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Urban Regeneration


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  • 1. Urban Regeneration As a Veritable Tool for Housing Delivery Prof. T.G Nubi
  • 2. Discussion will focus on: Concepts of Regeneration – types, activities etc Challenges of housing delivery in Nigeria Past housing policies and programmes Urban Renewal in Lagos City in Slum Urban Regeneration and Housing delivery Examples of Regeneration in the UK, South Africa and US Finance for Regeneration Prof. T.G Nubi
  • 3. "Africa is beyond bemoaning the past for itsproblems. The task of undoing that past is onthe shoulders of African leaders themselves,with the support of those willing to join in acontinental renewal. We have a newgeneration of leaders who know that Africamust take responsibility for its own destiny, thatAfrica will uplift itself only by its own efforts inpartnership with those who wish herwell."...........Nelson Mandela Prof. T.G Nubi
  • 4. WHAT IS REGENERATION?Regeneration is a deliberate, well designed andcoordinated interventions to re-engineer acompetitive future for deprived nations andcommunities over a given period of time. This isusually an economic, social, cultural andenvironmental interventions of in-wardinvestments to improve the quality of lives andinfrastructures…… Emmanuel Mathews Prof. T.G Nubi
  • 5. Purpose Of A Regeneration ProgrammeRegeneration programs and policies are part of the driveto tackle a combination of local needs and prioritiesassociated with: Poverty and deprivation and youth unemployment. Low skill levels, uncompetitive industry Poor health and education, benefit dependency, high proportion of lone parents and homelessness. Bad Housing, a run down physical environment. Loss of community values and social cohesion and high level of crime and drug misuse Urban renewal and redevelopment program Prof. T.G Nubi
  • 6. Challenges Facing HousingDelivery in Nigeria Inadequate scale of delivery/Over 80% of houses built by individuals resulting in 15 million housing deficit. LAND  Absence of clear property and security rights  Mandatory Governor’s consent for all land transactions  Inefficient land management system  High cost of land transactions  High interest rates reflecting risk and source of funds Prof. T.G Nubi
  • 7. Challenges Facing HousingDelivery in Nigeria FINANCE  Absence of long term mortgage finance  Foreclosure laws  Lack of institutional depth  Affordability gap between cost of houses and income of end users  Housing delivery models not replicable – projects carried out in silos OTHERS  Fragmented industry/Artisanal construction/Poor Quality Assurance  Absence of community management to preserve asset value Prof. T.G Nubi
  • 8. Previous Housing Policies AndProgrammesProvision of residential quarters to civil servants initiallyintroduced during colonial period.Formation of the Association of Housing Corporations of Nigeriain 1964.Establishment of the National Council on Housing in 1971.Federal Government Staff Housing Board established in 1971.Establishment of the National Housing Programme in 1972 as acomponent of the second National Development Plan.Creation of the Federal Housing Authority (FHA) as animplementing agency of Federal Government National HousingProgramme. Prof. T.G Nubi
  • 9. Previous Housing Policies AndProgrammesDirect provision of N2.6 billion for housing provision in all thestates of the Federation during the third National Development Plan(1975 – 80).Pioneer Federal Ministry of Housing, Urban Development andEnvironment was created in 1975.Housing problems of the low-income group brought to the forethrough the Committee on Standardization of House Types andPolicies (1975).Constitution of a Rent Panel in 1976 leading to the establishmentof State Rent Tribunals.Promulgation of the Land Use Decree No.6 (1978) a major step inland reform aimed at making land readily available fordevelopment.Nigerian Building Society transformed to Federal Mortgage Bankof Nigeria (FMBN) in 1977. Prof. T.G Nubi
  • 10. Previous Housing Policies AndProgrammesFederal Low-cost Housing Programme of the then civilian basedon the concept of affordability and citizen participation. It targetedlow and medium income groups.World Bank – Assisted Nigerian States Urban DevelopmentProgramme was negotiated in 1979 with a component on low-costhousing for low-income group.The Mortgage Institutions Act (No. 53 of 1989) waspromulgated to regulate and supervise the operation ofPrimary Mortgage Institutions.National Housing Policy launched in 1991.National Construction Policy launched in 1991 Prof. T.G Nubi
