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20110518研考會會議手冊 2

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  • 1. 「各國公共治理創新服務」國際研討會International Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governance 會議手冊 Conference Program會議時間:2011 年 5 月 25 日(星期三)。會議地點:公務人力發展中心前瞻廳主辦單位:行政院研究發展考核委員會承辦單位:台灣公共治理研究中心協辦單位:公務人力發展中心Date: Wednesday, May 25th, 2011Venue: Civil Service Development Institute—International Conference CenterHost: Research, Development and Evaluation Commission, Executive Yuan, Taiwan, R.O.C.Organizer: Taiwan Public Governance Research CenterCosponsor: Civil Service Development Institute
  • 2. vîk!ÿ Contents........................................................................................................... I ...................................................................................................III ...............................................................................V ................................................................................................. VII ....................................................................1 ......................................................................................13 例 ................................................... 15 例 行 例................... 25 例 例 ... 37 ......................................................................................57 例 例 ....................................... 59 例 理 例................... 79 例 例....................... 97 ....................................................................................109 例 流 例..... 111 例 力 年 例..... 143 例 ......................................................................... 157 ................................................................................171 .....................................................................................................185 .....................................................................................................195 .....................................................................................................211 I
  • 3. 0TWQlQql»tRue°gRÙ0W–›xŠgInternational Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governance ContentsContents .................................................................................................... IIPreface..................................................................................................... IVConference Rules & Important Notices............................................... VIAgenda .................................................................................................... IXKeynote Speech: Entrepreneurial Public Servants ...............................1Session One ..............................................................................................14 Case 1: Public Sector Innovation in Australia ................................................. 15 Case 2: Online Free School Meals--An Innovation in Public Service Delivery in England and Wales ......................................................................... 25 Case 3: Innovative Service Practice Sharing of the Implementation of the “113 Protection Hotline”.................................................................... 37Session Two ..............................................................................................58 Case 4: Innovation Service Practices and Case Sharing on Health Care Services in National Taiwan University Hospital .............................. 59 Case 5: Different Service Management of Incheon International Airport, a 6-consecutive winner of Airport Service Quality(2005-2010) Focusing on Network Management ................................................... 79 Case 6: Educational Reform in Osaka: Introducing Competitive Circumstances between Public Schools and Private Schools Using a Subsidy for Private School Tuition .................................................... 97Session Three .........................................................................................110 Case 7: Integrating Application Process and Redefining Service Experience: Employment Pass Services Centre (EPSC) and Employment Pass Online (EPOL) ................................................................................. 111 Case 8: Creating a Youth-Centric Career Center--Workforce Development Policy in Long Beach, California USA............................................ 143 Case 9: Innovative Services for Taxpayers Using Information Technology.. 157Guests Introduction ..............................................................................171Appendix 1.............................................................................................185Appendix 2.............................................................................................195Appendix 3.............................................................................................211II
  • 4. Preface 會議介紹 行政院研究發展考核委員會於 2008 年 1 月 1 日委辦成立台灣公共治理研究中心(於下簡稱公治中心) ,辦理各類研究計畫與調查工作,同時致力於國際合作與經驗交流,建構研究與實務運作的交流平台。 今年度(2011)為進一步加強國際間公共治理經驗交流,建構實務與學界在政策創新層面的對話平台與互動機會,行政院研考會委辦公治中心舉辦為期一天的「各國公共治理創新服務」年度國際研討會,邀請澳洲、日本、韓國、新加坡、英國及美國等國的知名學者或實務專家,以及國內公共治理學者與實務專家共同與會,透過一場主題演講及三場個案論壇,廣泛地討論各國公共服務創新方案內涵與經驗,個案內容包括教育改革、營養午餐服務、青少年生涯發展協助、人力資源規劃、醫療服務、機場服務、家暴防治。 本次會議的預期成果,不僅是交流各國實務經驗,更希望藉此啟發符合本土需求的創新服務方案,同時提升我國對國際相關實務的認識,豐富我國未來相關政策制訂與執行的參考基礎。 III
  • 5. 0TWQlQql»tRue°gRÙ0W–›xŠgInternational Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governance Preface Research, Development and Evaluation Commission (RDEC) of the ExecutiveYuan, Taiwan, R.O.C., commissioned the Department of Political Science ofNational Taiwan University to establish Taiwan Public Governance Research Center(TPGRC) on January 1st, 2008. Since its establishment, TPGRC has beenconducting various research projects and surveys commissioned by RDEC.Committed to the promotion of good governance as well as to the internationalcooperation on the subject, TPGRC defines its central mission as to provide spaceswhere scholars, practitioners, and government officials across the world can interact,thereby connecting the local with the global and bridging the gap betweenresearches and practices. To facilitate international exchange on public governance and communicationon policy innovation between researches and practices, RDEC hosts and TPGRCorganizes The International Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in PublicGovernance, which will be held on May 25th, 2011, in Taipei, Taiwan. Throughoutthis one-day conference with one keynote speech and three sessions of internationalcase presentations, prestigious scholars and experienced practitioners, who have richknowledge on public governance, will share their best practices in public serviceinnovations from various fields in Australia, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, U.K.,U.S.A., and Taiwan. The topics of these case presentations include the educationalreform, the free school meal service, the youth career development, the humanresource planning, the health care service, the airport transportation service, and thedomestic violence prevention, etc.. By this mean, TPGRC expects this international experience exchange toenhance understanding in public governance and to further inspire new serviceinnovations that will meet local demands. As TPGRC deeply believes, theinsightful communication during the conference will be an important asset to thepublic governance policy making and its implementation in each country in thefuture.IV
  • 6. s g‹p‰•RG‚lèaN‹˜ Conference Rules & Important Notices1 352 20 10 20 253 3 1 2 2 145678 V
  • 7. 0TWQlQql»tRue°gRÙ0W–›xŠg International Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governance Conference Rules & Important Notices1. Keynote Speech: 35 minutes.2. Each session is arranged with three case presentations. Twenty minutes will be given to each presentation. Following that, each session will have time for two discussants and the Q & A. Ten minutes will be given to each discussant, and twenty minutes to the moderator and the Q & A.3. For better time control, with 3 minutes of speaking time left, I will ring the bell once to remind speakers and ring the bell twice when their time is up. Each question in Q & A will be given up to two minutes. I will ring the bell once when time is up. Please provide your name, your job title and your work before your question.4. During the conference, please turn your cell phones to silent mode.5. Smoking is forbidden in the hall. Thank you for your cooperation.6. Following policy of energy saving and carbon reduction promoted by our government, please bring your own tableware by yourself and take the mass transportation if possible.7. For participants whose car was parked at the parking lot of the Civil Service Development Institute, please have the parking card stamped at the registration desk for free parking.8. For public officials, please register the learning hour of the life-long learning project of public servants during the break. VI
  • 8. o g‹p‹pzÿ Agenda 年 力 北 路09:00-09:3009:30-09:45 行 行 理 立09:45-10:20 行 立 理 10:20-10:40 茶10:40-12:20 立 行 例1 Mr. Alex ROBERTS, Innovation Division, Department of Innovation, Industry, Science and Research, Australia 例2 行 例  Ms. Amanda DERRICK, Programme Director, Connect Digitally, Department of Education, U.K. Dr. Lorna PETERS, Business Process Lead, Connect Digitally, Hertfordshire County Council, U.K. 例3 113 例 暴力 參 行 Prof. John WANNA Sir John Bunting Chair of Public Administration, Australian National University, Australia; Academic Faculty, Australia & New Zealand School of Government 立 北 行 12:20-13:4013:40-15:20 立 例4 例 立 VII
  • 9. International Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governance 案例 5:韓國政府服務網絡管理經驗:以「仁川機場」為例 發表人:Mr. Ho-Chin LEE, Executive Director of Commercial Marketing Group, Incheon International Airport Corporation, Republic of Korea 案例 6:日本大阪教育革新計劃:以「學費教育券」為例 發表人:Dr. Tomitaro KITAMI Esq., Chief Executive Staff, Planning Office, Department of Policy and Planning, Osaka Prefectural Government, Japan 與談人:Prof. Byong-Seob KIM President, Korean Association for Public Administration, KAPA; Dean, Graduate School of Public Administration, Seoul National University, Republic of Korea 陳家聲 國立臺灣大學工商管理學系暨商學研究所教授 15:20-15:40 茶敘15:40-17:20 議題發表(三) 主持人:施能傑 國立政治大學公共行政學系教授兼系主任 案例 7:新加坡政府創新服務經驗:以「就業申請流程整合」為例 發表人:Mr. Wei Tat CHUA (Ryan), Manager, Employment Pass Services Centre, Singapore Mr. Tze Whei TEO (David), Senior Manager, PQS Processing, Singapore 案例 8:美國加州長堤市人力發展計畫:以「青年就業輔導」為例 發表人:Mr. Bryan ROGERS, Executive Director, Pacific Gateway Workforce Investment Board, Long Beach, CA., U.S.A. 案例 9:創新稅務資訊服務 發表人:蘇俊榮 財政部財稅資料中心主任 謝棟梁 財政部財稅資料中心第一組組長 與談人:Prof. Akira MORITA President, Japanese Society for Public Administration, JSPA; Professor, Graduate Schools for Law and Politics/Faculty of Law, and Graduate School of Public Policy, The University of Tokyo, Japan 彭錦鵬 國立臺灣大學政治學系副教授 ※ 會議使用語言:中文、英文(備有同步口譯)。 VIII
  • 10. o g‹p‹pzÿ Agenda Agenda Date: 25th May, Wed., 2011 Venue: Civil Service Development Institute—International Conference Center (Address: 30, Sec. 3, Xinsheng South Road, Taipei City, Taiwan, R.O.C.)09:00-09:30 Registration09:30-09:45 Welcoming Address Speaker: Premier WU, Den-Yih / Executive Yuan, Taiwan, R.O.C. Minister CHU, Chin-Peng / Research, Development and Evaluation Commission, Executive Yuan, Taiwan, R.O.C. Moderator: Dr. SU, Tsai-Tsu Professor, Department of Political Science, National Taiwan University Director, Taiwan Public Governance Research Center09:45-10:20 Keynote SpeechDistinguished Speaker Planning Topic Prof. CHOW, Edward H. Professor, Department of Finance, Entrepreneurial Public Servants National Chengchi University, Taiwan, R.O.C.10:20-10:40 Tea Break10:40-12:20 Session Moderator: Prof. Chung-Yuang JAN Minister without Portfolio, The Examination Yuan, Taiwan, R.O.C.; Professor, Department of Public Administration, National Chengchi University, Taiwan, R.O.C. Case 1: Public Sector Innovation in Australia Speaker: Mr. Alex ROBERTS, Innovation Division, Department of Innovation, Industry, Science and Research, Australia Case 2: Online Free School Meals--An Innovation in Public Service Delivery in England and Wales  Speaker: Ms. Amanda DERRICK, Programme Director, Connect Digitally, Department of Education, U.K. Dr. Lorna PETERS, Business Process Lead, Connect Digitally, Hertfordshire County Council, U.K. IX
  • 11. 0TWQlQql»tRue°gRÙ0W–›xŠg International Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governance Case 3: Innovative Service Practice Sharing of the Implementation of the “113 Protection Hotline” Speaker: Ms. Hui-Jiuan CHIEN, Executive Secretary, Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault Prevention Committee, Ministry of Interior, Taiwan, R.O.C. Discussants: Prof. John WANNA Sir John Bunting Chair of Public Administration, Australian National University, Australia; Academic Faculty, Australia & New Zealand School of Government Prof. Chang-Tay CHIOU Professor, Department of Public Administration and Policy, National Taipei University, Taiwan, R.O.C.12:20-13:40 Lunch13:40-15:20 Session Moderator: Prof. Yung- au CHAO Dean, College of Social Sciences, National Taiwan University, Taiwan, R.O.C.; Professor, Department of Political Science, National Taiwan University, Taiwan, R.O.C. Case 4: Innovation Service Practices and Case Sharing on Health Care Services in National Taiwan University Hospital Speaker: Prof. Ming-Fong CHEN, Superintendent, National Taiwan University Hospital Taiwan, R.O.C. Case 5: Different Service Management of Incheon International Airport, a 6-consecutive winner of Airport Service Quality(2005-2010) Focusing on Network Management Speaker: Mr. Ho-Chin LEE, Executive Director of Commercial Marketing Group, Incheon International Airport Corporation, Republic of Korea Case 6: Educational Reform in Osaka: Introducing Competitive Circumstances between Public Schools and Private Schools Using a Subsidy for Private School Tuition Speaker: Dr. Tomitaro KITAMI Esq., Chief Executive Staff, Planning Office, Department of Policy and Planning, Osaka Prefectural Government, Japan Discussants: Prof. Byong-Seob KIM President, Korean Association for Public Administration, KAPA; Dean, Graduate School of Public Administration, Seoul National University, Republic of Korea X
  • 12. o Agenda Prof. Chia-Shen CHEN Professor, Department and Graduate School of Business Administration, College of Management, National Taiwan University, Taiwan, R.O.C.15:20-15:40 Tea Break15:40-17:20 Session Ⅲ Moderator: Prof. Ning-Jye SHIH Chair, Department of Public Administration, National Chengchi University, Taiwan, R.O.C. Case 7: Integrating Application Process and Redefining Service Experience: Employment Pass Services Centre (EPSC) and Employment Pass Online (EPOL) Speaker: Mr. Wei Tat CHUA (Ryan), Manager, Employment Pass Services Centre, Singapore Mr. Tze Whei TEO (David), Senior Manager, PQS Processing, Singapore Case 8: Creating a Youth-Centric Career Center--Workforce Development Policy in Long Beach, California USA Speaker: Mr. Bryan ROGERS, Executive Director, Pacific Gateway Workforce Investment Board, Long Beach, CA., U.S.A. Case 9: Innovative Services for Taxpayers Using Information Technology Speaker: Mr. Chun-Jung SU, Director-General, Financial Data Center, Ministry of Finance, Taiwan, R.O.C. Mr. Tony SHIEH, Director of Division One, Financial Data Center, Ministry of Finance, Taiwan, R.O.C. Discussants: Prof. Akira MORITA President, Japanese Society for Public Administration, JSPA; Professor, Graduate Schools for Law and Politics/Faculty of Law, and Graduate School of Public Policy, The University of Tokyo, Japan Dr. Thomas C.P. PENG Associate Professors, Department of Political Science, National Taiwan University, Taiwan, R.O.C. ※ The conference will be conducted in both English and Chinese (The simultaneous interpretation service will be provided). XI
  • 13. 0TWQlQql»tRue°gRÙ0W–›xŠgInternational Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public GovernanceXII
  • 14. Keynote SpeechEntrepreneurial Public Servants Prof. CHOW, Edward H.Department of Finance, National Chengchi University, Taiwan, R.O.C.
