NORTHEASTERN  UNIVERSITY  INTRAMURAL SPORTS   OFFICIATING BASKETBALL
Basic Positioning <ul><li>All officials should  </li></ul><ul><li>maintain the semblance of  </li></ul><ul><li>a wide tria...
Lead, Trail, & Center Positioning
Lead Position <ul><li>LEAD OFFICIAL   </li></ul><ul><li>Positioned on the base line at a good depth and distance </li></ul...
Trail Position <ul><li>TRAIL OFFICIAL   </li></ul><ul><li>Position on the same side as the  L </li></ul><ul><li>Watches fr...
Dual Coverage for  L  and  T <ul><li>Lead  and  Trail  Dual Area </li></ul><ul><li>The  L  and  T  both can make calls in ...
Center Position <ul><li>CENTER OFFICIAL </li></ul><ul><li>Positioned at the foul line extended </li></ul><ul><li>Watch for...
Coverage Areas
Positions in Transition
Transitioning The  Center  should move with the speed of the ball as it progresses up the court. The “ Trail  to  Lead ” o...
Live Ball Rotation <ul><li>The officials must adjust their </li></ul><ul><li>positions to the location of the </li></ul><u...
Lead Initiates Rotation <ul><li>L ead official  (#1)  keys all live ball rotations </li></ul><ul><li>L  should try to be “...
Live Ball Rotation
Calling Out of Bounds <ul><li>When the ball goes out:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sharply blow your whistle  </li></ul></ul><ul...
Out of Bounds Coverage The calling official must clearly signal the direction of the possession after the ball is whistled...
Out of Bounds <ul><li>Officials should only call the line that they are responsible for.  </li></ul><ul><li>Calling out of...
Out of Bounds <ul><li>The Ball is Out when it touches: </li></ul><ul><li>a player who is out of  </li></ul><ul><li>  bound...
In-bounding Mechanics <ul><li>Hand the ball to </li></ul><ul><li>the in-bounding </li></ul><ul><li>player:  </li></ul><ul>...
Placement of Throw-ins <ul><li>Administer the throw-in closest to the spot of the foul or violation.  </li></ul><ul><li>Ne...
Throw In Administration <ul><li>“ Box-in-the-players ” </li></ul><ul><li>Keep players between the officials and the basket...
Throw-ins Under the Basket <ul><li>Never allow the player to in-bound the ball from directly under the hoop </li></ul><ul>...
Throw In Violations <ul><li>In-Bounding team has five seconds to  </li></ul><ul><li>release the ball once they have been <...
Free Throw Administration <ul><li>The calling official remains table side ( C ) </li></ul><ul><li>L   and  T  go opposite ...
Free Throw Administration <ul><li>The Defense… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maximum 4 players </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must occ...
Free Throw Violations <ul><li>Try must be attempted between the foul line and within the free throw semi-circle   </li></u...
Free Throw Violations <ul><li>If  Shooting  team violates…  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ball is immediately dead and any basket ...
Three Pointers <ul><li>The  C  and  T   officials will signal attempts and made baskets in their areas. </li></ul><ul><li>...
Visible Counts <ul><li>Develop a consistent count </li></ul><ul><ul><li>arm slightly above your torso </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Substitutions <ul><li>Substitutes can only enter the game on a dead ball, after being waved in by an official </li></ul><u...
Tip Off <ul><li>The Toss should be… </li></ul><ul><li>Straight </li></ul><ul><li>Slightly higher than either player can ju...
Jump Ball Administration <ul><li>Players jumping will position themselves facing their basket and will have both feet with...
Jump Ball Violations <ul><li>The Ball is re-jumped if…  </li></ul><ul><li>Referee makes a bad toss  </li></ul><ul><li>Team...
Pre-Game Conference <ul><li>Before every game the supervisor on duty will review the basics of officiating and communicate...
Pre-Game Conference
Captain’s Meeting <ul><li>Set The Tone For The Entire Game  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This is your first chance to let the tea...
Last Shot Responsibilities <ul><li>The official opposite tableside (either </li></ul><ul><li>the  T  or  C ) is responsibl...
Calling the Foul <ul><li>Blow the Whistle  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sharp and Crisp </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loud whistles ...
Call in the Foul #1 First, blow the whistle and raise a clenched fist straight in the air #2 Give the preliminary signal f...
Reporting a Foul <ul><li>C olor :  Give the  color  of the fouling player (“RED”) </li></ul><ul><li>N umber :  give the  #...
