becomes the new C
Lead Initiates Rotation
L ead official (#1) keys all live ball rotations
L should try to be “ball side” – box in the players
L is closed-down (#2)
L (#3) the rotation is completed
L and T should now be ball side.
Live Ball Rotation
Calling Out of Bounds
When the ball goes out:
Sharply blow your whistle
Raise your arm with an open palm
Signal direction for new possession
Out of Bounds Coverage The calling official must clearly signal the direction of the possession after the ball is whistled out of bounds
Out of Bounds
Officials should only call the line that they are responsible for.
Calling out of your area may result in double whistle and conflicting calls.
Trust your partners !
Out of Bounds
The Ball is Out when it touches:
a player who is out of
the floor past the boundary
any object on or outside the
the backboard supports or
the top and the side of the backboard are in bounds
The ball is considered to be caused to go out of bounds by the last player that had contact with the ball.
The calling official will designate the spot where the ball is to be in-bounded
Hand the ball to
Leave arm extended above your head
Visible 5 count w/ other hand
“ Chop” the clock in, when ball is touched by a player on the floor
Placement of Throw-ins
Administer the throw-in closest to the spot of the foul or violation.
Never allow a throw-in from under the back board
Fouls in the key are administered as shown in the blue highlighted area
Throw In Administration
“ Box-in-the-players ”
Keep players between the officials and the basket
L and T should be ball side
Officials may bounce the ball to a player on the sideline.
Throw-ins Under the Basket
Never allow the player to in-bound the ball from directly under the hoop
Positioning should be
Official on the outside
“ Box in the players”
Throw In Violations
In-Bounding team has five seconds to
release the ball once they have been
given it by the official
The defensive team cannot reach over the sideline to defend the ball. If contact is made with the player or the ball, a Technical Foul must be assessed. Official should show a visible five second count
Free Throw Administration
The calling official remains table side ( C )
L and T go opposite the table
L watches opposite lane and the first near space
C watches the top three spaces of the opposite lane, the shooter, and the basket
T assists both other officials and watches for fouls on the rebound
Free Throw Administration
Maximum 4 players
Must occupy bottom 2 slots
Maximum 2 players
Shooter that was fouled
No players can be in the top 2 spaces nearest the shooter
Free Throw Violations
Try must be attempted between the foul line and within the free throw semi-circle
Player taking free throw can not fake a shot or do anything to cause an opponent to violate lane
No player can enter or leave a space once the shooter has the ball
Players cannot enter the key until the ball has made contact with the rim
The Player taking the free throw must shoot the ball within 10 seconds, otherwise it is a violation
Defensive opponents cannot “ disconcert” the shooter
Free Throw Violations
If Shooting team violates…
Ball is immediately dead and any basket is
If shots remain, continue to the next shot
If it is the final attempt, opposing team gets the ball out of bounds on the side
If Defensive team violates…
If basket is made, violation is ignored
If basket is missed, violation is called and attempt is re-tried
Withheld Whistle Signal Acknowledges the violation without calling it
The C and T officials will signal attempts and made baskets in their areas.
The area above the key will be shared by both officials
L ead will only ever signal in a fastbreak or transition situation
Develop a consistent count
arm slightly above your torso
make your count crisp and controlled
Closely guarded (5)
Back Court (10)
Fist pump - free throws (10)
Swinging am - lane violations (3)
Substitutes can only enter the game on a dead ball, after being waved in by an official
Any violation of this is a team technical
Substitutes during free throws
Bring players in only before the last certain free throw
Subbing for the shooter
If the last free throw is made, stop play and allow substitution to happen
If last free throw is missed, play continues and substitute has to wait until next dead ball.
The Toss should be…
Slightly higher than either player can jump
Before the Toss…
Check w/ officials and
Indicate team directions
Lastly sound whistle
Jump Ball Administration
Players jumping will position themselves facing their basket and will have both feet within their half of the center circle.
All other players will take a position outside of the center circle and must be set at the time of the jump.
Teammates may not have adjacent positions if the opposing team indicates the desire to fill that spot.
The tossed ball cannot be touched until it reaches its highest point, but must be touched before returning to the ground.