  • 15. ˜Lo‹ÿ Keynote Speech Keynote Speech: Entrepreneurial Public Servants Dr. Edward H. CHOW Professor Department of Finance National Chengchi University Taiwan, R.O.C. Abstract Being a government official serving the general public is a daunting jobnowadays. No matter how much public servants have done for the citizens, theservice always seems inadequate or unsatisfactory. In my speech I suggest that oneway to boost the morale of public servants is to borrow the spirit of entrepreneurs.An entrepreneur is passionate about her work, will do whatever it takes to get the jobdone (legally and ethically, of course), and will harness necessary resources to makesure that everybody involved is satisfied. 3
  • 16. 0TWQlQql»tRue°gRÙ0W–›xŠgInternational Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governance Presentation Slides Common reasons for the dissatisfaction with the service of public servants  Attitude  Lack of interest in solving the problems of citizens  Unenthusiastic about serving  Antipathy for the job  Slow services  Cumbersome process4
  • 17. o Keynote Speech Entrepreneurial spirit is the solution  Good for public servants  Enhance public satisfaction  Enhance self-esteem  Enhance own opportunity set  Promoter vs. trustee (administrator) 5
  • 18. 0TWQlQql»tRue°gRÙ0W–›xŠgInternational Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governance Howard Schultz Chairman & CEO, Starbucks  “We are not in the coffee business serving people.  We are in the people business serving coffee.” Key Elements of Entrepreneurship  Creativity  Entirely new ways of thinking and working  Identify opportunities  Ability to apply creativity  Effectively marshal resources to a goal  Drive  Believe in the ability, will and passion to achieve success6
  • 19. o Keynote Speech Key Elements of Entrepreneurship Focus on creating value  Do things better, faster, cheaper Take risks  Flexible (but legal, of course) interpretation of rules, cutting across accepted boundaries and going against the status quo Collaboration  Teamwork rather than just being a heroic individual 7
  • 20. International Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governance   略      理 念 8
  • 21. o ˜Lo‹ÿ Keynote SpeechInspire yourself to become anentrepreneurial public servant Vision and aspiration determine the magnitude of our opportunities and probability of success A slogan found at the Rotterdam School of Management Every great achievement started as an impossibilityExamples of great entrepreneurialpublic servants Dr. Sun Yat-Sen George Washington Genghis khan Late ROC President Chiang Ching-Kuo K. T. Lee Risk has never kept great people from being great We are limited only by our imagination 9
  • 22. 0TWQlQql»tRue°gRÙ0W–›xŠgInternational Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governance Passage to a great entrepreneurial public servant  Visionto become a great entrepreneurial public servant  Use your resources Passage to a great entrepreneurial public servant  Carefully examine your current model of work  What are your opportunities?  What are your advantages?  New value proposition for people you serve?  Redesign your services?  New process and procedures?  Make what you do known to other people  Create new space for your self10
  • 23. o ˜Lo‹ÿ Keynote SpeechPassage to a great entrepreneurialpublic servant Move fast. Do not hesitate Critical to have the first- move advantagesPassage to a great entrepreneurialpublic servant Must substantially upgrade your ability  English ability to acquire new knowledge and global view  Ability to integrate resources  Ability to lead  Ability to execute  Ability to communicate 11
  • 24. 0TWQlQql»tRue°gRÙ0W–›xŠgInternational Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governance You will be a great entrepreneurial public servant  Dare to dream  Follow your heart  Execute your plan12
  • 25. 立 行例1 Mr. Alex ROBERTS, Innovation Division, Department of Innovation, Industry, Science and Research, Australia例2 行 例  Ms. Amanda DERRICK, Programme Director, Connect Digitally, Department of Education, U.K. Dr. Lorna PETERS, Business Process Lead, Connect Digitally, Hertfordshire County Council, U.K.例3 113 例 暴力 行 Prof. John WANNA Sir John Bunting Chair of Public Administration, Australian National University, Australia; Academic Faculty, Australia & New Zealand School of Government 立 北 行
  • 26. Session OneModerator: Prof. Chung-Yuang JAN Minister without Portfolio, The Examination Yuan, Taiwan, R.O.C.; Professor, Department of Public Administration, National Chengchi University, Taiwan, R.O.C.Case 1: Public Sector Innovation in AustraliaSpeaker: Mr. Alex ROBERTS, Innovation Division, Department of Innovation, Industry, Science and Research, AustraliaCase 2: Online Free School Meals--An Innovation in Public Service Delivery in England and Wales Speaker: Ms. Amanda DERRICK, Programme Director, Connect Digitally, Department of Education, U.K. Dr. Lorna PETERS, Business Process Lead, Connect Digitally, Hertfordshire County Council, U.K.Case 3: Innovative Service Practice Sharing of the Implementation of the “113 Protection Hotline”Speaker: Ms. Hui-Jiuan CHIEN, Executive Secretary, Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault Prevention Committee, Ministry of Interior, Taiwan, R.O.C.Discussants: Prof. John WANNA Sir John Bunting Chair of Public Administration, Australian National University, Australia; Academic Faculty, Australia & New Zealand School of Government Prof. Chang-Tay CHIOU Professor, Department of Public Administration and Policy, National Taipei University, Taiwan, R.O.C.
  • 27. o ‹p˜Lv|ˆhÿNÿÿ Session One 例1 Case 1: Public Sector Innovation in Australia Mr. Alex ROBERTS Innovation Division Department of Innovation, Industry, Science and Research Australia 1 Australian Public Service, APS 2009 21 PoweringIdeas: An Innovation Agenda for the 21st Century Australian Public Service Commission, APSC Empowering Change: Fostering Innovation in theAustralian Public Service 2010 5 2009 2009 2009Innovation Action Plan Department of Innovation, Industry, Science andResearch 2011 61 15
  • 28. 0TWQlQql»tRue°gRÙ0W–›xŠgInternational Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governance Abstract2 Like many of its counterparts around the world, the Australian Public Service(APS) has been looking at the potential of greater innovation to assist its work andto meet expectations by Government, clients, stakeholders and citizens. The Australian public sector has a long and proud tradition of innovation, thiscan be further developed. The Australian Government ten year innovation agenda, Powering Ideas,agreed that public sector innovation was an area to be looked at further. The APScommissioned a project – Empowering Change: Fostering Innovation in theAustralian Public Service, whose report was released in May 2010 The report identified the drivers for innovation in the public sector, the sourcesof innovation, the barriers that can be encountered in the innovation process, someprinciples for its integration into agency operations, and made recommendations onhow innovation could be further embedded as a core capability. This report fit under a broader reform agenda of the public service, articulatedin Ahead of the Game: Blueprint for the Reform of Australian GovernmentAdministration which was released in early 2010 and broadly supported by theGovernment. These developments have occurred at the same time as many State andTerritory Governments within Australia have also been looking at how to betterencourage innovative solutions. Victoria has led the way with its 2009 InnovationAction Plan. Other States are in the process of developing Action Plans. Currently the APS is focused on how the recommendations of EmpoweringChange can be implemented, and on the practical actions that agencies, teams andindividuals can take to apply innovation to their work. A recent project to implementthose recommendations put together some advice on this, and the Department ofInnovation, Industry, Science and Research is leading its implementation byagencies. A focal point of this will be the release of an APS Innovation Action Planin late June 2011. The Department is undertaking a number of supporting activities to encourageinnovation across the public sector. These include supporting:2 The report for reference, please see the appendix 1.16
  • 29. o ‹p˜Lv|ˆhÿNÿÿ Session One  the Public Sector Innovation Network, a community of practice of interested public servants, academics and practitioners  the public sector innovation blog, a forum for discussion and communication of developments  the public sector innovation showcase, a forum for sharing examples of practical applications of innovation in the public sector  the development of a public sector innovation toolkit, providing practical guidance for those wanting to apply innovation to their jobs, and  the development of a public sector innovation indicators project, which will look to measure the application of innovation by agencies. This has been a significant exercise over two and a half years. It has attemptedto bring agencies together and form a collective approach, understanding andlanguage of innovation in the APS. Different agencies have, and will continue tohave, specific understandings of innovation. The aim has been to connect theseunderstandings and share how innovation can lead to improvements across the workof the public sector – in programs, in services and delivery, in policy, in how weconceive of problems, and in the systems that underpin the public service. Different agencies are at different stages in applying these approaches. Manyhave strengths in particular areas but weaknesses in others. Within the Departmentof Innovation, Industry, Science and Research work has begun on a number of areas.  Tying innovation into the strategy of the organisation, with recent strategic planning process looking at the 3 Horizons approach.  Innovation has been explicitly added to the performance plans for members of the Senior Executive Service.  Trialling an ideas management system – a formalised process for collecting and reviewing the ideas of staff on how to do things better (business improvement) or differently.  The Agency has also been experimenting with the use of Government 2.0 tools in better communicating its work and in collaborating with clients and stakeholders, including through Twitter, Facebook and blogs. The APS as a whole recognises that integrating innovation into its operations,and establishing it as a core capability and competency, will be an ongoing process.As more and more is learnt about the innovation process in the public sector, the 17
  • 30. 0TWQlQql»tRue°gRÙ0W–›xŠgInternational Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governanceapproach will need to be refined. There also remain a number of areas where further work needs to be done. Forinstance it is not yet clear what types of problems require innovative solutions, or ifthey do, what type of innovative solution. And what are the skill sets needed to bestsupport innovation and how may these skill sets differ between different areas ofactivity? The APS will continue to work on these and other questions that arise as itworks to strengthen the role of innovation as part of its repertoire.18
  • 31. o ‹p˜Lv|ˆhÿNÿÿ Session One Presentation Slides POWERPOINT PRESENTATION Public Sector Innovation in Australia Alex Roberts / Innovation Division 25 May 2011Innovation in the Public SectorWhat is it?  The generation and application of new ideas  Not necessarily good (or bad)  Not necessarily the right response to a problem  Not always welcome  A process (and a social one at that)  Element of change  Not necessarily completely new – may be new to the specific context  Unlikely to be immediately better than what’s already done  Involves risk 19
  • 32. 0TWQlQql»tRue°gRÙ0W–›xŠgInternational Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governance Drivers for innovation Number of external drivers for why innovation is a focus  Policy challenges  Changing citizen expectations  Global competition  Fiscal pressures  Public sector management changes and challenges  High-performing public service  Technological change Appetite for innovation Figure 6.2: Employee perceptions of APS innovation, 2007–08 to 2009–10, State of the Service Report 2009-2010, Australian Public Service Commission20
  • 33. o ‹p˜Lv|ˆhÿNÿÿ Session OneGovernment AgendaAlso internal drivers  2008 – Review of the National Innovation System  2009 – Governments Innovation Agenda Powering Ideas: An Innovation Agenda for the 21st Century  2009 – Australian National Audit Office Better Practice Guide Innovation in the Public Sector: Enabling Better Performance, Driving New Directions  2010 – Ahead of the Game: Blueprint for the Reform of Australian Government Administration released and endorsed  2010 – Management Advisory Committee project report Empowering Change: Fostering Innovation in the Australian Public Service released  12 recommendations cutting across strategy and culture, leadership, systemic/structural issues, resourcing and managing innovation in the APS, and recognition, sharing and learning.Guiding Principles for Agencies1. Integrate innovation into an agencys strategy and planning2. Foster and attract innovative people3. Tap into the ideas and experience of stakeholders4. Develop organisational capacity to facilitate and manage innovation5. Provide ‘safe spaces’6. Facilitate networking7. Build a supportive culture8. Use government’s influence and advantages to spur innovation9. Measure and evaluate your results and share what you learn10. Make public information accessible 21
  • 34. 0TWQlQql»tRue°gRÙ0W–›xŠgInternational Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governance APS 200 Project  High-level cross-APS group  Looking at recommendations of Empowering Change and providing guidance on how agencies and the APS can enact them  Reported to Secretaries Board in April 2011  Outcomes:  Action Plan  Leadership  Guidance for agencies Outreach and Support Outreach  Public Sector Innovation Network  Innovation blog  Innovation showcase Support  Innovation Toolkit  Australian Public Sector Innovation Indicators project  Community of practice22
  • 35. o ‹p˜Lv|ˆhÿNÿÿ Session OneDIISR Context  Applying innovation to strategic context  3 Horizons approach being used in strategic planning  Innovation added to performance plans for Senior Executive Service  Looking at potential of environmental scanning  Integrating with systems  Ideas management system trialled  Experimentation with Gov 2.0 approaches  Building in greater consultation/collaboration  Next steps?Other areas for action Areas for further work  Ideas Management Systems – collaboration across agencies  MindLab – Australian version  Annual reporting on progress Some unanswered questions  What type of problems require what types of innovative solutions?  How do we best support different types of innovation in the public sector?  What skills do we need to develop to best support innovation?  How can innovations be rapidly proto-typed and rolled-out in highly interconnected and complex situations?  In an ever changing world how do we maintain support for innovation and change?  Both within and without the public sector? 23
  • 36. 0TWQlQql»tRue°gRÙ0W–›xŠgInternational Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governance Public Sector Innovation Resources Website www.innovation.gov.au/psi Blog http://innovation.govspace.gov.au Showcase http://showcase.govspace.gov.au govdex Community http://www.govdex.gov.au Twitter @PSInnovate Public Sector Innovation Network psi@innovation.gov.au24
  • 37. Session One 例 行 例Case 2: Online Free School Meals--An Innovation in Public Service Delivery in England and Wales  Ms. Amanda DERRICK Programme Director Connect Digitally Department of Education U.K. Dr. Lorna PETERS Business Process Lead Connect Digitally Hertfordshire County Council U.K. Hertfordshire County Council Connect Digitally Programme Online Free School Meals, OFSM 4174 25