  • 11. Previous Housing Policies AndProgrammesFederal Low-cost Housing Programme of the then civilian basedon the concept of affordability and citizen participation. It targetedlow and medium income groups.World Bank – Assisted Nigerian States Urban DevelopmentProgramme was negotiated in 1979 with a component on low-costhousing for low-income group.The Mortgage Institutions Act (No. 53 of 1989) waspromulgated to regulate and supervise the operation ofPrimary Mortgage Institutions.National Housing Policy launched in 1991.National Construction Policy launched in 1991 Prof. T.G Nubi
  • 12. Previous Housing Policies AndProgrammes Promulgation of Federal Mortgage Bank of Nigeria Act (Decree No. 82 of 1993). New National Housing Programme launched in 1994 under the auspices of the Federal Housing Authority. Creation of the Federal Ministry of Housing and Urban Development (2002). Formation of Building Materials Producers Association of Nigeria (BUMPAN) in 2004. New National Housing Policy formulated in 2001 and became official in 2006. Prof. T.G Nubi
  • 13. Urban Renewal in Lagos State LAGOS STATE URBAN RENEWAL AUTHORITY (LASURA) a parastatal of the Ministry of Physical Planning and Urban Development came into existence in 1991 by Edict No 7 of 1991. It was restructured to reposition it in 2005 vide Gazette No 25, Vol. 38 of 14th October 2005. Prof. T.G Nubi
  • 14. Statutory Responsibilities Implementation of all State Government policies and programme on urban Renewal Continuous identification and study of areas due for urban renewal Drawing up of schemes for Renewal Programmes Directing and monitoring of all resettlement schemes whenever necessary i.e. where redevelopment programmes are involved The monitoring, coordination and implementation of Renewal Schemes involving other Government Agencies such as the Local Government in areas of Drains, Health, Market, Shops, recreation facilities etc. within scheme(s) Prof. T.G Nubi
  • 15. CHALLENGES Study conducted by Lagos state Government in collaboration with UNDP in 1983 identified 42 blighted communities in Lagos Metropolitan Area Between 1995 to 2006, LASURA was unable to undertake identification and mapping of additional slum communities which have doubled the initially identified number. Complex land tenure system and fragmentation of estates complicated property inheritance and customary laws are major problems to slum upgrading The staffing structure of LASU is presently weighted towards Town Planners. For an organization dealing with slum upgrading/redevelopment, it is essential that the Authority has among her team of personnel sociologists and economists. Additional Architects, engineers, Urban Design Specialist, GIS experts, Urban Managers, Demographers, Statisticians, Land and Quantity Surveyors Prof. T.G Nubi
  • 16. Challenges Contd! The budgetary allocation to LASURA from the State Government was before January 2008 considered too meager to effectively deal with slum upgrading ($56,410/annum) within the last five years. Low income and high rate of poverty make the economic sustenance of the infrastructural facilities provided a big challenge. Human Challenges: there cannot be urban renewal without human renewal. The psychological lifestyle is another challenge the above is always related to. I. Knowledge base ii. Attitude and iii. Existing practices. Political Challenges: issues of political will and political maneuvers. Prof. T.G Nubi
  • 17. CITY IN A SLUM Prof. T.G Nubi
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  • 30. Housing and Urban Regeneration.Housing plays a key role in urban renewal and local regeneration: Decent, homes contribute to social cohesion, improved health and better use of fossil fuels and other resources. The Government should aim to offer everyone the opportunity of a decent home. A systematic approach of integrating services with housing in order to help low income people achieve housing stability. These services should focus on permanent affordable housing that incorporates various levels of services with housing, with services provided preferably by trained staff for whom service delivery, not property management is their primary responsibility. Programs and Services such as: education, health and social care, transportation, eradication of poverty, employment/training, community care etc Prof. T.G Nubi
  • 31. Urban Regeneration:Principles for Design & ImplementationBased on historical knowledge of linking housing with services:Housing is a basic human need and all people have a right to safe, decent,affordable and permanent housing.All people are valuable, and capable of being valuable residents andvaluable community members.Housing and services should be integrated to enhance the social andeconomic well-being of residents and to build healthy communities.Residents, owners, property managers and service providers should workas a team in integrated housing and services initiatives.Programs should be based on assessment of residents and communitystrengths and needs supported by ongoing monitoring and evaluation Prof. T.G Nubi