Jump Ball Violations
The Ball is re-jumped if…
Referee makes a bad toss
Teams commit simultaneous violations
If one team commits any violation the ball is given out of bounds to the opposing team.
Team committing violation will receive the possession arrow.
If ball is knocked out of bounds on the jump, opposing team gains possession.
Possession arrow goes to the team who knocked the ball out of bounds.
The jumper may not:
Catch the jump ball
Touch the ball more than twice
Leave the center circle before the
ball is secured
Control the ball before a non-jumper
has had the opportunity
Before every game the supervisor on duty will review the basics of officiating and communicate any special instructions for the game
This Pre-game Conference is a simple matter of reviewing what you should already know and what we expect from each and every official
Set The Tone For The Entire Game
This is your first chance to let the teams know what kind of game they are going to have
Take control but don’t be pushy
Have fun but you have to be taken seriously
Distribute “Captain” armbands and remind them…
“ The captain is the only one on the team who should address officials at all.”
If their team has any questions or concerns make sure it goes through the Captain.
Players addressing the officials or questioning their calls will be penalized.
Last Shot Responsibilities
The official opposite tableside (either
the T or C ) is responsible for making
the ruling on any last-second shot
Communicate to the other officials that the Game Clock is your responsibility. No field goal attempt or try may be scored with less than three-tenth of a second on the clock – however a tap may be counted.
Calling the Foul
Blow the Whistle
Sharp and Crisp
Extend your arm straight up with a clenched fist.
Move slowly and deliberately
Call in the Foul #1 First, blow the whistle and raise a clenched fist straight in the air #2 Give the preliminary signal for the foul #3 Indicate the who will now have possession. Lastly, designate where the ball will be put back into play #4
Reporting a Foul
C olor : Give the color of the fouling player (“RED”)
N umber : give the # of the fouling player (“14”)
F oul : give the correct foul ( “BLOCKING”)
N EXT : report what will happen next (“2 Shots”)
* If a made basket preceded the foul call say: “Count the basket” and then continue C.N.F.N.
Foul Reporting Area
The Calling Official
Whistle and raise arm with a clenched fist
Momentarily pause in your position
Signal the committed foul (Holding, pushing, etc etc)
Communicate verbally what occurred
Indicate where ball will be put into play
Hustle to the table, go around the players
Pause and set yourself in front of the table
* If a basket was made, say “Count it.”
Begin C.N.F.N. – Color # Foul Next
Stay table side
Hits: The Standard Hack
HITS : illegal contact with the ball handler.
“ White, #42, hits. Black ball on the side.”
PUSH : illegal contact by extending of arms which influences the movement of an opponent.
HOLDING : illegal contact that impedes the lateral or vertical movement of an opposing player.
DOUBLE FOUL :
simultaneous personal fouls
by a member of each team.
This is a great call to clean up overly aggressive post play The ball is taken out from the spot of interruption, if it can be established. If it cannot, use the alternating possession arrow.
is the act of legally placing a body in the path of an offensive opponent.
Obtaining a legal guarding position :
The guard must have both feet
touching the floor
The front of the guard’s torso
must be facing the opponent.
Every player is entitled to a spot on the floor provided such player gets there first without illegally contacting an opponent.
Principle of Verticality
Applies to being in a legal guarding position.
Player must remain in their “vertical plane”
Arms must be STRAIGHT UP
Player can jump vertically, but not out of the vertical plane
Player must avoid contact with their lower body outside of their vertical plane
Offensive player may not “intrude” a defensive player’s vertical plane in an attempt to clear them out.
A player that sticks out an arm, shoulder, hip or leg, into the path of an opponent is NOT considered to be in legal guarding position – and is responsible for that contact.
BLOCK : Illegal personal
contact which impedes the
progress of an opponent.
Sequence of Signals for a Block
Player Control Foul
PLAYER CONTROL :
offensive player makes illegal contact with
a defensive player in a previously
established legal guarding position.
A player moving with the ball is required to stop or change direction to avoid contact with a defender in a legal position.