  • 38. 0TWQlQql»tRue°gRÙ0W–›xŠgInternational Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governance26
  • 39. ‹p˜Lv|ˆhÿNÿÿ Session One o Abstract Funded by the Department for Education and led by Hertfordshire CountyCouncil, the Connect Digitally Programme is transforming the delivery of publicservices, cutting bureaucracy, reducing costs to serve and making digital the defaultmode of delivery. Within the Programme, Online Free School Meals (OFSM) is across-government project which is streamlining delivery in 4 central governmentdepartments and 174 local authorities across England and Wales to provide anessential service to families in need. Free school meals policy is designed to support families in poverty, increasesocial inclusion, provide a nutritious meal for disadvantaged children and improvechildren’s health and well-being. However the free school meals delivery chaininvolved many agencies and was so complex that transformation of the process hadsat in the ‘too difficult to solve box’ for many years. While local government is responsible for administration of the benefit, freeschool meals eligibility is determined by a citizen receiving specific qualifyingbenefits from one of three central government departments. Applications requiredaccompanying paper proof of benefit from central government. The process wasslow, time consuming and frustrating for citizens and placed significantadministrative demands on central and local government and schools. Processingtook many weeks and, significantly, citizens often gave up because of complexitiesand delays. OFSM transforms the application process for citizens from a difficult paperbased procedure to a simple electronic request, improving outcomes for over 1million children and their families while delivering significant efficiencies togovernment and schools. OFSM is now a seamless ‘end-to-end’ service enabling citizens to apply onlinefor free school meals quickly and easily. Incorporating real-time eligibilitychecking, citizens and local government are immediately informed of eligibility.With automated notification to schools, children can be provided with a free schoolmeal as early as the following day. Connect Digitally worked with partners from government and suppliers,identifying and researching the barriers to implementation and take-up. Theseincluded: legality of data sharing; security; complexity of delivery chain; stigma 27
  • 40. 0TWQlQql»tRue°gRÙ0W–›xŠgInternational Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governanceassociated with face-to-face applications; lack of awareness by citizens; difficultyand bureaucracy of application process. With a clear understanding of the barriers the team planned and tested solutions,overcoming problems through partnership working. Other critical success factorsincluded the identification of real benefits for all stakeholders and maintenance of aclear focus on the end goal. The solution delivers:  An integrated data hub, with webservice functionality  Immediate eligibility checking by local government or citizens against data from multiple government departments  Robust, reliable, reusable infrastructure linking four central government departments and 174 local authorities  Information security. The project has: translated central government policy into local delivery;accelerated service improvement; driven down costs; enabled citizens to self-serve;raised awareness of the service; removed the stigma of face-to face application;reduced the time taken for the child to receive the free school meals. In addition,the project has delivered two significant unexpected benefits. The original objective was to streamline the application process but it has alsoresulted in two innovations: automatic renewals and an improved audit process.With use of ‘informed consent’ citizens can have their records checked automatically,preventing the need for regular reapplications. Local government can performeligibility checks for audit purposes which prevents citizens building up debts whentheir circumstances change and reduces the costs and unpleasantness associated withchasing up debts from socially deprived families. Benefits for all stakeholders are being realised and feedback is very positive. Schools are benefiting from a reduction in bureaucracy and faster provision ofmeals to children in deprivation, resulting in improved behaviour. For the child,there is speedier receipt of a nutritious meal with diminished stigma. Citizens have articulated their approval of the improved service:  “I wouldn’t have bothered with the old system: it’s so easy this way”28
  • 41. ‹p˜Lv|ˆhÿNÿÿ Session One o  “Very, very good I’m not good at reading and writing and I found it so easy – thank you”  “I think applying online is much easier and much quicker than filling out forms – I have so much trouble understanding paper forms”. In local government, tools developed by Connect Digitally have supported 174authorities and prevented ‘reinvention of the wheel’. Data quality has improvedand the system has facilitated access to other educational benefits such as assistedtransport, school uniform, grants and cycling proficiency. There has been anenthusiastic reception of the transformed service:  “Recent changes for renewals mean: savings for schools; benefits for parents; savings for Benefit Agencies; savings for local government; no processing time; no notifications – thousands of pounds of savings. Not a bad morning’s work.”  “OFSM …. an excellent exemplar of: process improvement; data management; customer insight; partnership working”  “Of all the systems I’ve worked on, this is the only one that really makes a difference. The system means we have controlled access across government departments to the right data … It has genuinely streamlined our processes providing efficiencies for the Council while improving the service for citizens.” Central government no longer needs to provide duplicate paper proof of benefitfor eligible citizens, saving over £1 million per year, and data quality improvementsare ensuring that central funding is delivered with accuracy to those most in need. Provision of free school meals has been shown to have a positive impact onchildren’s behaviour, learning and general well-being. It is recognised across thepolitical landscape that increasing the take-up of free school meals is an importantinstrument for improving the life-chances of children from deprived backgrounds.For many of these children the school meal is the major source of nutrition for theday. The Connect Digitally Online Free School Meals solution is proving effectivein helping and encouraging citizens to take up this benefit for their children. Innovation, data sharing and collaboration have been critical to the success ofthis project but successful delivery has also required strong leadership, trust,patience, determination, persistence and technical expertise, and the continuingrealisation of its benefits demonstrates the value and worth of the undertaking. 29
  • 42. 0TWQlQql»tRue°gRÙ0W–›xŠgInternational Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governance Presentation Slides Online Free School Meals “an innovation in public service delivery” Amanda Derrick, Programme Director Lorna Peters, Business Process Taiwan, 25 May 2011 Why was the Online Free School Meals Project initiated? • For many children, a school meal is a major nutrition source • Around 20% of eligible citizens did not apply for free school meals for their child/children • Barriers to take up: – Stigma of face-to-face application – Slow, difficult, bureaucratic application process – Lack of awareness – System based around government requirements, not citizen • Simplifying the process was seen as “too difficult to solve”30
  • 43. ‹p˜Lv|ˆhÿNÿÿ Session One oOnline Free School Meals transforms the customerjourney from a difficult paper based process……to an easy online service that improves the experiencefor the family, increases take-up and saves money 31
  • 44. 0TWQlQql»tRue°gRÙ0W–›xŠgInternational Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governance Innovative use of technology integrates the back-office and redesigns the front-office HMRC Citizen applies Eligibility online Checking DWP Service Home Office Internet Internet Confirm free school meals eligibility to school LA School Back Office Application processed by local authority officer Meal Citizen applies provided by phone or Paper-based face-to-face sooner application plus proof of benefits The number of online eligibility queries continues to rise, indicating a popular and trusted service 2008/2009 2009/2010 2010/2011 550,000 500,000 450,000 Number of Queries 400,000 350,000 300,000 250,000 200,000 150,000 100,000 50,000 0 Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar32
  • 45. ‹p˜Lv|ˆhÿNÿÿ Session One oExamples of where use of digital technology has reducedgovernment delivery costs • Improved audit process - saving £228,000 in avoided over- payments in one year • 10,000 fewer citizen calls to Customer Services in the renewals process - saving £20,000 • Reduction in staff - saving £98,000 • Fewer queries from schools - saving £5,000 • £11,000 savings for one morning’s work - including savings for citizen/schools/local authority/central governmentExamples of the impact on government and families • Increased the number of children taking a free school meal from 20,000 to 27,000 • Service response reduced from 3 months to 3 minutes • Citizen quotes: – “Very, very good, I’m not good at reading and writing and I found it so easy – thank you” – “I was very impressed that the application was straightforward to complete. I know of people who have not claimed for other benefits as they find it too difficult to complete forms” – “The system ensured my son had free school meals without the worry …difficulty of paper application and posting issues …a fantastic experience considering the normal stress of form filling, stamping, posting and checking. 10 out of 10. Couldn’t have been easier” 33
  • 46. 0TWQlQql»tRue°gRÙ0W–›xŠgInternational Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governance Online Free School Meals is a project delivering… • Innovation – Innovative technology and new ways of working • Return on Investment – Cashable savings for government and citizens – Eight-fold return on investment • Impact – Removal of stigma – Easy electronic application designed around citizen – Automatic renewals – Greater awareness of free school meals service • Outcomes – Increased the number of children receiving a free school meal – Transformed free school meals service in England and Wales – Improved data quality – Legal gateway for delivery Delivering ‘more for less’ – an innovation in public service delivery… “Take-up of free school meals service has increased by a factor of five but we’ve been able to reduce staff by more than half”34
  • 47. ‹p˜Lv|ˆhÿNÿÿ Session One oAny Questions? 35
  • 48. 0TWQlQql»tRue°gRÙ0W–›xŠgInternational Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governance36
  • 49. ‹p˜Lv|ˆhÿNÿÿ Session One 例 例 Case 3: Innovative Service Practice Sharing of the Implementation of the “113 Protection Hotline” Ms. Hui-Jiuan CHIEN Executive Secretary Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault Prevention Committee Ministry of Interior Taiwan, R.O.C. 3 DVSAPC2001 1 13 113 080-422-110 080-000-600 113 252007 9 1 113 113 e-Care3 37
  • 50. 0TWQlQql»tRue°gRÙ0W–›xŠgInternational Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governance Abstract4 The handling of domestic violence and sexual assault issues is multifaceted,requires the combined resources of related professional networks and followsinter-disciplinary, inter-sectorial and inter-agency principles to ensure effectiveprevention of domestic violence and sexual assault. This approach involves socialaffairs, police, medical care, education and judiciary. To assist the victims of domesticviolence and sexual assault as well as the children in child protection cases, theDomestic Violence and Sexual Assault Prevention Committee (DVSAPC), under theMinistry of the Interior, as an official planning and service delivery agency, launchedthe “113 Protection Hotline” (to be referred to as the 113) on January 13, 2001. Thisservice was to replace a number of preexisting protection hotlines such as the080-422-110 Child and Adolescent Protection Hotline and the 080-000-600Protect-You Hotline. The new 113 Protection Hotline was designed to act as onesingle window for case reporting and consultation for all local governments. Its goalwas to establish a new government channel to provide quality services to the publicwith value and convenience. As anticipated, the “113” has indeed become thepredominant hotline that is well known to the public. It has become agroundbreaking social welfare hotline service admired and followed by many. In this presentation, by analyzing the establishment and the development of the“113 Protection Hotline”, I would like to demonstrate how the “113 ProtectionHotline” project initiated its process to improve its service and quality of sexualviolence prevention by introducing the “e-Care” program, which facilitates theintegration among various governmental agencies and the centralization ofcall-handling, under the instruction of the Executive Yuan. An operational assessment found the original 113 service ineffective andunsatisfactory. It was a decentralized model with call-handling tasks performed bystaff of the central and 25 local governments, causing difficulties in delivering badlyneeded services. Considering the situations mentioned above and the need tomaximize the effect of limited resources in the country and after consultation withlocal governments, the central government opted to integrate and streamline thepreexisting services by reengineering work process, adopting new technologies andimplementing new management strategies. On September 1, 2007, the fruit of theseefforts was the establishment of the “113 Centralized Call Center” (operated by theMinistry of Interior). This service was to provide for the public and the victims adedicated national service window for case reporting and counseling relating to child4 The full report of this case presentation, please see the appendix 2.38
  • 51. ‹p˜Lv|ˆhÿNÿÿ Session One oand adolescent protection, domestic violence and sexual assault. With this service, thecentral government effectively handled all 113 calls for the local governments whowere, by law, responsible for providing the service. This single-window-operatedservice model was to enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of inter-governmentalcollaboration and to leave no gaps in the nationwide protection network. 39
  • 52. 0TWQlQql»tRue°gRÙ0W–›xŠgInternational Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governance Presentation Slides International Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governance Ministry of Interior 113 Protection Hotline An Innovative Service Sharing of Information and Experience Hui-chuan Chien, LLB Executive Secretary, Domestic Violence & Sexual Assault Prevention Committee, MOI 1 240
  • 53. ‹p˜Lv|ˆhÿNÿÿ Session One o 3 4 41
  • 54. International Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governance 5 The most painful loneliness in life is not knowing where to go… go… 642
  • 55. ‹p˜Lv|ˆhÿNÿÿ Session One oWe are actually only a group of people who light up the way for the victims. 7 For 16 years, we feel their pain and suffering as they feel… 8 43
  • 56. 0TWQlQql»tRue°gRÙ0W–›xŠgInternational Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governance A letter of gratitude from a victim: … She persevered relentlessly and, with the attitude of “Every One Must be Saved”, rescued my entire family, giving us a thread of hope, escaping from domestic violence... 9 Because we care! 1044
  • 57. ‹p˜Lv|ˆhÿNÿÿ Session One oEvolution of the 113 Hotline We faced five major predicaments We drew out solutions We implemented four key strategies We realized ten significant benefits 11 The Five Major Predicaments Prior to Centralizing Call-Handling 12 45