Foul Reporting Area
The Calling Official <ul><li>Whistle and raise arm with a clenched fist </li></ul><ul><li>Momentarily pause in your positi...
Hits: The Standard Hack <ul><li>HITS  : illegal contact with the ball handler. </li></ul>“ White, #42, hits. Black ball on...
Push <ul><li>PUSH : illegal contact by extending of arms which influences the movement of an opponent.  </li></ul>
Holding   <ul><li>HOLDING : illegal contact that impedes the lateral or vertical movement of an opposing player.  </li></ul>
Double Fouls <ul><li>DOUBLE FOUL : </li></ul><ul><li>simultaneous personal fouls  </li></ul><ul><li>by a member of each te...
Legal Guarding <ul><li>GUARDING :  </li></ul><ul><li>is the act of legally placing a body in the path of an offensive oppo...
Principle of Verticality <ul><li>Applies to being in a legal guarding position. </li></ul><ul><li>Player must remain in th...
Blocking Foul <ul><li>BLOCK : Illegal personal </li></ul><ul><li>contact which impedes the </li></ul><ul><li>progress of a...
Player Control Foul   <ul><li>PLAYER CONTROL :  </li></ul><ul><li>offensive player makes illegal contact with </li></ul><u...
Block/Charge  <ul><li>“ Referee the Defense” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This call is easy to make if you focus correctly </li><...
“ Over the Back” <ul><li>To obtain or maintain a legal rebounding position a player may  not : </li></ul><ul><li>Displace,...
Excessive Swinging of Elbows <ul><li>ELBOWING : a player swings his elbows in an excessive and dangerous manner. No contac...
Intentional Foul <ul><li>Foul committed with no attempt to play the ball when the person being fouled has a “clear” attemp...
Flagrant Fouls <ul><li>The penalty for this foul is a technical foul and an ejection for the offending player </li></ul><u...
Hand Checks <ul><li>HAND CHECKING : illegal personal contact by a defensive player, which impedes the forward or lateral m...
Technical Fouls <ul><li>Never allow a player to disrespect you, the game, or another official.  </li></ul>Technical Fouls ...
Calling a Violation <ul><li>Blow Whistle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Give a sharp blast  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weak whistle...
10 Second Back Court Violation <ul><li>The official will administer a visible 10 count.  </li></ul>A team must advance the...
5 Second Violation <ul><li>Five second violations occur for:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Throw-ins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C...
“ Palming the ball”/Carries <ul><li>Player rolls his wrist over the ball in an attempt </li></ul><ul><li>to gain an advant...
Traveling <ul><li>Player is not allowed to travel/walk with the ball </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pivot Foot: Player commits to a...
Illegal Dribble/ Double Dribble <ul><ul><li>Not  a Double Dribble : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ball has been batted/co...
Kick Violation <ul><li>Results in loss of  </li></ul><ul><li>possession for the  </li></ul><ul><li>violating  </li></ul><u...
3 Second Lane Violation <ul><li>Use preventive officiating before calling:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Get out of the key Red...
“ No Basket!  No Basket!” <ul><li>A basket, scored after a violation, must be waived off.  </li></ul><ul><li>This call mus...
Closely Guarded <ul><li>Closely guarded is when a defensive player is “actively” guarding a player and is within six feet....
Not Closely Guarded <ul><li>THE COUNT ENDS… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>if the defense is not within  6 ft. </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Jump Ball  Held Ball   Jump Ball   when opponents each have their hands on the ball and neither can establish possession  ...
The Possession Arrow <ul><li>Possession Occurs for… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jump Balls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Held Balls...
Goaltending  <ul><li>FOUR REQUIRED ELEMENTS </li></ul><ul><li>A shot or tap </li></ul><ul><li>Downward flight </li></ul><u...
Basket Interference <ul><li>Occurs when a player… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>touches the ball, basket, or net when the ball is ...
“ Over-and-Back” Violation <ul><li>An offensive player with the ball may not cross back over the half-court line once they...
Time Outs <ul><li>TIME OUTS CAN BE GRANTED WHEN… </li></ul><ul><li>A team is in possession of the ball (player with the ba...
Screens <ul><li>Screen:  a legal action by a player who, without  causing contact, delays or prevents an opponent from rea...
Principles <ul><li>“ Referee the Defense” </li></ul>
“ Referee the Defense” <ul><li>An official must have their focus on the defensive player when the ball is in their primary...