PLAYER CONTROL FOULS = Loss of possession / no free throws
“ Referee the Defense”
This call is easy to make if you focus correctly
Was the Defense there first?
Did the Defense have both feet on the floor?
Was the Defense facing the player with the ball?
Yes to all 3? It’s a Charge !
The Defense must get to the spot in time to draw the foul… IF IT IS UNCLEAR, IT’S A BLOCK Player Control Fouls also apply to an Airborne Shooter.
“ Over the Back”
To obtain or maintain a legal rebounding position a player may not :
Displace, push or charge an opponent
Bend their body in an abnormal way to
hold or displace an opponent
Violate the Principle of Verticality.
* There really is no such thing as “over-the-back”: there must be contact – it must be either a pushing or holding foul
The Center and Lead officials must close down on shots and watch for illegal contact on rebounds
Excessive Swinging of Elbows
ELBOWING : a player swings his elbows in an excessive and dangerous manner. No contact need occur
If a player accidentally elbows to throw a pass it is considered accidental contact
If there is…
no contact = violation
contact = technical foul
Foul committed with no attempt to play the ball when the person being fouled has a “clear” attempt at a scoring opportunity.
Make sure they are not making any play on the ball.
If severe enough it becomes a Flagrant Foul (ejectionable)
Penalty : 2 free throws (clear the lane) and possession of the ball for the team that is fouled.
The penalty for this foul is a technical foul and an ejection for the offending player
Is “violent and savage” in nature
Includes but is not limited to:
Penalty Player is ejected and 2 foul shots with the lanes cleared for the opposing team.
HAND CHECKING : illegal personal contact by a defensive player, which impedes the forward or lateral movement of the ball holder.
Call the foul if the defender…
Impedes or restricts the movement
Dislodges or jabs an opponent
continually leaves a hand on an opponent
Never allow a player to disrespect you, the game, or another official.
Technical Fouls are called when a player or team has violated the spirit of the game, disrespected the game, and/or disrespected a player.
Calling a Violation
Give a sharp blast
Weak whistles = indecision
Straight in the air
Give proper mechanic for the violation which occurred
10 Second Back Court Violation
The official will administer a visible 10 count.
A team must advance the ball beyond the center court line in 10 seconds
5 Second Violation
Five second violations occur for:
Blow your whistle, signal the stop clock violation and give
5-second violation mechanic.
“ Palming the ball”/Carries
Player rolls his wrist over the ball in an attempt
to gain an advantage controlling the ball
Most players carry with their normal dribble.
Make sure you distinguish between a person’s normal dribble and an attempt to gain an advantage.
Player is not allowed to travel/walk with the ball
Pivot Foot: Player commits to a pivot foot by landing on that foot first
If player makes a good jump stop, they can establish either foot as their pivot foot.
Player may pick up their pivot foot, but must get rid of the ball before returning it to the ground.
Player cannot jump with the ball and return to the ground with the ball without releasing it.
Illegal Dribble/ Double Dribble
Not a Double Dribble :
Ball has been batted/contacted by opponent
After a shot attempt
Players cannot start a dribble after their first dribble has ended or put two hands on the ball while dribbling.
Results in loss of
possession for the
It is a violation to INTENTIONALY kick the ball with any part of the leg or foot.
3 Second Lane Violation
Use preventive officiating before calling:
“ Get out of the key Red!”
If a player is on their way out don’t call it
If player doesn’t move after warning call the violation
An offensive player may not have any part of their body in the lane, while the ball is in the front court, for more than three seconds. Count resets every time the ball is shot.
“ No Basket! No Basket!”
A basket, scored after a violation, must be waived off.
This call must be “sold”…
Use emphatic signals
Show no indecision
Closely guarded is when a defensive player is “actively” guarding a player and is within six feet.
6 Ft is the Magic Distance
5 seconds is the Magic Count
Closely guarded only applies when the ball is in the frontcourt.
The 5 count resets every time there is a change in the ball handler’s “status”: a player can hold the ball for 4 ½ seconds, then dribble for 4 ½ seconds, then hold the ball for 4 ½ seconds before they have to get rid of the ball.