  • 58. International Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governance The Five Major Predicaments Lack of help Lacking of a close link between the call- handling system & the prevention network; Ineffective reporting Local governments providing services only Sub-standard quality during office hours; Victims unable to receive Poor division of labor timely assistance. Poor performance 13 The Five Major Predicaments Lack of help Reporting by fax causing illegible, Ineffective reporting misdirected, delayed message preventing timely delivery of services . Sub-standard quality Reporting became a mere formality. Poor division of labor Poor performance 1446
  • 59. Session One o The Five Major Predicaments Lack of help Inconsistent qualities among call-handling Ineffective reporting personnel, high turnover, lack of integrated training, frequent call-waiting, malicious & Sub-standard quality harassing calls, and so on affected service Poor division of labor quality and led to victims’ unwillingness to Poor performance seek help. 15 The Five Major PredicamentsLack of help With 8 staffs, the central government handledIneffective reporting 61% of the calls. whereas 25 local governments had 49 workers, handled only 39% of the totalSubpar quality call volume. Effectively, 14% of the personnelPoor division of labor performed 60% of the workload, indicating aPoor performance severe imbalance in division of labor and causing concerns about quality. 16 47
  • 60. International Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governance The Five Major Predicaments Lack of help In the previous decentralized model, Ineffective reporting supervision and evaluation were difficult. System maintenance costs were high leaving Subpar quality no options for other channels in delivering Poor division of labor services. The effectiveness of a well-intended Poor efficiency service was greatly reduced. 17 Solutions for the Five Major Predicaments 1848
  • 61. ‹p˜Lv|ˆhÿNÿÿ Session One oPre-CentralizationOperating Model Directly-controlled Municipality, County/City Government 19 Service Resources Network Four Key Strategies in Centralizing Call-Handling 20 49
  • 62. 0TWQlQql»tRue°gRÙ0W–›xŠgInternational Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governance Four Key Strategies Laws & Application of Reinforcement Introduction process strategic of public of ICT re-engineering re- management promotion 21 Ten Significant Benefits of Centralizing Call-Handling 2250
  • 63. ‹p˜Lv|ˆhÿNÿÿ Session One o Benefit (1) Significant Increase in Usage 2006 2007 2008 2009 calls callsNumber of Valid Calls callsIncreases year by year. calls callsNumber of Invalid Calls callsClearly Declined. calls calls No. of invalid No. of valid calls calls 23 Benefit (2) Steady Growth in Report Processing Capacity > 24 > 51
  • 64. 0TWQlQql»tRue°gRÙ0W–›xŠgInternational Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governance Benefit (3) Diversified Help Seeking Channels The web-based service was designed 2009 to serve the Internet users and those who feel awkward in using telephone, 2008 cases This service generates a significant increase in cases seeking help. cases 2007 No. of Web Reports and Conversations cases 25 Benefit (4) Inclusion of Foreign Languages in the Protection Network For seamless protection services, instant 3-way interpretations in English, Thai, Vietnamese, Indonesian and Cambodian were provided. Interpreter 2008 Foreigner 2009 2007 people people people Call-handling staff > 26 >52
  • 65. ‹p˜Lv|ˆhÿNÿÿ Session One o Benefit (5) Preventing Malicious Interference CallsPriority ordering of incoming calls helps 2009provide timely and compassionateassistance. 1,535 calls deterred 2008 2007 118 calls deterred 66 calls deterred > 27 Benefit (6) Drastic Drop in the Call Waiting Time Interactive voice response and call waiting alert greatly enhance the service efficiency Pre-centralization average Post-centralization average waiting time 27s waiting time 14.67s > 28 > 53
  • 66. 0TWQlQql»tRue°gRÙ0W–›xŠgInternational Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governance Benefit (7) The post-centralization satisfaction of the pubic exceeded Response in Public Positive 90%, indicating the Opinion effectiveness of the newly implemented system was well recognized. 2008 2009 2007 Randomly Sampled 113 Satisfaction Satisfaction survey by the polling company 113 call-handling st 113 Protection Hotli > friendliness, trustworthiness, professionalism, adequacy of information, completeness of information, adequacy of answer, integrated service satisfaction, > 29 dialing willingness, and recommendation to friends and relatives. > Benefit (8) Positive Impact and Value Having obtained outstanding Visits by DOH’s Suicide Prevention Hotline results, the 113 Protection in 2008 and 2010 Hotline has attracted visits by Visit by the 1957 Social Welfare Hotline in other authorities for 2009 observation and learning, Visit by the 1955 Foreign Labor Hotline in building a positive image for April, 2009 the organization > 30 >54
  • 67. ‹p˜Lv|ˆhÿNÿÿ Session One o Benefit (9) Upgrade in the Handling of Incoming Calls Benchmarks for Emergency Calls and Response Mechanism mechanism were established, synchronizing the services by central and local governments, to greatly increase the case processing speed. Quality of Coordination active attitude inContacting Speed coordinating resourcescompletion within 5 min. Sources of data: contacting speed and status statistics of the prevention centers of the directly-controlled municipalities and > county(city) governments (2009) 31 Benefit (10) Costs Reduced Yet Quality Enhanced Decentralized model of call-handling Centralized model of System maintenance and human call-handling resources costs were significantly people reduced, demonstrating the benefits seats people of centralizing call-handling. seats Size of call-handling No. of available manpower seats 32 55
  • 68. 0TWQlQql»tRue°gRÙ0W–›xŠgInternational Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governance Zero tolerance against violence, for love not harm in every home…… 33 End of Briefing Please Do Point Out Corrections 3456
  • 69. 立例4 例 立例5 理 例 Mr. Ho-Chin LEE, Executive Director of Commercial Marketing Group, Incheon International Airport Corporation, Republic of Korea例6 例 Dr. Tomitaro KITAMI Esq., Chief Executive Staff, Planning Office, Department of Policy and Planning, Osaka Prefectural Government, Japan Prof. Byong-Seob KIM President, Korean Association for Public Administration, KAPA; Dean, Graduate School of Public Administration, Seoul National University, Republic of Korea 立 理
  • 70. Session TwoModerator: Prof. Yung- au CHAO Dean, College of Social Sciences, National Taiwan University, Taiwan, R.O.C.; Professor, Department of Political Science, National Taiwan University, Taiwan, R.O.C.Case 4: Innovation Service Practices and Case Sharing on Health Care Services in National Taiwan University HospitalSpeaker: Prof. Ming-Fong CHEN, Superintendent, National Taiwan University Hospital Taiwan, R.O.C.Case 5: Different Service Management of Incheon International Airport, a 6-consecutive winner of Airport Service Quality(2005-2010) Focusing on Network ManagementSpeaker: Mr. Ho-Chin LEE, Executive Director of Commercial Marketing Group, Incheon International Airport Corp., Republic of KoreaCase 6: Educational Reform in Osaka: Introducing Competitive Circumstances between Public Schools and Private Schools Using a Subsidy for Private School TuitionSpeaker: Dr. Tomitaro KITAMI Esq., Chief Executive Staff, Planning Office, Department of Policy and Planning, Osaka Prefectural Government, JapanDiscussants: Prof. Byong-Seob KIM President, Korean Association for Public Administration, KAPA; Dean, Graduate School of Public Administration, Seoul National University, South Korea Prof. Chia-Shen CHEN Professor, Department and Graduate School of Business Administration, College of Management, National Taiwan University, Taiwan, R.O.C.
  • 71. ‹p˜Lv|ˆhÿNŒÿ Session Two 例 例Case 4: Innovation Service Practices and Case Sharing on Health Care Services in National Taiwan University Hospital Prof. Ming-Fong CHEN Superintendent National Taiwan University Hospital Taiwan, R.O.C. 59
  • 72. 0TWQlQql»tRue°gRÙ0W–›xŠgInternational Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governance Abstract According to Bureau of National Health Insurance, the average number ofout-patient visits in Taiwan in 2008 was 15 times a year, which reached a new highfor the past 9 years. An article in New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM)published in March 2009 also pointed out that, between out-patient visits, Americanpatients were busy at making the next appointments, refilling prescriptions, askingfor transfer, checking blood test results, and asking questions forgotten in theprevious visits. Is there any way to improve the situation? The NEJM said: Ifpatients could receive blood test results immediately; if patients could upload homemonitoring results and make charts for any changes; if medical professionals couldadjust medications according to these results. When such needs could be fulfilled,the inconvenience suffered by the patients would be reduced. To make the idea true, patients need their personal health records. Beside of therecords built in hospital, another option is to build an internet health record.Currently, there are two types of personal health records: Standalone and Integrated.Standalone personal health records were developed by websites including Google,Microsoft, and WebMD. These records were uploaded from home or pharmacy andwere not synchronized with hospital records. Therefore, standalone records wereonly for personal review and lack of feedbacks from medical professionals.Integrated personal health records are combined with hospital electronic charts.These records provide opportunities for more complete control of the diseases by themost updated information uploaded from home and the comparisons with previoushospital records. Based on the integrated personal health records, case managers canseek opinions from the medical team and provide feedbacks. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) recently signed byPresident Barack Obama specified that, from 2011 through 2015, if Americandoctors accept and use these electronic health records efficiently, the governmentwill reward the doctors with USD 44,000 to 60,000.1 The action will not start before2011 is because very few American doctors or hospitals have adopted the electronichealth records. Only 17% of American doctors and 10% of American hospitals havethe most basic system of electronic health record. 2,3 National Taiwan University Hospital (NTUH) set up the heart failure center inAugust 1993 and started bi-directional communications between case managers andpatients. According to a research done in the heart failure center, the both waycommunication significantly reduced days and times of hospitalizations due to heartfailure. 4,5 In 2009, NTUH has also built up the Telecare center and started the60
  • 73. ‹p˜Lv|ˆhÿNŒÿ Session Two oinnovative distant care system for cardiovascular diseases. The Telecare centerprovides an around-the-clock system of healthcare that is accessible from home toreduce complications in patients either with chronic co-morbidities or after surgery,and to promote healthy living. This system emphasize comprehensive medicalrecording through 24 hour long distance monitoring equipment, to immediatelyfeedback on sudden or paroxysmal aberrations, so that patients not only feel thathelp is around the corner but also can reduce transport time and cost inefficacies anddecrease patient psychological insecurities. Patients are able to upload theirphysiological parameters such as heart rate, blood pressure, blood sugar,electrocardiogram (ECG) daily as guided by their needs. Physicians in addition topersonal case managers are able to access this information via their mobile phones,to assist with management. On a weekly basis, patients are able to consult theirpersonal case managers via telecommunication to receive investigation results andobtain advice regarding illness management. Moreover, this communication isbidirectional since case managers may also be able to intimately keep up to datewith patients’ condition.SERVICE1. Remote physiological parameter evaluation Home based BP, blood sugar, body temperature, ECG, arterial oxygen saturation assessments and temporal analysis by quality assured equipment that allows the data to be uploaded for the physician’s and case manager’s perusal.2. Long distance telecommunication To provide medical advice and information via videoconferencing.3. Personal healthcare manager continued care Chronic conditions are managed individually due to the intimacy and regularity of follow up so that patients can achieve a better quality of health.4. Health advice and awareness A multidisciplinary team will organize an electronic summary of patient’s current condition based on the monitored variables and submit a monthly report to feedback to the patient on care plan adjustments.5. Emergent nursing advice Healthcare specialists are available by telephone 24-hour a day to provide solutions for patients emergent problems and to formulate management plan of actions.ELIGIBILITY 61
  • 74. 0TWQlQql»tRue°gRÙ0W–›xŠgInternational Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governance1. Diabetes mellitus patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease manifest as syncope, cardiac arrhythmias, coronary heart disease, heart failure, stroke, or those who have received cardiovascular surgery or percutaneous coronary angioplasty with major sequelae, or oversea patients with cardiovascular disease who cannot readily come to clinic.62
  • 75. ‹p˜Lv|ˆhÿNŒ Session Two o Presentation Slides Innovation Service Practices and Case  Sharing on Health Care Services2011,05,25 1 Health Health promotion promotion Health Disease prevention Post ‐Clinical  Health Health promotion Health promotion Sub‐health Post‐Clinical  Chronic diseases Acute illness Prevention & Sub‐health prevention Treatment Subacute Chronic  medical care Acute  illness illness Chronic diseases care Acute care 2 63
  • 76. 0TWQlQql»tRue°gRÙ0W–›xŠgInternational Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governance Financial Impact of the Medical Providers The profit of medical provider should come from patients’ wellness, not from patients’ sickness Hospital is not only treat diseases, but also take care people in healthy and sub-health The integration of medicine and other industries, e.g. ICT It is growing in Taiwan and worldwide 3 Patient-Centered Medical Home Model (PCMH model)  The use of technology for transitions in care  Continuity that make specialist connection critical  Care provider coordinates the care of the patients while working with specialists and other health-care providers  Recently signed into law by President Obama will provide bonus payments of $44,000 to $64,000 to physicians who adopt and effectively use EHRs from 2011 through 2015. N Engl J Med 2009; 360;15 (April 9) 464
  • 77. ‹p˜Lv|ˆhÿNŒÿ Session Two o N ENGL J MED 362;17   NEJM.ORG APRIL 29,2010The PCMH combines : Traditional concepts of primary care (a personal physician providing first-contact, continuous, and comprehensive care) Newer responsibilities to systematically improve the health of the medical home’s patient population (e.g., through the use of chronic disease registries, information technology, and new options for communication between patients and the practice). 5 Telecare at NTU Hospital 2003 Heart Failure Center Telephone communication 2009 Telehealth Center Video Communication 6 65