Principles <ul><li>“ Anticipate the play  not   the call.” </li></ul>
“ Anticipate the play  not   the call” <ul><li>Use your experience and knowledge of the game to get your self in position ...
Principles <ul><li>“ Stay in your primary.” </li></ul>When the ball is  IN  your primary coverage area: “ Referee the Defe...
If the ball is  OUT  of your primary   … <ul><li>The  Lead  should be looking for: </li></ul><ul><li>excessive contact in ...
Prinicples <ul><li>“ Incidental Contact” </li></ul><ul><li>From the Rule Book:  </li></ul><ul><li>“ When 10 players are mo...
Oswalt Tower Philosophy <ul><li>“ It is the purpose of the rules to penalize a player who by reason of an illegal act has ...
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Basketball Powerpoint

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  • Transcript of "Basketball Powerpoint"

    1. 1. NORTHEASTERN UNIVERSITY INTRAMURAL SPORTS OFFICIATING BASKETBALL
    2. 2. Basic Positioning <ul><li>All officials should </li></ul><ul><li>maintain the semblance of </li></ul><ul><li>a wide triangle to cover </li></ul><ul><li>the court. </li></ul><ul><li>Trail – Same side as the </li></ul><ul><li> Lead and closest to half-court </li></ul><ul><li>Lead – Ball side and on </li></ul><ul><li> the endline </li></ul><ul><li>Center – Foul line extended </li></ul><ul><li> and opposite </li></ul><ul><li> Lead and Trail </li></ul>
    3. 3. Lead, Trail, & Center Positioning
    4. 4. Lead Position <ul><li>LEAD OFFICIAL </li></ul><ul><li>Positioned on the base line at a good depth and distance </li></ul><ul><li>Responsible for the endline boundary </li></ul><ul><li>Watches primarily post play and rebounds. </li></ul>
    5. 5. Trail Position <ul><li>TRAIL OFFICIAL </li></ul><ul><li>Position on the same side as the L </li></ul><ul><li>Watches front court action: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Closely guarded </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 Pointers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ball handling action </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Responsible for sideline and halfcourt line </li></ul>
    6. 6. Dual Coverage for L and T <ul><li>Lead and Trail Dual Area </li></ul><ul><li>The L and T both can make calls in the designated area </li></ul><ul><li>Drives to the hoop </li></ul><ul><li>Shots and fouls </li></ul><ul><li>Illegal Screens </li></ul><ul><li>Except for this area there should NEVER be Double Whistles </li></ul>
    7. 7. Center Position <ul><li>CENTER OFFICIAL </li></ul><ul><li>Positioned at the foul line extended </li></ul><ul><li>Watch for illegal contact on drives across the middle of the lane </li></ul><ul><li>Signals 3 point attempts in this area. </li></ul><ul><li>Off-ball coverage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Screens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weak side rebounding </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Coverage Areas
    9. 9. Positions in Transition
    10. 10. Transitioning The Center should move with the speed of the ball as it progresses up the court. The “ Trail to Lead ” official is responsible for the front 1/3 of the pack moving up the floor. The “ Lead to Trail ” is responsible for the back 2/3 of the players moving up the court. Look back over your shoulder and observe the status of the play. Do not relax and turn your head away from the play during transition.