  • 32. Principles – contd! Programs should strengthen and expand resident participation to improve the community’s capacity to create change. Residents participation in programs should be voluntary, with an emphasis on outreach to the most vulnerable. Community development activities should be extended to the neighbouring area and residents. Assessment, intervention and evaluation should be multilevel, focusing on individual residents, groups, and the community. Services should maximise the use of existing resources, avoid duplication, and expand the economic, social, and political resources available to residents. Residents of Housing Plus Services program should be integrated into the larger community. Prof. T.G Nubi
  • 33. EXAMPLES OF URBANREGENERATION United Kingdom Dockland Elephant and Castle East London South Africa Soweto United States Philadelphia Prof. T.G Nubi
  • 34. Docklands Development 1981-dateLDDC was set up in 1981 with a task to secure regeneration bybringing land and buildings into effective use, encourage thedevelopment of existing & new industry,creating an attractiveenvironment & ensuring that housing and social facilities are madeavailable to encourage people to live and work in the area. Prof. T.G Nubi
  • 35. The Docklands regeneration was achieved by acombination of public and private sector investment. Prof. T.G Nubi
  • 36. A total of £500m was invested on the strategicschemes and infrastructures between 1986 and 1993 Prof. T.G Nubi
  • 37. Different land marks of the area today Prof. T.G Nubi
  • 38. ELEPHANT & CASTLE,UK Prof. T.G Nubi
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  • 40. SOUTH AFRICA Prof. T.G Nubi
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  • 43. Investment in RegenerationLocal regeneration funding acts as catalyst for complementingor attracting other resources from the private sector. The mainaim is to: Help improve local areas and enhance quality of life Tackle need & stimulate wealth creation Enhance competitiveness Support activities that make real and sustainable impact Encourage partnerships to meet needs and priorities Support initiatives built on good practice and value for money Prof. T.G Nubi
  • 44. Public-Private Partnership: A regenerationfinancing optionA Public Private Partnership (PPP) is a partnership betweenthe public and private sector for the purpose of deliveringa project or service, which was traditionally provided bythe public sector. The PPP process recognises that boththe public sector and the private sector have certainadvantages, relative to the other, in the performance ofspecific tasks. Private sector innovation, technological,financial and management expertise are but some of theattributes, which the private sector can contribute.Through a partnership arrangement, the public andprivate sector can combine to provide quality publicservices and infrastructure in the most economicallyefficient manner. Prof. T.G Nubi
  • 45. Public-Private PartnershipThe public sector would concentrate on investment in: Infrastructures Environmental improvements New roads and public transports Services and drainages etcThe private sector would concentrate on: Building new infrastructures and mega structures Imaginative use of existing lands, waterways Providing development of international quality Finance and equity for development Prof. T.G Nubi
  • 46. Types of Public-Private Partnership (PPP) The Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT) principles of financing projects arises when an individual, institution, country or any other entity conceives project or has need for certain facilities but lacks the fund to undertake development of the project. Individual or institutional investors with invest-able funds could be brought in to inject the needed funds to actualize the development of the project. After the development, the investor operates it for an agreed concession period in order to recoup his investment and at the expiration of the period the un-exhausted development is transferred back to the portfolio of the partner with superior rights/interests. Build – Own – Transfer (BOT) Build – Own – Operate (BOO) Design – Build – Operate – Transfer (DBOT) NOTE: For each available delivery methods, substantial knowledge, experience and judgment are required for success. Prof. T.G Nubi
  • 47. Thank You for Listening Q’s and A’s Open discussions and comments Prof. T.G Nubi