  • 78. 0TWQlQql»tRue°gRÙ0W–›xŠgInternational Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governance Bio-info monitoring at Visit clinic or home under discharge Doctor’s from ward Self measurement DM comment done at home by Daily upload  CAD patient AMI bio‐info to call center Stroke Sudden death Arrhythmia Bio‐info equipment Saving Digi‐data Emergency Weekly visit  Case  Abnormal  patient by  signal manager web cam Bio-info data Education about diet and  upload to medication; patient compliance  call center evaluation  and ICU Case manager arrange clinic or  Case Case manager arrange clinic or  Emergency appointment  manager Emergency  appointment  contact ICU 7 The Integrated Tele-Health Care Industry collaboration & Consultation Patient basic data Integration & Service Demography Perspective research Health history Cloud computing enrolled date & other Case mx Data Nursing evaluation integration Admission record plateform Follow‐up record Clinical Document Architecture Monitor strategy Blood exam. record Data transfer Home device & Core data Data Standard data transition Prescription record warehouse Nuclear med. record Data Standard Echography record Cardio‐pul. Exam.  Basic pharmaceutical research Other exam. record 866
  • 79. ‹p˜Lv|ˆhÿNŒÿ Session Two o Telecare at NTU Hospital Home gatewayHome sensors Blood pressure ECG Oxygenation Blood sugar 9 Bi-directional communication 10 67
  • 80. 0TWQlQql»tRue°gRÙ0W–›xŠgInternational Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governance Hospital monitor Blood pressure Body weight Oxygen saturation Body temperature 11 Case presentation (1)  Mr. A, Male, 54 yrs  At Amoy of Fukien province, China  Taiwan Businessman; a heavy smoker DM and Hypertension  Family history of AMI, PAOD and heart failure  Poor compliance of medicine The patient has good condition under the Telecare service 1268
  • 81. ‹p˜Lv|ˆhÿNŒÿ Session Two oBlood pressure control 13Blood sugar control 14 69
  • 82. 0TWQlQql»tRue°gRÙ0W–›xŠgInternational Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governance Case presentation (2-1) Mrs.B: Severe aortic stenosis Baseline ECG 15 Case presentation (2-2)  Atrial fibrillation was noted during exertional dyspnea  She was referred to a local hospital by telecare manager. We also transfer the patient’s data to that hospital for emergency treatment 1670
  • 83. ‹p˜Lv|ˆhÿNŒÿ Session Two o Case presentation (3) 87 year-old female, Femur bone fracture, s/p operation and discharge on 2009/10/6 She had short of breath developed on 2009/10/12. Oxygen saturation was 75% ….. Doctor diagnosed the patient with pulmonary embolism The patient was treated promptly 17 Case Presentation (4-1) 83 year-old male with DM, CAD, peripheral arterial occlusive disease Below knee amputation was suggested by orthopedic doctors 18 71
  • 84. 0TWQlQql»tRue°gRÙ0W–›xŠgInternational Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governance Case presentation (4-2) Six months under the Telecare, the wound changed to clean, and the foot skin is dry and improved 19 The Growth Rate of Patients in Telecare Center by Month From October 2009 to June 2010,  Accumulation a total of 288 cases were enrolled. Nov May Patient number 2072
  • 85. ‹p˜Lv|ˆhÿNŒÿ Session Two oAges Distribution of Patients 8‐95 year‐old <20 21 Problems of Patients for Telecare Center 22 73
  • 86. 0TWQlQql»tRue°gRÙ0W–›xŠgInternational Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governance Improvement of Blood Pressure vs Duration of Telecare Care Care Care Care Care Care Blood pressure before Telecare Under Telecare 23 Improvement of Blood Sugar  vs Duration of Telecare Care Care Care Care Care The longer the care, the better the blood sugar Blood sugar before Telecare Under Telecare 2474
  • 87. ‹p˜Lv|ˆhÿNŒÿ Session Two o Cost Saving of Health Insurance Bureau for Patients in Heart Failure Center Usual care HFC Care Change, % pOPD fee, 6 month 321 354 510 424 +58.9% <0.001Total admission fee, 6 month 8280 14446 5780 12547 -30.2% 0.016HF admission fee, 6 month 5332 13276 3200 9815 -40.0% 0.033Non-HF admission fee, 6 month 2948 7588 2279 8446 -22.7% 0.329Total cost, 6 month 8722 14385 6040 12500 -30.8% 0.02Total cost per month 1454 2397 1006 2083OPD: outward patient clinic, HFC: heart failure centerExpressed by US dollars per patient J Int Med Res. 2010;38:242‐252 25 Average Patient Pay (USD) /Day for Patents in Telecare Center Before After P Telecare Telecare value Daily total cost 31 41 19 38 0.003 Daily OPD cost 5 9 7 14 0.05 Daily admission cost 26 40 11 33 0.01 Daily ES cost 0.7 1.2 0.7 2.3 0.83 ES: emergent station Monthly reduction 362(USD) per patient 26 75
  • 88. 0TWQlQql»tRue°gRÙ0W–›xŠgInternational Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governance Medical Use Statistics for Patients in Telecare Center Before Under P value Telecare Telecare Monthly admission 0.12 0.17 0.10 0.25 0.24 numbers Monthly Admission 1.71 3.29 0.94 3.06 0.027 duration (day) Monthly OPD visiting 1.60 1.45 2.02 1.65 0.011 numbers Monthly ES visiting 0.09 0.13 0.10 0.28 0.54 numbers OPD: outward patient clinic ES: emergent station 27 Financial Impact for Patients in  Telehealth Center Monthly rent Group Content of sensors cost (USD) gateway ECG blood pressure blood A group 95 sugar blood oxygenation B group gateway ECG blood pressure 60 gateway ECG blood pressure blood C group 85 oxygenation gateway ECG blood pressure blood D group 70 sugar We will cooperate with ICT companies for the convenience,  efficiency & cost‐effectiveness research and development. 2876
  • 89. ‹p˜Lv|ˆhÿNŒÿ Session Two o SummaryTelecare provides convenient, efficient, and cost- effective population care either they are healthy, sub-healthy, or illness.Further collaborative and integrated research and development on both medical and non- medical parts are necessary to ensure better and more comfortable patient care, especially for the mobile medical devices.Industrialization is the future perspective. 29 Thank You for Your Attention 30 77
  • 90. 0TWQlQql»tRue°gRÙ0W–›xŠgInternational Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governance78
  • 91. ‹p˜Lv|ˆhÿNŒÿ Session Two 例 理 例 Case 5: Different Service Management of Incheon International Airport, a 6-consecutive winner of Airport Service Quality(2005-2010) Focusing on Network Management Mr. Ho-Chin LEE Executive Director Commercial Marketing Group Incheon International Airport Corporation Republic of Korea Airport CouncilInternational Airport Service Quality 79
  • 92. 0TWQlQql»tRue°gRÙ0W–›xŠgInternational Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governance Abstract Incheon International Airport has showed its proficiency as the World’s BestAirport by becoming a winner of Airport Service Quality assessment of ACI(Airport Council International) for 6 consecutive years from 2005 to 2010. One ofthe main reasons to be the best service airport is its service network managementwhich differentiated Incheon airport from others. International airport by itself is aplace of multiple service providers more than 500 organizations. However,passengers tend to believe an airport authority provides all the services. Thus it wasinevitable for Incheon Int’l Airport Corp. (IIAC) to integrate all the network ofservice providers not only for meeting various passengers’ needs but upgradingservice quality also. Due to IIAC’s efforts to combine all the relevant serviceproviders, the committee for service innovation at Incheon airport could be createdmade of seven government agencies, two domestic major airlines and airlineoperators’ committee. The committee for service innovation contributed to createpassenger forecasting system which minimizes departure and arrival time throughcooperating with committee members, resulting in enhancing satisfaction ofpassengers. More details of the committee’s results will be covered throughout thispaper.80
  • 93. ‹p˜Lv|ˆhÿNŒÿ Session Two o Presentation SlidesMore than an Airport, Beyond Expectation Different Service Management of Incheon Int’l Airport A 6-consecutive Winner of Airport Service Quality(2005-2010) focusing on Network Management Ho-Chin Lee Executive Director of Commercial Marketing Group Incheon International Airport Corp. Such a tiny island in Yellow Sea of Korea… becomes the World’s Best Airport in the World… 81
  • 94. 0TWQlQql»tRue°gRÙ0W–›xŠgInternational Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governance Incheon Int’l Airport is.. History of Incheon Airport 1992 1994 1996 92.06 : Master Planning 94.10 : Completion of Dike 96.05 : Passenger Terminal 92.11 : Site Preparation (13.4km) 96.12 : Runway 2000 2001 2008 00.06 : Basic Facilities 01.03 : Grand Opening 08.06 : 2nd Phase Open 00.07 : Start a Test-Run (3rd Runway, Concourse A)82
  • 95. ‹p˜Lv|ˆhÿNŒÿ Session Two oOverseas Media Reports BBC World Russian National Media USA Today Business Week Incheon Airport is No.1 Benchmarking Why can’t all airport Why Asia has the World’s One of the most Airport in the World! Be like Incheon ? Best Airports, Incheon ?attractive tourism points Russian airport must learn oday - USA T cheon? - Like In All Airport Be an’t - A CI - W hy C It Bette r? d y Does NoboWall Street Journal Report (Feb 18th, 2011) 83
  • 96. 0TWQlQql»tRue°gRÙ0W–›xŠgInternational Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governance Interview with Chosun Media ( , May 3rd, 2011) “Incheon Airport becomes the standard of airports worldwide” “I have been to Korea, I think Incheon Airport is the best airport I’ve experienced ever” CEO of Fentress Architect Cultis Fentress “I want you to design the same airport terminal in the new development phase of Los Angeles Int’l airport ! “ Mayor of Los Angeles , US Antonio Villaraigosa Major Award Accomplishment [International Award] 2009 Global Traveler IATA Eagle Award SKYTRAX Airport Service Quality Business Traveler [Domestic Award] Winner of Corp. Ethics Most Admired Corp. Sustainable Growth Index No. 1 in SOC companies (Korea Management Association)84
  • 97. ‹p˜Lv|ˆhÿNŒÿ Session Two o Success FactorsSuccess Factor #1 : Development1 Limitation of Gimpo Int’l Airport’s Expanding Int’ Airport’ Noise, Curfew and limitation of Expanding Increase of Passengers and Air Cargo2 Find a New Way : Development Develop Airport Site forecasting passenger demand in 50 years Foregoing plan faster than Open Sky Policies in NE Asia3 Dramatic Change : The Biggest Construction in the History Start the Construction of New Airport since 1994 Major Changes : - # of Runways 1 2, Size of Passenger Terminal 396,000 496,000 , 5th Runway 85
  • 98. 0TWQlQql»tRue°gRÙ0W–›xŠgInternational Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governance Success Factor #2 : Construction Success Factor #2 : Construction 4 State-of-the-Art Technologies : Yong-Jong Island State- of- the- Yong- Fast Track of Design and Construction Applying State-of-the Art Technology in construction 5 The Greatest Rehearsal : Countdown Grand-Opening Grand- Empirical Verification through sufficient Test-Runs of Operation 10,000 Test-run Operators, 25,000 Test-run Passengers Kansai, Denver, Greek airports experienced failures in test-runs Everybody expected Incheon would fail A Brave Attitude toward Challenges & Crisis But Incheon surprised all over the World resulted in Successful Grand-Opening86
  • 99. ‹p˜Lv|ˆhÿNŒÿ Session Two oSuccess Factor #3 : Hardware + Software + Humanware1 Convenient Facilities + Human Services Applying Airport workers’ Opinions at Design stage Minimize Airport Passenger’s Walking distance and Maximize the Efficiency of Airport Operation2 The Biggest Orchestra in the World 570 Corporations, 35,000 Airport Workers Each agency’s effort to Enhance Service result in Improvement of Overall Service Quality Government Agencies Airlines (68) Concessioners SuncontractorsSuccess Factor #3 : Hardware + Software + Humanware3 Unified Airport Culture with Passion and Excitement For employee’s well-being Staff Lounge Local Cultural Event in Airport Area IIAC – Airline Sky Festival Making a FriendshipFor Mutual Trust and Unification A Program for the World’s BestAirport Festival Airport A Contest for Airport’s King of Kindness Employee’s Advice & Suggestion Consultative Groups representing Incheon Airport Voice of Field Committee for Service Innovation & A.O.C. Through Consultative Group, Mutual Trust & Unification Self-motivate a Mind to Improve Service Quality ! 87
  • 100. 0TWQlQql»tRue°gRÙ0W–›xŠgInternational Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governance Success Factor #3 : Hardware + Software + Humanware 4 Harmony & Unification  Build a Partnership Unifying 35,000 airport workers Improve Service Self-Motivated Best Practice Upgrade employee’s well-being (21million USD/year) Committee for Service Innovation  Change into the Dynamic Corporate Culture Everybody is Incheon Airport’s Customer  Share a Common-Value with Local Communities Build a Cultural Complex and High School Hold a Sky Festival for local residents in Yong Jong Island Build a Mutual Trust ! Better than Others88
  • 101. ‹p˜Lv|ˆhÿNŒÿ Session Two oBetter than Others : High Tech1 Speedy & Efficient Operation Fastest Immigration Procedure Departure 16 min(vs. 60 min) , Arrival 10 min(vs. 45 min) Transit Time : 45 min(vs. Beijing 120 min, Changi 60 min) World’s Best Airport Operation CAT- b (Runway Operation with Visibility of 100 meter) 70,000 non-stop Operation of Aviation Safety System Ubiquitous Airport with Cutting –Edge IT system Operate Unmanned Check-In and Immigration Process Core Value : Fast, Safety & ConvenienceBetter than Others : High Tech 89
  • 102. 0TWQlQql»tRue°gRÙ0W–›xŠgInternational Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governance Better than Others : Human Service 2 Inspiration & Sincerity  Airport with Culture and Art Variety of Events in fashion, art and performance A Traditional Culture Center and Events  New Paradigm of Duty-Free Shopping Up-Scale Shopping Services 1 billion USD revenue $35/passenger $21 for Changi, $20 for Heathrow, London  Differentiated Passenger Service Passenger Forecasting System (D+2) Providing Various Transit Passenger Services Provide Differentiated Value ! Experiencing Various Traditional Korean Culture, art and performances at Incheon Airport90
  • 103. ‹p˜Lv|ˆhÿNŒÿ Session Two oBetter than Others : A Successful Role Model3 Never-Stop Learning : Continuous Research & Benchmarking Never- Benchmarking Service(Singapore) , Air Cargo (Hong Kong) , Commercial (Heathrow) , and etc. Targeting Global Top 5 hub airport by 20154 Successful Public Company : over 150 million USD net profit for 6 years Generate a lot of net profit every year returning profits to national government as a diviend Becoming a Successful SOC Project ! Network Management is… 91
  • 104. 0TWQlQql»tRue°gRÙ0W–›xŠgInternational Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governance Case Study of Network Management 1 Overview on a Committee for Service Innovation Incheon Airport is a place of multiple service providers more than 500 organizations ▪ Visa processing : Immigration Office ▪ Customs: Korea Customs Service ▪ Inspection: National Quarantine Station ▪ Security : Airport Police, National Intelligence Service and etc. Passengers tend to believe airport authority provides all the services above Need to Integrate all the network of service providers for (1) meeting various passengers’ needs and (2) upgrading service quality Case Study of Network Management 2 Brief History of the Committee Aug. 2000 - International Airport Operation Committee(IAOC) at Gimpo Airport - Very limited function with no voting right, administered by national government Grand Opening of Incheon Int’l Airport Oct. & Dec. 2003 - Direct Presidential Order from President Rho to form a consultative group to increase passengers’ satisfaction - The committee mainly led by Incheon Int’l Airport Corp. - Form a ‘Committee for Service Innovation’ for the first time in Korea92
  • 105. ‹p˜Lv|ˆhÿNŒÿ Session Two oCase Study of Network Management3 Conflict & Problem-Solving Problem- Private-Public Cooperative Conflict - Conflicts occurred due to multiple organizations’ interests - Major Two concerns of Participants : ▪ Concerned participant’s intrinsic power/authority might be undermined (Airline, Korea Customs Service, Airport Police and etc.) ▪ Curious about Effectiveness of Public-led Committee Problem-Solving 1) Set up the Target for Service Innovation (Departure 45 min & Arrival 40 min) 2) Enactment of rules, regulations and pledges 3) Explaining the purpose of the committee and keep persuading and encouraging each of organizations to participate in the committeeCase Study of Network Management4 Formation of the Committee  Decision-Making Process Propose Working Session Main Session Propose Working Session Main Session Service Agendas Review Vote & Pass a proposal Service Agendas Review Vote & Pass a proposal 93