    11. 11. Live Ball Rotation <ul><li>The officials must adjust their </li></ul><ul><li>positions to the location of the </li></ul><ul><li>ball and the positioning of the </li></ul><ul><li>players. </li></ul><ul><li>Rotations occur when the L ead moves to the ball side which dictates the change of the C enter and T rail </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The C becomes the new T </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The T becomes the new C </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Lead Initiates Rotation <ul><li>L ead official (#1) keys all live ball rotations </li></ul><ul><li>L should try to be “ball side” – box in the players </li></ul><ul><li>L is closed-down (#2) </li></ul><ul><li>L (#3) the rotation is completed </li></ul><ul><li>L and T should now be ball side. </li></ul>
    13. 13. Live Ball Rotation
    14. 14. Calling Out of Bounds <ul><li>When the ball goes out: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sharply blow your whistle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Raise your arm with an open palm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Signal direction for new possession </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Out of Bounds Coverage The calling official must clearly signal the direction of the possession after the ball is whistled out of bounds
    16. 16. Out of Bounds <ul><li>Officials should only call the line that they are responsible for. </li></ul><ul><li>Calling out of your area may result in double whistle and conflicting calls. </li></ul><ul><li>Trust your partners ! </li></ul>
    17. 17. Out of Bounds <ul><li>The Ball is Out when it touches: </li></ul><ul><li>a player who is out of </li></ul><ul><li> bounds </li></ul><ul><li>the floor past the boundary </li></ul><ul><li>any object on or outside the </li></ul><ul><li> boundary </li></ul><ul><li>the backboard supports or </li></ul><ul><li> ceiling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the top and the side of the backboard are in bounds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The ball is considered to be caused to go out of bounds by the last player that had contact with the ball. </li></ul>The calling official will designate the spot where the ball is to be in-bounded
    18. 18. In-bounding Mechanics <ul><li>Hand the ball to </li></ul><ul><li>the in-bounding </li></ul><ul><li>player: </li></ul><ul><li>Leave arm extended above your head </li></ul><ul><li>Visible 5 count w/ other hand </li></ul>“ Chop” the clock in, when ball is touched by a player on the floor
    19. 19. Placement of Throw-ins <ul><li>Administer the throw-in closest to the spot of the foul or violation. </li></ul><ul><li>Never allow a throw-in from under the back board </li></ul><ul><li>Fouls in the key are administered as shown in the blue highlighted area </li></ul>
    20. 20. Throw In Administration <ul><li>“ Box-in-the-players ” </li></ul><ul><li>Keep players between the officials and the basket </li></ul><ul><li>L and T should be ball side </li></ul>Officials may bounce the ball to a player on the sideline.
    21. 21. Throw-ins Under the Basket <ul><li>Never allow the player to in-bound the ball from directly under the hoop </li></ul><ul><li>Positioning should be </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Backboard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Player w/ball </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Official on the outside </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Box in the players” </li></ul>
    22. 22. Throw In Violations <ul><li>In-Bounding team has five seconds to </li></ul><ul><li>release the ball once they have been </li></ul><ul><li>given it by the official </li></ul>The defensive team cannot reach over the sideline to defend the ball. If contact is made with the player or the ball, a Technical Foul must be assessed. Official should show a visible five second count
    23. 23. Free Throw Administration <ul><li>The calling official remains table side ( C ) </li></ul><ul><li>L and T go opposite the table </li></ul><ul><li>L watches opposite lane and the first near space </li></ul><ul><li>C watches the top three spaces of the opposite lane, the shooter, and the basket </li></ul><ul><li>T assists both other officials and watches for fouls on the rebound </li></ul>
    24. 24. Free Throw Administration <ul><li>The Defense… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maximum 4 players </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must occupy bottom 2 slots </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Offense… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maximum 2 players </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shooter that was fouled </li></ul></ul>No players can be in the top 2 spaces nearest the shooter
    25. 25. Free Throw Violations <ul><li>Try must be attempted between the foul line and within the free throw semi-circle </li></ul><ul><li>Player taking free throw can not fake a shot or do anything to cause an opponent to violate lane </li></ul><ul><li>No player can enter or leave a space once the shooter has the ball </li></ul><ul><li>Players cannot enter the key until the ball has made contact with the rim </li></ul><ul><li>The Player taking the free throw must shoot the ball within 10 seconds, otherwise it is a violation </li></ul>Defensive opponents cannot “ disconcert” the shooter
    26. 26. Free Throw Violations <ul><li>If Shooting team violates… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ball is immediately dead and any basket is </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>disallowed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If shots remain, continue to the next shot </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If it is the final attempt, opposing team gets the ball out of bounds on the side </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>If Defensive team violates… </li></ul><ul><li>If basket is made, violation is ignored </li></ul><ul><li>If basket is missed, violation is called and attempt is re-tried </li></ul>Withheld Whistle Signal  Acknowledges the violation without calling it
    27. 27. Three Pointers <ul><li>The C and T officials will signal attempts and made baskets in their areas. </li></ul><ul><li>The area above the key will be shared by both officials </li></ul><ul><li>L ead will only ever signal in a fastbreak or transition situation </li></ul>
    28. 28. Visible Counts <ul><li>Develop a consistent count </li></ul><ul><ul><li>arm slightly above your torso </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>make your count crisp and controlled </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Counting situations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Closely guarded (5) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In-bounding (5) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Back Court (10) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Different Counts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fist pump - free throws (10) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Swinging am - lane violations (3) </li></ul></ul>