Not Closely Guarded
THE COUNT ENDS…
if the defense is not within 6 ft.
anytime an offensive player gets their head and shoulders past the defense
anytime the defense is not between the player with the ball and the basket
The defensive player may switch with another defender:
the count will continue as long as the 6 ft barrier is not broken
Jump Ball Held Ball Jump Ball when opponents each have their hands on the ball and neither can establish possession Held Ball – when the defense prevents an airborne shooter from releasing the ball during a block RESULT Alternating Possession
The Possession Arrow
Possession Occurs for…
Out of bounds off both teams
Official cannot determine correct possession
Simultaneous free-throw violations
Ball stuck between backboard and hoop
FOUR REQUIRED ELEMENTS
A shot or tap
Ball above the level of the basket
The shot has a chance to go in
AWARD THE POINTS AFTER A GOALTENDING CALL AGAINST THE DEFENSE
Occurs when a player…
touches the ball, basket, or net when the ball is ON or within the basket
touches the ball while it is on the cylinder
touches the ball outside the cylinder while reaching through the basket from below .
If committed by the Defense award the points
If committed by the Offense disallow the points and grant possession to the defensive team
“ Over-and-Back” Violation
An offensive player with the ball may not cross back over the half-court line once they have advanced the ball beyond mid-court.
Its never a violation on a throw-in. The ball can be thrown anywhere.
A player that jumps from frontcourt without the ball, catches the ball in the air, and lands in backcourt is legal because they never established possession in the frontcourt.
A player is not considered to be in the frontcourt until they have established 2 out of 3 “points” in the frontcourt:
THE POINTS : Right Foot, Left Foot, and Ball
TIME OUTS CAN BE GRANTED WHEN…
A team is in possession of the ball (player with the ball, or bench personnel)
Any DEAD BALL situation (either team may request one)
THE GRANTING OFFICIAL WILL REPORT TO THE SCORER THE # AND TEAM WHICH ASKED FOR THE TIME OUT. The player must be in control of the ball for a Time Out to be granted.
Screen: a legal action by a player who, without causing contact, delays or prevents an opponent from reaching a desired position.
The screener must be stationary, except when both are moving in the same path and the same direction.
Players setting a screen may not:
Move to maintain the position of a screen once they have established initial position.
This includes leaning into the screen.
Watch the legs and arms being stuck out
When outside a person’s field of vision take a position closer than one normal step from opponent
“ Referee the Defense”
“ Referee the Defense”
An official must have their focus on the defensive player when the ball is in their primary.
What’s the worst that the offense can do?
Travel? Double Dribble? Carry the ball? (You’ll see those)
By focusing on the defense, the context of the
play will become clear
For example a block/charge situation:
“ Was the defender in position?” this should be your focus !
“ Anticipate the play not the call.”
“ Anticipate the play not the call”
Use your experience and knowledge of the game to get your self in position for where action is going to take place.
The classic: “raised fist” / “no whistle”
Shows indecision – leads to problems
Only call what you see – not what you think you saw
And never call what you think your going to see.
A strong late whistle is better than no whistle, penalizing an innocent player, or compromising your authority
“ Stay in your primary.”
When the ball is IN your primary coverage area: “ Referee the Defense!”
If the ball is OUT of your primary …
The Lead should be looking for:
excessive contact in the post, aggressive screens, and an opportunity to begin a live-ball rotation
The Trail and Center should be watching for rebounding violations off-ball holding, pushing and illegal screens.
Watch the Lead for possible rotations.
“ Don’t ball watch”
“ Incidental Contact”
From the Rule Book:
“ When 10 players are moving rapidly in a limited area, some contact is certain to occur.”
Oswalt Tower Philosophy
“ It is the purpose of the rules to penalize a player who by reason of an illegal act has placed his/her opponent at a disadvantage. It is not the intent that the rules shall be interpreted literally, rather they should be applied in relation to the effect which the action of the players has upon their opponents. If they are unfairly affected as a result of a violation of the rules then the transgressor shall be penalized. If there has been no appreciable effect on the progress of the game, then the game shall not be interrupted. The act should be ignored, as it is incidental and not vital. Realistically and practically, no violation has occurred."