  • 106. 0TWQlQql»tRue°gRÙ0W–›xŠgInternational Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governance Case Study of Network Management 5 CS (Customer Service) Workshop Over 100 airport employees from 10 government authorities, 8 airlines and 9 concessioners participated in CS Workshop - Discuss innovative ways to improve services - Time of Sharing and Cooperation with a Win-Win approach Case Study of Network Management 6 Successful Performance of the Committee : Passenger Forecasting System 16 min. in departure & 10 min. in arrival time KISS = Korea Immigration Smart Service94
  • 107. ‹p˜Lv|ˆhÿNŒÿ Session Two oCase Study of Network Management7 Network Management for Service Innovation Passenger Number Forecast System Korea Immigration Smart Service (Automated Immigration Clearance) Upgrade Service Quality & (Blue Cap Service) Customer SatisfactionCase Study of Network Management8 Conclusion Network management is the key issue to improve public service quality The Committee for Service Innovation is a symbol of integrating and networking to enhance passenger’s satisfaction and operational efficiency. 95
  • 108. 0TWQlQql»tRue°gRÙ0W–›xŠgInternational Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governance Thank you96
  • 109. ‹p˜Lv|ˆhÿNŒÿ Session Two 例 例 Case 6: Educational Reform in Osaka: Introducing CompetitiveCircumstances between Public Schools and Private Schools Using a Subsidy for Private School Tuition Dr. Tomitaro KITAMI Esq. Chief Executive Staff Planning Office Department of Policy and Planning Osaka Prefectural Government Japan Tōru HASHIMOTO 2008 2010 2011 2011 97
  • 110. 0TWQlQql»tRue°gRÙ0W–›xŠgInternational Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governance AbstractI. Overview Since Governor Hashimoto’s inauguration in 2008, the Osaka PrefecturalGovernment has been challenging comprehensive reforms both in public policy andgovernance areas. The educational reform reported here is the most representativeregarding its scale and nature. Just after the Democratic Party of Japan came to power, the nationalgovernment established a local subsidy in FY2010 to waive public high schooltuition. The policy could be somewhat looked upon as dole-out policy based onpopulism. However, Governor Hashimoto quickly responded to change it into amore meaningful policy: a subsidy for private school tuition that introducescompetitive circumstances between public schools and private schools. Along withthe national program to waive public school tuition, Governor Hashimoto introducedan original subsidy to make tuition free as well for private school students fromfamilies having an annual income of less than 6.1 million which covers 50% ofall households by drastically expanding existing small subsidy to reduce privateschool tuition. He also reduced private school tuitions up to 100,000 for studentsfrom families with an annual income of less than 8 million which covers 70% ofall households. The budget in FY2011 amounts to 11 billion (131 million US$) and will betripled on the completion of the program. The program is not only featured by itsenormous expenditures but also contains noteworthy innovations to educationalvouchers.II. Background of the reform In Japanese education system, high school is referred to as upper secondaryschool. Though attendance in high school is not mandatory, 98.0% of junior highschool graduates entered high schools in FY2010. The relationship between public schools and private schools is essentiallyambivalent: private schools can be competitors as well as cooperators for publicschools. Private high schools in Osaka have been cooperators for historical reasons.Owing to the second generation of the postwar Baby Boomers, high schoolenrollment rates steeply jumped up and dropped down from 1970s to 1990s peakingin 1980s. Facing difficulty to meet anticipated demand for school facilities in 1970s,Osaka’s Board of Education asked private schools for help to admit an increasingnumber of candidates. Thus the enrollment quota was set to public and private98
  • 111. ‹p˜Lv|ˆhÿNŒÿ Session Two oschools, 70% and 30% respectively, in 1982 at the latest. As a result, competitionbetween public schools and private schools had been controlled. This caused variousproblems to be solved.III. Three aims of the reform The Osaka’s educational reform reported here has three aims. The first is to enhance educational quality by introducing competitivecircumstances between public and private high schools. Both public and privateschools in Osaka were ensured necessary enrollments as a whole unrelated to theireducational qualities. The second is to enable students to choose high schools based on their wishesand abilities regardless of their economic conditions since a large difference betweenpublic and private school tuitions kept low-income students away from choosingprivate high schools. The third is to minimize fiscal expenditure by properly shifting studentenrollments from public to private schools. As public schools depend much more onpublic funds than private schools, a fiscal burden would be reduced if studentenrollments shift from public to private.IV. Innovations in the Osaka’s practice The measure of the Osaka’s educational reform reported here is a subsidy forprivate school tuition. The similar idea is known as an educational voucher. Manycountries have introduced it so far, some successfully and others not. From thecomparative survey, two elements are found important in order to realize propercompetition between public and private schools. The first is the recipients’ eligibility as for income level. If recipients’ eligibilityis limited to low-income students, competitive effects will occur only in a smallgroup. On the other hand, in case recipients’ eligibility as for income level is notlimited, high-income families who can afford private school tuition will spend extramoney from the subsidy to their children’s out-of-school education resulting inenlarged educational inequity. The second is private schools’ autonomy for education. If subsidized privateschools’ autonomy for education is restricted and they are obliged to admitcandidates without their own selections, the private schools will become"quasi-public schools" resulting in a loss of educational diversity. On the other hand,in case private schools keep full autonomy for education regardless the subsidy, the 99
  • 112. 0TWQlQql»tRue°gRÙ0W–›xŠgInternational Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governancesubsidy may be exploited as a bailout for private schools with managerial difficultiesby just raising tuitions as much as the subsidy. To design the program most effectively, the Osaka Prefectural Governmentconducted the “policy marketing research.” It sent out questionnaires to all parentsof first grade students in all prefectural high schools (43,000 families in 138 schools)and estimated the number of parents whose choice for public school would havebeen changed to private school if there had been tuition reduction. Then examinedincome distribution of them and statistically analyzed how much amount of tuitionreduction affects the probability of choosing private school. Based on the findings from the research, the program was designed as follows: 1. Recipient’s eligibility as for income level is introduced so as to make 50% of all households are eligible for the free tuition program and up to 70% for the reduced tuition program to avoid both giving extra educational advantage to high-income families and limiting competitive effects to a small group. 2. Private schools’ autonomy for education is maintained but restricted as for their tuition-setting power to avoid both abolishing educational diversity by making “quasi-public school” and exploiting the subsidy as a bailout for private schools.V. Results The results are being examined carefully but considerable effects are shown:the rate of private school-oriented candidates rose up to 27.02 points from 21.46 inthe previous year. In public schools on the other hand, some schools attracted morecandidates than ever while the majority of them could not recruit sufficientcandidates to meet their capacities.100
  • 113. ‹p˜Lv|ˆhÿNŒÿ Session Two o Presentation Slides Introducing Competitive Circumstances between Public Schools and Private Schools Using a Subsidy for Private School Tuition DR. TOMITARO KITAMI, ESQ. OSAKA PREFECTURAL GOVERNMENT, JAPAN MAY 25TH, 2011, TAIPEI Outline1. A Brief Overview of Education System in Japan2. Aims and Measure of Educational Reform in Osaka a. Three Aims of Educational Reform b. Measure: a Subsidy for Private School Tuition3. Osaka’s Innovations a. “Policy Marketing Research” b. Program Design4. Results and Conclusions 101
  • 114. 0TWQlQql»tRue°gRÙ0W–›xŠgInternational Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governance A Brief Overview of Education System in Japan Position of High School (Upper Secondary School) in the System High school education is considered as de facto compulsory education in Japan. Fig.1 A Brief Overview of Education System in Japan Position of Private School in the de facto Compulsory Education Private schools have 30% share of enrollment and complement necessary facilities in the de facto compulsory education. Fig.2 Fig.2102
  • 115. ‹p˜Lv|ˆhÿNŒÿ Session Two o A Brief Overview of Education System in Japan Relationship between Public Schools and Private Schools Total number of students hit its peak in 1980s and dropped steeply and Osaka’s Board of Education asked private schools for help in order to meet the increasing demand for school facilities in 1970s.Fig.3 Aims and Measure of Educational Reform in Osaka Three Aims of the Educational Reform The First Aim Enhance educational quality by introducing competitive circumstances between public and private high schools ➣ The enrollment quota was set to public and private schools, 70% and 30% respectively, in 1982 at the latest. ➣ As a result, competition between public and private schools had been controlled. 103
  • 116. 0TWQlQql»tRue°gRÙ0W–›xŠgInternational Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governance Aims and Measure of Educational Reform in Osaka Three Aims of the Educational Reform The Second Aim Enable students to choose high schools based on their wishes and abilities regardless of their economic conditions Table 1 Aims and Measure of Educational Reform in Osaka Three Aims of the Educational Reform The Third Aim Minimize fiscal expenditure by properly shifting student enrollments from public to private schools Table 2104
  • 117. ‹p˜Lv|ˆhÿNŒ Session Two oAims and Measures of Educational Reform in Osaka Measure: a Subsidy for Private School Tuition Two important elements to realize propercompetitive circumstances are found.Table 3 Private schools Recipients eligibility Undesirable concequences for Undesirable concequences for autonomy for as for income level competitive circumstances competitive circumstances education Restricted Private schools will become Not set (i.e. Private schools "quasi-public schools" and Case 1 (All students) High-income families who can must admit candidates educational diversity will be afford private school tuition without their own abolished. will spend extra money from selection.) subsidies to their children’s out-of-school education Maintained resulting in enlarged Susidies may be exploited as a Not set educational inequity. (i.e. Private schools bail-out for private schools with Case 2 (All students) keep full autonomy for managerial difficulties by education including simply raising tuitions. tuition-settiing power.) Limited to low-income Competitive effects will be Case 3 students limited to low-income class. Osaka’s Innovations a. “Policy Marketing Research” A large scale research was conducted. Statistically estimated and analyzed Fig. 4 Fig. 4 105
  • 118. 0TWQlQql»tRue°gRÙ0W–›xŠgInternational Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governance Osaka’s Innovations b. Program Design The details of the Osaka’s program Fig.5 ➣ National government has already established a local subsidy to waive public high school tuition in FY2010. ➣ Governor Hashimoto changed it into a more meaningful policy by expanding existing small subsidy: Free tuition program for private school students from families having less than 6.1 million annual income. Tuition reduction program for students from families with more than 6.1 million and less than 8 million income. Their tuitions are reduced up to 100,000. ➣ Total budget amounts to 11 billion (131 million US$) in FY2011 and will be tripled on the completion of the program. Osaka’s Innovations b. Program Design Innovations regarding recipient’s eligibility as for income level ➣ Avoid giving extra Recipient’s eligibility as for advantages to high income level is introduced so as income students. to make 50% of all households are eligible for the free tuition ➣ Avoid limiting program and up to 70% for the competitive effects to reduced tuition program. small group of candidates.106
  • 119. ‹p˜Lv|ˆhÿNŒÿ Session Two o Osaka’s Innovations b. Program Design Innovations regarding private schools’autonomy for educationPrivate schools’ autonomy ➣ Avoid abolishingfor education is maintained educational diversity bybut restricted as for their making “quasi-publictuition-setting power (i.e. school.”private schools are obligedto set their tuitions no ➣ Avoid exploiting themore than 580,000 per subsidy as bailout foryear if participate in the private schools withsystem). managerial difficulties. Results and Conclusions The results are being examined but considerable effects are shown. - The rate of private school-oriented candidates rose up to 27.02 points from 21.46 in the previous year. - Some public schools attracted more candidates than ever while the majority of them could not recruit sufficient candidates to meet their capacity. 107
  • 120. 0TWQlQql»tRue°gRÙ0W–›xŠgInternational Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governance108
  • 121. 立 行例7 流 例 Mr. Wei Tat CHUA (Ryan), Manager, Employment Pass Services Centre, Singapore Mr. Tze Whei TEO (David), Senior Manager, PQS Processing, Singapore例8 力 年 例 Mr. Bryan ROGERS, Executive Director, Pacific Gateway Workforce Investment Board, Long Beach, CA., U.S.A.例9 料 梁 料 Prof. Akira MORITA President, Japanese Society for Public Administration, JSPA; Professor, Graduate Schools for Law and Politics/Faculty of Law, and Graduate School of Public Policy, The University of Tokyo, Japan 立
  • 122. Session ThreeModerator: Prof. Ning-Jye SHIH Chair, Department of Public Administration, National Chengchi University, Taiwan, R.O.C.Case 7: Integrating Application Process and Redefining Service Experience: Employment Pass Services Centre (EPSC) and Employment Pass Online (EPOL)Speaker: Mr. Wei Tat CHUA (Ryan), Manager, Employment Pass Services Centre, Singapore Mr. Tze Whei TEO (David), Senior Manager, PQS Processing, SingaporeCase 8: Creating a Youth-Centric Career Center--Workforce Development Policy in Long Beach, California USASpeaker: Mr. Bryan ROGERS, Executive Director, Pacific Gateway Workforce Investment Board, Long Beach, CA., U.S.A.Case 9: Innovative Services for Taxpayers Using Information TechnologySpeaker: Mr. Chun-Jung SU, Director-General, Financial Data Center, Ministry of Finance, Taiwan, R.O.C. Mr. Tony SHIEH, Director of Division One, Financial Data Center, Ministry of Finance, Taiwan, R.O.C.Discussants: Prof. Akira MORITA President, Japanese Society for Public Administration, JSPA; Professor, Graduate Schools for Law and Politics/Faculty of Law, and Graduate School of Public Policy, The University of Tokyo, Japan Dr. Thomas C.P. PENG Associate Professors, Department of Political Science, National Taiwan University, Taiwan, R.O.C.