    29. 29. Substitutions <ul><li>Substitutes can only enter the game on a dead ball, after being waved in by an official </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Any violation of this is a team technical </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Substitutes during free throws </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bring players in only before the last certain free throw </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subbing for the shooter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If the last free throw is made, stop play and allow substitution to happen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If last free throw is missed, play continues and substitute has to wait until next dead ball. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    30. 30. Tip Off <ul><li>The Toss should be… </li></ul><ul><li>Straight </li></ul><ul><li>Slightly higher than either player can jump </li></ul><ul><li>Before the Toss… </li></ul><ul><li>Check w/ officials and </li></ul><ul><li>timer/scorer </li></ul><ul><li>Indicate team directions </li></ul><ul><li>Lastly sound whistle </li></ul>
    31. 31. Jump Ball Administration <ul><li>Players jumping will position themselves facing their basket and will have both feet within their half of the center circle. </li></ul><ul><li>All other players will take a position outside of the center circle and must be set at the time of the jump. </li></ul><ul><li>Teammates may not have adjacent positions if the opposing team indicates the desire to fill that spot. </li></ul><ul><li>The tossed ball cannot be touched until it reaches its highest point, but must be touched before returning to the ground. </li></ul>
    32. 32. Jump Ball Violations <ul><li>The Ball is re-jumped if… </li></ul><ul><li>Referee makes a bad toss </li></ul><ul><li>Teams commit simultaneous violations </li></ul><ul><li>If one team commits any violation the ball is given out of bounds to the opposing team. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Team committing violation will receive the possession arrow. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If ball is knocked out of bounds on the jump, opposing team gains possession. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Possession arrow goes to the team who knocked the ball out of bounds. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The jumper may not: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Catch the jump ball </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Touch the ball more than twice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leave the center circle before the </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ball is secured </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control the ball before a non-jumper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>has had the opportunity </li></ul></ul>
    33. 33. Pre-Game Conference <ul><li>Before every game the supervisor on duty will review the basics of officiating and communicate any special instructions for the game </li></ul><ul><li>This Pre-game Conference is a simple matter of reviewing what you should already know and what we expect from each and every official </li></ul>
    34. 34. Pre-Game Conference
    35. 35. Captain’s Meeting <ul><li>Set The Tone For The Entire Game </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This is your first chance to let the teams know what kind of game they are going to have </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Take control but don’t be pushy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have fun but you have to be taken seriously </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Distribute “Captain” armbands and remind them… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ The captain is the only one on the team who should address officials at all.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If their team has any questions or concerns make sure it goes through the Captain. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Players addressing the officials or questioning their calls will be penalized. </li></ul></ul>
    36. 36. Last Shot Responsibilities <ul><li>The official opposite tableside (either </li></ul><ul><li>the T or C ) is responsible for making </li></ul><ul><li>the ruling on any last-second shot </li></ul>Communicate to the other officials that the Game Clock is your responsibility. No field goal attempt or try may be scored with less than three-tenth of a second on the clock – however a tap may be counted.
    37. 37. Calling the Foul <ul><li>Blow the Whistle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sharp and Crisp </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loud whistles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Extend your arm straight up with a clenched fist. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Freeze </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Move slowly and deliberately </li></ul></ul>
    38. 38. Call in the Foul #1 First, blow the whistle and raise a clenched fist straight in the air #2 Give the preliminary signal for the foul #3 Indicate the who will now have possession. Lastly, designate where the ball will be put back into play #4
    39. 39. Reporting a Foul <ul><li>C olor : Give the color of the fouling player (“RED”) </li></ul><ul><li>N umber : give the # of the fouling player (“14”) </li></ul><ul><li>F oul : give the correct foul ( “BLOCKING”) </li></ul><ul><li>N EXT : report what will happen next (“2 Shots”) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>* If a made basket preceded the foul call say: “Count the basket” and then continue C.N.F.N. </li></ul></ul>
    40. 40. Foul Reporting Area
    41. 41. The Calling Official <ul><li>Whistle and raise arm with a clenched fist </li></ul><ul><li>Momentarily pause in your position </li></ul><ul><li>Signal the committed foul (Holding, pushing, etc etc) </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate verbally what occurred </li></ul><ul><li>Indicate where ball will be put into play </li></ul><ul><li>Hustle to the table, go around the players </li></ul><ul><li>Pause and set yourself in front of the table </li></ul><ul><li>* If a basket was made, say “Count it.” </li></ul><ul><li>Begin C.N.F.N. – Color  #  Foul  Next </li></ul><ul><li>Stay table side </li></ul>
    42. 42. Hits: The Standard Hack <ul><li>HITS : illegal contact with the ball handler. </li></ul>“ White, #42, hits. Black ball on the side.”