  • 123. ‹p˜Lv|ˆhÿNÿÿ Session Three例 流 例Case 7: Integrating Application Process and Redefining Service Experience: Employment Pass Services Centre (EPSC) and Employment Pass Online (EPOL) Mr. Wei Tat CHUA (Ryan) Manager Employment Pass Services Centre Singapore Mr. Tze Whei TEO (David) Senior Manager PQS Processing Singapore 2005 2009 Ministry of Manpower Employment Pass Employment Pass Services Center IDEO “eye-dee-oh” IDEO 111
  • 124. 0TWQlQql»tRue°gRÙ0W–›xŠgInternational Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governance Abstract Between 2005 and 2009, the Ministry of Manpower (MOM) overhauled itsEmployment Pass (EP) application process, which included revamping its EPprocessing system for efficiency and redesigning the overall service experience at theEmployment Pass Services Centre (EPSC). In our efforts to seek a significant breakthrough in service excellence, MOMcollaborated with the world-renowned design firm, IDEO, to embark on ahuman-centered design approach to service experience. Instead of usingconventional data gathering surveys and focus group dialogues, the design thinkingapproach uses field observation of how our customers interact with our services andnavigate our processes and systems. Insights are drawn from out-liers and extremeusers of our services to achieve quantum leaps in innovative solutions. The solutionsare then prototyped at low resolution through engagement with stakeholders beforefinalizing them for implementation.112
  • 125. ‹p˜Lv|ˆhÿNÿÿ Session Three o Presentation SlidesIntegrating Application  David Teo Senior ManagerProcess and Redefining  Ryan ,Chua Wei TatService Experience Manager Ministry of Manpower, Singapore 25th May  2011 Overview Employment Pass Online -Application Process Prior to new EPOL - Driving forces - Project Framework - Challenges - Addressing the challenges - Outcomes/ Results Employment Pass Services Centre (EPSC) - Applying Design Thinking 113
  • 126. 0TWQlQql»tRue°gRÙ0W–›xŠgInternational Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governance Application Process prior to new EPOL Manual Application Submit via EPOL Form + Supporting Documents Fax Supporting Documents Check application and supporting documents in order before is scanned, indexed, and coded Manual Processing Processing time 3 to 5 weeks Driving Forces Top Rising Volume of TransactionsValue 3 things that Customers Total EP/ S Pass Transactions Transactions have increased 2.5 times over 3 years 1,200,000 Rising Demand for • Responsiveness ? 1,000,000 global talent 1,000,000 – We listen and understand needs 800,000 – We are helpful and offer 633,382 alternatives 600,000 – We are efficient and speedy 478,482 400,000 350,614 • Accessibility 261,315 Shorter Business Cycles 200,000 – Our transactions can be done anytime, 0 anywhere FY06 FY05 FY07 FY08 FY10 • Competency – We are transparent and clear Increasing customer Customer Perception Surveys – We help customers make informed expectations Dialogue session with companies decisions114
  • 127. ‹p˜Lv|ˆhÿNÿÿ Session Three o Driving Forces Paradigm Shift from “Government Knows best” toRising Demand for Requires a Market Centric Approachglobal talent Gate Keeper Model Responsive to Risk Management Model Facilitative Regulating to Transparent Facilitating Informed DecisionsShorter Business Cycles Efficient Empowering To build a World Class WorkIncreasing customer Work Pass Pass processing system thatexpectations Framework enables employers to bring in their global & specialist talent quickly to meet their business needs. Project Framework Formation of Project Team AAR / Post-monitoring Conceptualization & Funding Official launch Kick-off Meeting - Objectives Pilot Launch - Roles and Responsibilities Training / Briefing WPD, CRD, OCC Requirement study Prototyping Testing Development 115
  • 128. 0TWQlQql»tRue°gRÙ0W–›xŠgInternational Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governance Managing Complexities 137 rules, 35 matrixes Eg Australian, $5k, Mgr, N D ationality+R escrip n tio ace Points PMES Description Points D Whitelist escription Points Com P p rofile Description Points D Overall Sa escription lary Points EducationTier Description Points Y of Ex (m rs p ths) Description Points A (O ll thers) A SSO 1 C A Yes A Yes A >=7000 6 00 0 0 0 T1 9 0 00 0 >= 108mths 300 Curtin U, with 5 yrs exp in Malaysia In hn do-C B C SSO 2 C SSO 3 C A B No B No B >=5000- 6999 >=3500- 4999 5 00 0 0 0 5 0 00 T2 T3 8 0 00 0 7 0 00 0 >=96- 107m >=84- 95 m ths ths 3 2 00 00 SSO 4 C B >=3000- 3499 ND R eg >=72- 83 mths Spore SSO 5 C SSO 6 C B B >=2500- 2999 >=1800- 2499 4 0 00 3 0 00 2 0 00 ND R ip N C ITEC ert 6 0 00 0 5 0 00 0 4 0 00 0 >=60- 71 m >=48- 59 m ths ths 2 2 1 00 00 00 SSO 7 C B <1800 1 0 00 N TechC R ert 3 0 00 0 >=36- 47 mths 100 SSO 8 C B O ers th 2 0 00 0 >=24- 35 mths 100 SSO 9 C B 0 >=12- 23 mths 100 Stage 1:Identity Verification SSO X C B <12 mths 100 Nt nlit +ae aioa yRc PE MS Wit lis he t Cm Po o p r file Oea S lay vr ll a r Euaio T r Yso Ep(mh) dc t n ie r f x t s Dsr t n Pins Dsr t n Pins Dsr tio Pins Dsr t n Pins Dsr t n Pins Dsr t n Pins Dsr t n Pins ecipio o t ecipio o t ecip n o t ecipio o t ecipio o t ecipio o t ecipio o t A (Ohrs) A ll t e SO 1 SC A Ys e A Ys e A > 70 600 = 00 000 T 1 900 00 > 18m s =0 t h 30 0 Mlas a yia B SO 2 SC A No B No B >50 -69 500 =00 99 000 T 2 800 00 >9 -17m s =6 0 th 30 0 Stage 2: Points Allocation Ino h d-Cn C SO 3 SC SO 4 SC B B Ntoat+ae500-4999M00 a nl yRc3 PE i i >= io i 3 3 r 4 n 49 S 50 T Wes0 >8 -9oth r2ie 3 h l 0 =4 C p o0 i 70t ti0 5m s fl mP 0 OrlSlr EuaoTr Y oEpms v a a y dct ni r f x( t ) el a Dsr t n P>t00Ds9pio00 PinsNDsr to6000o>7 -ecipsn200ot Dsrpio Pins Dsr t n Pins Dsr t n Pit ecip o=s0 -ecit n 0 ot RDgipin Pins 2Dsmt Pi s ecit n ot ecip ot ecip o s ec e 0 t 8 rth = 3 io n io io n i e s h SO 5 SC B >20 -29 =50 99 30 00 ND R ip 500 00 >6 -7 m s =0 1 th 20 0 A(te) A SO1 A ll O r hs SC A Ys A Ys e SO 6 SC B e >10 -29 20 N E Crt 400 >4 -5 m s 10 =80 49 00 ITC e 00 =8 9 th 0 M yia B <80SC 1000 ARTchCrt 30000B=6-47m s 100 B as la Risk Managementmhths 300 >70 600 T 900 >18 ts =00 000 1 00 =0 Policy Matrices- eg SO 7 SC B 10SO2 N e Neo >3 N o th >50-69 500 T 800 >9-17 30 =00 99 000 2 00 =6 0m 0 SO 8 SC B InoCn C SO3 B Ohrs 20000 >24-35m s 100 d-h SC te = th Matrices-5000 T3 70000 >=84-95mhs 200 >30-49 eg =50 99 t determining category SO 9 SC B SO4 B SC 0 >1 -2 m s 10 =2 3 th 0 Blacklist499checks,=72-83mhs 200 >30-3 40 NDg 600 > t =00 00 Re 00 Stage 3: Processing SO X SC Nt nlit +ae pass, Wit lis of PMES aioa yRc B allowable he t Dsr t n Pins Dsr t n Pins Dsr t n Pins ecipio o t ecipio o t ecipio o t CmPoile o p rf vSO5 r r llS a a <2m s 10 1 t h 0 OeSC lay B Euaio T r Yso Ep(mh) dc t n ie r f x t s Dsr t n Pin Dsr t n Pin Dsr t n Pins Dsr t n Pins ecipio o ts ecipio o ts ecipio o t ecipio o t >20-29 30 ND 500 >6-7ms 20 =50 99 00 Rip 00 =0 1 t 0 dubious2499operating9mhs 100 h SO6 B SC >10- 20 NECr 400 >4-5 t =80 00 IT e 00 =8 Ct A (Ohrs)duration,s allowable ll t e A SO 1 A SC Y e A Yse A > 70 600 = 00 000 T 1 900 > 18m s 30 00 = 0 t h 0 a yia B Mlas SO 2 A SC No B No S99 B T 80000 >96-10 mh 300 B >50SO7 500C =00-69 000 2 = 7 ts addresses,Nhigh>=36-47mhs 100 <80 10 Rehet 300 10 00 TcCr 00 t Ino h occupation within d-Cn C SO 3 B SC >30SO8 50B T =50-49 00 S99 C 3 700 >8 -9 m s 20 00 = 4 5 t 0h SO 4 B SC >30 -39 40 =00 49 00 N Dg 600 >7 -8 m s 20 Re 00 = 2 3 t 0h risk coy profile,00 >=24--35mhs 100 Oe 20 t r 00 hs t industry, skills in SO 5 B SC SO9 B SC >20 -29 30 =50 99 00 N DR ip 500 >6 -7 m s 20 00 = 0 1 t 0h >1 2ms 10 =2 3 t 0 h security checks <12mhs 100 Stage 4: Support by VA* demandSO 6 B SC SO 7 B SC <80 10 >10SOX 20B N E Crt 400 >4 -5 m s 10 S49C =80-29 00 ITC e 00 =8 9 t 0 10 00 N Tc Crt R eh e h 300 00 >3 -4 m s =6 7 t h with ICA, ISD 10 0 t SO 8 SC B Ohrs te 200 00 >2 -3 m s =4 5 t h 10 0 SO 9 SC B 0 >1 -2 m s =2 3 t h 10 0 SO X SC B <2m s 1 t h 10 0 Stage 5: Final Review Processing Officer has opportunity to intervene and review case at each stage Example: Points Matrix • One of the 35 matrices in use • 67,200 possible permutation • All parameters are configurable, • 4,032 final groupings enabling quick changes • Matrix designed to 7 criteria to determine P/Q Points: accommodate 12 criterion with 10 grading each • Eg: Years of Experience, Occupation, Overall Salary, Education Level…116
  • 129. ‹p˜Lv|ˆhÿNÿÿ Session Three o Risk Management Approach - Company Profiling candidates Review Reject High risk Approve Review candidates Low risk Low risk companies High risk companiesHarnessing Technology for Efficiency Faster Processing Time •Outcome within 1 week vs hardcopy submission (5 weeks) One Stop Access to all Work Pass Services Whole suite of services available with minimum touch points Linkages to >10 government agencies Customer-centric Features, eg e-payment facilities incorporated based on feedback User friendly interface SMS Alerts when outcome is ready Higher Consistency & Accuracy In spite of high volume & complex processes, human error is greatly reduced in decision making 117
  • 130. 0TWQlQql»tRue°gRÙ0W–›xŠgInternational Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governance Faster Processing Time  Economic Gain •Estimated Economic Gain for companies due to reduction in processing processing time from 3 weeks to 1 week: EP/ SPass Application: Economic Output: (Based Economic gain on EP/ SPass mean salary of $3000 – assuming 2 weeks’ saving) X = 200,000 /year $1500 200,000 x $1500 = $300 million a year Fastest Processing Time in the World Country Processing time Singapore 1 week China 2 weeks Malaysia 3 weeks Hong Kong 4 weeks Taiwan 4 weeks South Korea 5 weeks (4 weeks to process work visa and 1 week for residence visa) UAE 6 weeks (2 weeks to process work visa and 4 weeks for residence visa) UK 14 weeks USA 30 weeks118
  • 131. ‹p˜Lv|ˆhÿNÿÿ Session Three o 03Applying Design ThinkingSetting up of Employment PassServices Center(EPSC)A human centred view that beginswith people’s needs 119
  • 132. 0TWQlQql»tRue°gRÙ0W–›xŠgInternational Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governance A human centred view that begins with people’s needs A human centred view that begins with people’s needs120
  • 133. Session Three o Design Thinking – the Process Past AchievementsA World Class Processing System• Efficient – Handle large vol of txs faster than any country• Responsive – Meet the needs of Government, Employers & Stakeholders• Accessible – Anytime, Anywhere 121
  • 134. 0TWQlQql»tRue°gRÙ0W–›xŠgInternational Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governance WHEN PEOPLE ARE ALL YOU REALLY HAVE 1 9 PEOPLE FOCUS122
  • 135. ‹p˜Lv|ˆhÿNÿÿ Session Three oPEOPLE FOCUSPEOPLE FOCUS 123
  • 136. International Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governance From Customers’ Lens Let’s consider what it feels like to walk In the shoes of a customer trying to get an Employment Pass today…124
  • 137. ‹p˜Lv|ˆhÿNÿÿ Session Three o“ It’s like if they baked a pie and said ‘Igive you the pie – eat it.’ If you tellthem it’s too salty, they say ‘drinkmore water’. We want to have aninfluence, but it’s not a dialogue.”BOBBY Benchmarking Great Service UMPQUA APPLE GENIUS BAR 125
  • 138. 0TWQlQql»tRue°gRÙ0W–›xŠgInternational Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governance Benchmarking Great Service RESTAURANT MODEL SELF-SERVICE MODEL ASSEMBLY LINE MODEL [AIRPORT] MALL MODEL The team did a whole bunch of work Research – Observations and interviews Brainstorming126
  • 139. ‹p˜Lv|ˆhÿNÿÿ Session Three oDesigning and Building out ideas Prototyping . Testing it with stakeholders…. 127
  • 140. International Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governance Rapid Prototyping FAIL EARLY TO SUCCEED SOONER THE PROTOTYPE SPACE On Thursday last week, we validated our ideas with a number of simulated customers.128
  • 141. ‹p˜Lv|ˆhÿNÿÿ Session Three oPutting it all together … 129
  • 142. 0TWQlQql»tRue°gRÙ0W–›xŠgInternational Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governance Check In Kiosks130
  • 143. ‹p˜Lv|ˆhÿN Session Three o Arrival Lobby Arrival Lobby Enrolment Bar 131
  • 144. 0TWQlQql»tRue°gRÙ0W–›xŠgInternational Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governance Family Cabanas Design Concepts 1 Give certainty to customers - An e-appointment system for customers to plan their arrivals and ensure a managed flow all day.132
  • 145. ‹p˜Lv|ˆhÿNÿÿ Session Three o Design Concepts2 Be personable- have a Q system that addresses a person by name, not a number Design Concepts3 Set People up for Success 133
  • 146. 0TWQlQql»tRue°gRÙ0W–›xŠgInternational Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governance Design Concepts 3 Set People up for Success - Enable customers to make one decision at a time in the EPSC, through: i) Pro-active assistance of roaming ambassadors from the moment customers arrive Design Concepts 3) Set People up for Success ii) Deliberate space design - The Arrival Lobby • A space where customers have the chance to transit from the rush of the outside world to waiting inside the EPSC - The Waiting Area • where customers can relax for a moment, talk with friends, meet new people and even get some work done - The Enrolment Bar • where customers come to give their fingerprints & enrol for their Employment Passes Enrolment Bar134
  • 147. ‹p˜Lv|ˆhÿNÿÿ Session Three o Design Concepts4) Understand needs & complexities, maximise value for the customer Family Cabanas – A space designed specifically for family groups & those who are physically challenged Design Concepts5 Life goes on as usual; make waiting useful – Internet Kiosks, pipe-in music, Audio/Video shows about Singapore (MICA & STB), News updates – Caricatures/Drawings with synopsis on EPSC windows – Engage in Community connections 135
  • 148. 0TWQlQql»tRue°gRÙ0W–›xŠgInternational Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governance “ The office has the best private sector standards of cordiality, combined with a public service spirit rare in the private sector. The personnel and process are efficient, rational, friendly and welcoming! Bravo! Far ahead of the USA and UK!” Dayan Jayatilleka ISAS/NUS "MOM, is the best  public service  department ever.  I  have seen many and  without doubt the best  worldwide. Kudos!" Alexander Liew136
  • 149. ‹p˜Lv|ˆhÿNÿÿ Session Three o“I am a French and Canadian citizen, and I have been exposed to many diff govt systems; I found your office, the ambience and level of politeness exceptional. Well done!!” Rangoni Pascale“Atmosphere and ambience and experience is like 5 starhotel check-in. Fantastic!” Oliver Carno Han“ Having lived in Europe and Asia for many years, my opinion is that Singapore is vastly superior in this situation. Countries should observe & learn. Thank you.”“I have lived in many countries and this experience was outstanding in comparison. “ Mary Vander Heiden & family 137