    43. 43. Push <ul><li>PUSH : illegal contact by extending of arms which influences the movement of an opponent. </li></ul>
    44. 44. Holding <ul><li>HOLDING : illegal contact that impedes the lateral or vertical movement of an opposing player. </li></ul>
    45. 45. Double Fouls <ul><li>DOUBLE FOUL : </li></ul><ul><li>simultaneous personal fouls </li></ul><ul><li>by a member of each team. </li></ul>This is a great call to clean up overly aggressive post play The ball is taken out from the spot of interruption, if it can be established. If it cannot, use the alternating possession arrow.
    46. 46. Legal Guarding <ul><li>GUARDING : </li></ul><ul><li>is the act of legally placing a body in the path of an offensive opponent. </li></ul><ul><li>Obtaining a legal guarding position : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The guard must have both feet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>touching the floor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The front of the guard’s torso </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>must be facing the opponent. </li></ul></ul>Every player is entitled to a spot on the floor provided such player gets there first without illegally contacting an opponent.
    47. 47. Principle of Verticality <ul><li>Applies to being in a legal guarding position. </li></ul><ul><li>Player must remain in their “vertical plane” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arms must be STRAIGHT UP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Player can jump vertically, but not out of the vertical plane </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Player must avoid contact with their lower body outside of their vertical plane </li></ul><ul><li>Offensive player may not “intrude” a defensive player’s vertical plane in an attempt to clear them out. </li></ul>A player that sticks out an arm, shoulder, hip or leg, into the path of an opponent is NOT considered to be in legal guarding position – and is responsible for that contact.
    48. 48. Blocking Foul <ul><li>BLOCK : Illegal personal </li></ul><ul><li>contact which impedes the </li></ul><ul><li>progress of an opponent. </li></ul>Sequence of Signals for a Block
    49. 49. Player Control Foul <ul><li>PLAYER CONTROL : </li></ul><ul><li>offensive player makes illegal contact with </li></ul><ul><li>a defensive player in a previously </li></ul><ul><li>established legal guarding position. </li></ul><ul><li>A player moving with the ball is required to stop or change direction to avoid contact with a defender in a legal position. </li></ul>PLAYER CONTROL FOULS = Loss of possession / no free throws
    50. 50. Block/Charge <ul><li>“ Referee the Defense” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This call is easy to make if you focus correctly </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ask Yourself… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Was the Defense there first? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Did the Defense have both feet on the floor? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Was the Defense facing the player with the ball? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Yes to all 3? It’s a Charge ! </li></ul>The Defense must get to the spot in time to draw the foul… IF IT IS UNCLEAR, IT’S A BLOCK Player Control Fouls also apply to an Airborne Shooter.
    51. 51. “ Over the Back” <ul><li>To obtain or maintain a legal rebounding position a player may not : </li></ul><ul><li>Displace, push or charge an opponent </li></ul><ul><li>Bend their body in an abnormal way to </li></ul><ul><li> hold or displace an opponent </li></ul><ul><li>Violate the Principle of Verticality. </li></ul><ul><li>* There really is no such thing as “over-the-back”: there must be contact – it must be either a pushing or holding foul </li></ul>The Center and Lead officials must close down on shots and watch for illegal contact on rebounds
    52. 52. Excessive Swinging of Elbows <ul><li>ELBOWING : a player swings his elbows in an excessive and dangerous manner. No contact need occur </li></ul>If a player accidentally elbows to throw a pass it is considered accidental contact <ul><li>If there is… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>no contact = violation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>contact = technical foul </li></ul></ul>
    53. 53. Intentional Foul <ul><li>Foul committed with no attempt to play the ball when the person being fouled has a “clear” attempt at a scoring opportunity. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make sure they are not making any play on the ball. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If severe enough it becomes a Flagrant Foul (ejectionable) </li></ul></ul>Penalty : 2 free throws (clear the lane) and possession of the ball for the team that is fouled.
    54. 54. Flagrant Fouls <ul><li>The penalty for this foul is a technical foul and an ejection for the offending player </li></ul><ul><li>Is “violent and savage” in nature </li></ul><ul><li>Includes but is not limited to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Striking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kicking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kneeing </li></ul></ul>Penalty  Player is ejected and 2 foul shots with the lanes cleared for the opposing team.
    55. 55. Hand Checks <ul><li>HAND CHECKING : illegal personal contact by a defensive player, which impedes the forward or lateral movement of the ball holder. </li></ul><ul><li>Call the foul if the defender… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Impedes or restricts the movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dislodges or jabs an opponent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>continually leaves a hand on an opponent </li></ul></ul>
    56. 56. Technical Fouls <ul><li>Never allow a player to disrespect you, the game, or another official. </li></ul>Technical Fouls are called when a player or team has violated the spirit of the game, disrespected the game, and/or disrespected a player.
    57. 57. Calling a Violation <ul><li>Blow Whistle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Give a sharp blast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weak whistles = indecision </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Raise arm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Open hand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Straight in the air </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Give proper mechanic for the violation which occurred </li></ul>
    58. 58. 10 Second Back Court Violation <ul><li>The official will administer a visible 10 count. </li></ul>A team must advance the ball beyond the center court line in 10 seconds
    59. 59. 5 Second Violation <ul><li>Five second violations occur for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Throw-ins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Closely-guarded </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Blow your whistle, signal the stop clock violation and give </li></ul><ul><li>5-second violation mechanic. </li></ul>
    60. 60. “ Palming the ball”/Carries <ul><li>Player rolls his wrist over the ball in an attempt </li></ul><ul><li>to gain an advantage controlling the ball </li></ul><ul><li>Most players carry with their normal dribble. </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure you distinguish between a person’s normal dribble and an attempt to gain an advantage. </li></ul>
    61. 61. Traveling <ul><li>Player is not allowed to travel/walk with the ball </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pivot Foot: Player commits to a pivot foot by landing on that foot first </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If player makes a good jump stop, they can establish either foot as their pivot foot. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Player may pick up their pivot foot, but must get rid of the ball before returning it to the ground. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Player cannot jump with the ball and return to the ground with the ball without releasing it. </li></ul></ul>
    62. 62. Illegal Dribble/ Double Dribble <ul><ul><li>Not a Double Dribble : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ball has been batted/contacted by opponent </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Loose Balls </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>After a shot attempt </li></ul></ul></ul>Players cannot start a dribble after their first dribble has ended or put two hands on the ball while dribbling.
    63. 63. Kick Violation <ul><li>Results in loss of </li></ul><ul><li>possession for the </li></ul><ul><li>violating </li></ul><ul><li>team. </li></ul>It is a violation to INTENTIONALY kick the ball with any part of the leg or foot.
    64. 64. 3 Second Lane Violation <ul><li>Use preventive officiating before calling: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Get out of the key Red!” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If a player is on their way out don’t call it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If player doesn’t move after warning call the violation </li></ul></ul>An offensive player may not have any part of their body in the lane, while the ball is in the front court, for more than three seconds. Count resets every time the ball is shot.
    65. 65. “ No Basket! No Basket!” <ul><li>A basket, scored after a violation, must be waived off. </li></ul><ul><li>This call must be “sold”… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Be LOUD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use emphatic signals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Show no indecision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t hesitate </li></ul></ul>
    66. 66. Closely Guarded <ul><li>Closely guarded is when a defensive player is “actively” guarding a player and is within six feet. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>6 Ft is the Magic Distance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5 seconds is the Magic Count </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Closely guarded only applies when the ball is in the frontcourt. </li></ul>The 5 count resets every time there is a change in the ball handler’s “status”: a player can hold the ball for 4 ½ seconds, then dribble for 4 ½ seconds, then hold the ball for 4 ½ seconds before they have to get rid of the ball.
    67. 67. Not Closely Guarded <ul><li>THE COUNT ENDS… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>if the defense is not within 6 ft. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>anytime an offensive player gets their head and shoulders past the defense </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>anytime the defense is not between the player with the ball and the basket </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The defensive player may switch with another defender: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the count will continue as long as the 6 ft barrier is not broken </li></ul></ul>
    68. 68. Jump Ball Held Ball Jump Ball when opponents each have their hands on the ball and neither can establish possession Held Ball – when the defense prevents an airborne shooter from releasing the ball during a block RESULT  Alternating Possession
    69. 69. The Possession Arrow <ul><li>Possession Occurs for… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jump Balls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Held Balls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Out of bounds off both teams </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Official cannot determine correct possession </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simultaneous free-throw violations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ball stuck between backboard and hoop </li></ul></ul>
    70. 70. Goaltending <ul><li>FOUR REQUIRED ELEMENTS </li></ul><ul><li>A shot or tap </li></ul><ul><li>Downward flight </li></ul><ul><li>Ball above the level of the basket </li></ul><ul><li>The shot has a chance to go in </li></ul> AWARD THE POINTS AFTER A GOALTENDING CALL AGAINST THE DEFENSE
    71. 71. Basket Interference <ul><li>Occurs when a player… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>touches the ball, basket, or net when the ball is ON or within the basket </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>touches the ball while it is on the cylinder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>touches the ball outside the cylinder while reaching through the basket from below . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If committed by the Defense  award the points </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If committed by the Offense  disallow the points and grant possession to the defensive team </li></ul></ul>
    72. 72. “ Over-and-Back” Violation <ul><li>An offensive player with the ball may not cross back over the half-court line once they have advanced the ball beyond mid-court. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Its never a violation on a throw-in. The ball can be thrown anywhere. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A player that jumps from frontcourt without the ball, catches the ball in the air, and lands in backcourt is legal because they never established possession in the frontcourt. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A player is not considered to be in the frontcourt until they have established 2 out of 3 “points” in the frontcourt: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>THE POINTS : Right Foot, Left Foot, and Ball </li></ul></ul>
    73. 73. Time Outs <ul><li>TIME OUTS CAN BE GRANTED WHEN… </li></ul><ul><li>A team is in possession of the ball (player with the ball, or bench personnel) </li></ul><ul><li>Any DEAD BALL situation (either team may request one) </li></ul>THE GRANTING OFFICIAL WILL REPORT TO THE SCORER THE # AND TEAM WHICH ASKED FOR THE TIME OUT. The player must be in control of the ball for a Time Out to be granted.
    74. 74. Screens <ul><li>Screen: a legal action by a player who, without causing contact, delays or prevents an opponent from reaching a desired position. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The screener must be stationary, except when both are moving in the same path and the same direction. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Players setting a screen may not: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Move to maintain the position of a screen once they have established initial position. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This includes leaning into the screen. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Watch the legs and arms being stuck out </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When outside a person’s field of vision take a position closer than one normal step from opponent </li></ul></ul>
    75. 75. Principles <ul><li>“ Referee the Defense” </li></ul>
    76. 76. “ Referee the Defense” <ul><li>An official must have their focus on the defensive player when the ball is in their primary. </li></ul><ul><li>What’s the worst that the offense can do? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Travel? Double Dribble? Carry the ball? (You’ll see those) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>By focusing on the defense, the context of the </li></ul><ul><li>play will become clear </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For example a block/charge situation: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Was the defender in position?”  this should be your focus ! </li></ul></ul>
    77. 77. Principles <ul><li>“ Anticipate the play not the call.” </li></ul>
    78. 78. “ Anticipate the play not the call” <ul><li>Use your experience and knowledge of the game to get your self in position for where action is going to take place. </li></ul><ul><li>The classic: “raised fist” / “no whistle” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shows indecision – leads to problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only call what you see – not what you think you saw </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>And never call what you think your going to see. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A strong late whistle is better than no whistle, penalizing an innocent player, or compromising your authority </li></ul></ul>
    79. 79. Principles <ul><li>“ Stay in your primary.” </li></ul>When the ball is IN your primary coverage area: “ Referee the Defense!”
    80. 80. If the ball is OUT of your primary … <ul><li>The Lead should be looking for: </li></ul><ul><li>excessive contact in the post, aggressive screens, and an opportunity to begin a live-ball rotation </li></ul><ul><li>The Trail and Center should be watching for rebounding violations off-ball holding, pushing and illegal screens. </li></ul><ul><li>Watch the Lead for possible rotations. </li></ul>“ Don’t ball watch”
    81. 81. Prinicples <ul><li>“ Incidental Contact” </li></ul><ul><li>From the Rule Book: </li></ul><ul><li>“ When 10 players are moving rapidly in a limited area, some contact is certain to occur.” </li></ul>
    82. 82. Oswalt Tower Philosophy <ul><li>“ It is the purpose of the rules to penalize a player who by reason of an illegal act has placed his/her opponent at a disadvantage. It is not the intent that the rules shall be interpreted literally, rather they should be applied in relation to the effect which the action of the players has upon their opponents. If they are unfairly affected as a result of a violation of the rules then the transgressor shall be penalized. If there has been no appreciable effect on the progress of the game, then the game shall not be interrupted. The act should be ignored, as it is incidental and not vital. Realistically and practically, no violation has occurred.&quot; </li></ul>

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