  • 150. 0TWQlQql»tRue°gRÙ0W–›xŠgInternational Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governance "As a foreigner, this experience is a great introduction to Singapore and leaves a great first impression. Keep up the good work! This does not feel like a normal civil service, but a professional customer service organization." Tai Yen How “This new place is quite amazing. All the personnel are truly courteous, knowledgeable, helpful & most of all professional. Hats off to the excellent service offered here.” Krishnan Sivakumar138
  • 151. ‹p˜Lv|ˆhÿNÿÿ Session Three o Employment Pass Online (EPOL)Fastest Work Pass Processing Time in the World  Merit Award in the National Infocomm Awards 2008 in the "Most Innovative Use  Government Technology Awards of Infocomm Technology (Public 2008 in the “Business Process” Sector)" Work Pass DivisionWinner of PS21 Excel GOLD Award 2010 and Minister For Manpower Award 139
  • 152. 0TWQlQql»tRue°gRÙ0W–›xŠgInternational Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governance EPSC Showcased in Ethos Aug 2010 Learning Visits Hosted by the EPSC140
  • 153. ‹p˜Lv|ˆhÿNÿÿ Session Three oThank YouQuestions & Answers 141
  • 154. 0TWQlQql»tRue°gRÙ0W–›xŠgInternational Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governance142
  • 155. ‹p˜Lv|ˆhÿNÿÿ Session Three 例 力 年 例 Case 8: Creating a Youth-Centric Career Center--Workforce Development Policy in Long Beach, California USA Mr. Bryan ROGERS Executive Director Pacific Gateway Workforce Investment Board Long Beach, CA. U.S.A.  29% 18 18 24 11  20%  2006 2007 24% 25% Workforce InvestmentBoard Youth Council 2008 2009 143
  • 156. 0TWQlQql»tRue°gRÙ0W–›xŠgInternational Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governance AbstractI. The Challenge: Idle Youth Need to be Engaged With a population of approximately 500,000, the City of Long Beach is anexceptionally vibrant and diverse medium-sized, urban community. Like mosturban centers, the City faces numerous challenges in providing collective health,safety, economic development, infrastructure, education, housing, and residentservices. However, Long Beach is known for its determined commitment to reducecrime, to improve social and educational outcomes, and to strengthen the localeconomy. While the City is particularly strong in its focus and commitment to engagingyouth in civic strategies, young adults remain a significantly challenged group:  Approximately 29% of Long Beach residents are under the age of 18, with an additional 11% aged 18-24.  While most youth engage in productive activities and demonstrate positive behaviors, roughly 20% of Long Beach youth aged 16–24 are completely idle – neither enrolled in educational nor employment activities.  High school dropout rates (estimated at 24% in 2006-2007) and youth unemployment rates (estimated at more than 25% for 16-19 year-olds). The City’s Workforce Investment Board and its Youth Council aremayor-appointed entities that set policy and guidance for investment and planning instrategies that connect youth with education, workforce development, and localindustry. In hopes of reaching young adults in need of the support of theircommunity to avoid delinquency, gang involvement, and other at-risk behaviors thatput families, communities and youth at-risk, 2008 and 2009 became pivotal years inadvancing important strategies to ensure youth-driven, youth-connected workforceservice design and delivery.II. THE SOLUTION: A CLEAR VOICE IN THE MESSAGE Building a stronger, youth-driven strategy became the clear and overarchingneed and basis for the project’s objectives. Expanding the City’s commitment toinclude the voice of young adults in driving that vision became key to our successand solution. As documented below, the youth workforce program developedvarious methods to gain the opinions of young adults in our community, built uponexisting public and private community collaborations, effective management ofmunicipal resources and innovative government policies. This youth development144
  • 157. ‹p˜Lv|ˆhÿNÿÿ Session Three ostrategy and its project components are and were funded by federal workforceinvestment and community development block grants. Literally a Voice The City’s Youth Council had always included seats for “youth reps.” However,with additional appointments of high school and post-secondary education students,we created additional input and new ways of thinking about our young adultcustomers. New youth representatives brought surprising energy and opinions tomeetings and problem-solving discussions, invigorating the planning andimplementation processes. Focused on learning and contributing, these youngadults expanded their horizons and became involved in other municipal activities,such as serving for the Commission on Youth and Children and Long Beach YouthFund Committee - a grant program that provides funding for projects approved bythe Commission on Youth and Children that are designed, planned, and implementedby young adults. Crafting Messages to Reach Other Young Adults The City piloted a program for youth development of very at-risk youth,engaging them in intensive strategies. Through that effort, we asked the youth groupto design a youth-centered – and youth-driven – campaign. The results weresimply crafted messages: youth getting respect; education; assistance; the truth; etc,through our programs. The messages, on billboards, bus shelters, postcards, web site,and other media, featured photos of those same youth, and became the backdrop forthe new “Get Educated…Get Experienced…Get Employed” campaign that becamethe theme of the new Center. Creating a Space for Youth A re-design of the Center’s physical space led to many questions about whatsuch an education and career resource could and should be. To better connect thepossibilities, the City partnered with the Long Beach Unified School District and itsLakewood High School’s interior design students. The students, in partnership withthe selected architect, organized into five teams to create designs and layouts for theCenter. The goal was to reflect the type of space young people might be drawn toor one in which they would be likely to invest time. The City subsequently madedecision to hire young adults for its intake and resource assistant positions so thatyoung people entering the Center instantly related and connected to the space. Youth Talking Workforce Development to their Peers 145
  • 158. 0TWQlQql»tRue°gRÙ0W–›xŠgInternational Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governance In order to show logical connection of education, experience and employmentin a young person’s success, the Center wanted to translate existing labor marketinformation into data more engaging for youth. The City and the Center partneredwith the local YMCA and its social enterprise/youth-staffed Change AgentProductions, a digital arts and consulting firm. The City provided its top industrysectors and basic industry data, and asked for a strategy on translating thatinformation into something meaningful and interesting to young adults. The result:Youth Workforce Development – a 40-page glossy magazine distributed to middle-and senior-high schools, libraries, bookstores, community and faith-basedorganizations, and other youth-serving entities.III. THE RESULTS: INCREASED ENGAGEMENT Services have been transformed by these efforts to connect with young adults inmore meaningful and relevant ways. A quick survey of the effects and impact:  Launch of the Center has resulted in a very engaging, exciting space that clearly connects with young people, which through partnership with the Unified School District, LB Job Corps, the YMCA, seven newly chosen service providers, and business, has resulted in more than 5,000 youth proactively accessing services.  More than…2,000 participated in the Center’s job opportunities fair…660 youth participated in work readiness training…200 gained work experience through the support of our County Supervisor…350 youth were placed into industry internships…300 joined the City and Mayor for job shadowing opportunities at local employer sites that directly connected to career technical education paths…and more than 200 received direct job placements with employer customers who took advantage of the Center’s preparatory efforts.  The Youth Council has adopted a formalized Work Readiness Credential ensure to employers that our young adults are job-ready.  The communications strategies have actually begun to change with the youth, branching into social media/technologies even more relevant to our customers.  The Youth Workforce Development magazine was a hit with young adults, educators, etc. Requests for additional copies, onsite field trips to the Center to see elements of the magazine come to life, requests by Borders Books to have the magazine placed at its LB stores, and inquiries about146
  • 159. ‹p˜Lv|ˆhÿNÿÿ Session Three o subscription opportunities, has led to Vol. 2 and 3, a business enterprise that will create revenue for the team and offset production and service costs. And perhaps most important is something that cannot be bulleted or itemized.The young people directly involved – those who provided input through the Council,designed the new Center, created and implemented youth-based communicationstrategies, assist peers everyday with resources – continue to benefit from theconfidence and self-esteem that is a natural outgrowth of their experiences. Theseare outcomes that make the investment in engagement worth the effort, and ensurethat more young adults will be contributing creative answers to the challenges theCity faces. 147
  • 160. 0TWQlQql»tRue°gRÙ0W–›xŠgInternational Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governance Presentation Slides Creating a Youth‐Centric Career Center Workforce Development Policy in Long Beach, California USA Bryan Rogers, Executive Director www.PacificGatewayWorkforce.com Why Workforce Development148
  • 161. ‹p˜Lv|ˆhÿNÿÿ Session Three o Workforce Policy Approach  Industry Sector Focus  Demand‐Driven  Flexible and Dynamic  Co‐Investment: Public‐Private  Multiple Audiences; Multiple Strategies Adults, Youth, BusinessEmployment Services • Youth Development • Business Solutions Youth Development System  Public Funding Base – Federal, State  Local Delivery System  Leveraged Investments with Others  Mix of Interventions and Industry Solutions    Balancing a “Supply/Demand Equation”  Youth Opportunity Center at Center 149
  • 162. 0TWQlQql»tRue°gRÙ0W–›xŠgInternational Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governance The Conditions  More than 1/3 of Residents Aged  < 24  20% of Youth, 16–24 “Idle”  High  School  Dropout  Rates  Estimated  at  20%  Youth  Unemployment  Rates  Estimated  at  More than 25% for 16‐19 yos  Disconnect of Changing Industries to Skills Reinventing Youth Services  Challenging Conditions  Loss of Dedicated Building Space  Youth Unemployment Edging Upward  Challenge of Doing the “Basics” or More  Need for Bold Strategies around Career  Pathways   Numerous Ideas Presented150
  • 163. ‹p˜Lv|ˆhÿN Session Three o A Voice at the Table  Additional Representation of Students on  Appointed Youth Council Body  New Energy and Opinions in Meetings and  Problem‐Solving Discussions  Invigorated Planning and Implementation  Processes Relevant Messaging  Youth Cohort: Youth‐Centered Campaign  Outcome of Simply Crafted Messages that  Resonate with Youth  Billboards, Bus Shelters,                        Postcards, Web Site,                                  featured the YouthGet Educated • Get Experienced • Get Employed 151
  • 164. 0TWQlQql»tRue°gRÙ0W–›xŠgInternational Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governance Creating a Physical Space  Re‐Design of Youth Opportunity Center  Opportunity to Engage Youth in Creation  Local High School Interior Design Students  Took on as Project   Five Design Teams                                             + + Architect Pitched  Chosen Design Used                                         Incorporated All Creating a Better Space  Opportunity to Upgrade the Vibe for Youth  Decision to Hire Young Adults as Resource  Assistants for the Young Customers  Allow Young People                                    Entering the Center                                         to to Relate and Connect                                      to the Space152
  • 165. ‹p˜Lv|ˆhÿNÿÿ Session Three o Understanding Career Pathways Allow Youth to Share with Peers Show  Logical  Connection  of  Education,  Experience and Employment Translate Labor                                            Market Data into                                            Engaging Info Partnership with                                              Social Enterprise Understanding Pathways 153
  • 166. 0TWQlQql»tRue°gRÙ0W–›xŠgInternational Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governance Ensuring A Relevant Product  Adoption of Work                              Readiness Credential  Facilitated Training;                           Proctored Testing  Measures 4 Areas                                             of Competence  Relevance of Entrants                                     to Employer Ensuring A Relevant Product  Road Trip Nation Partnership  Complemented by Dynamic                     Career Exploration  Connect with Industry                                     Leaders to Job Shadow,                             Discover Possibilities  45 Hours Minimum Between                      Two Components154
  • 167. ‹p˜Lv|ˆhÿNÿÿ Session Three o Maximizing Technology in Services Web‐Based www.HireLB.com Service                                                    Registration Labor                                                            Exchange Customer                                                       Tracking 2010 Service Levels/Outcomes  1,300: Youth Training Positions/Business Internships  465: Intensive Academic Interventions through      Career Academies, Green Jobs Corps (including  returns to High School/GED)  450: Work Readiness/Exploration & Credentials  325: Placed in Permanent (Unsubsidized) Jobs  Federal Placement, Retention, Education Goals Exceeded  Gold Winner – National League of Cities Award, Municipal  Excellence 155
  • 168. 0TWQlQql»tRue°gRÙ0W–›xŠgInternational Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governance For More Information Bryan Rogers, Executive Director  Bryan.Rogers@longbeach.gov www.HireAYouth.com www.RoadTripNation.com156
  • 169. ‹p˜Lv|ˆhÿNÿÿ Session Three 例 Case 9: Innovative Services for Taxpayers Using Information Technology Mr. Chun-Jung SU Director-General Financial Data Center Ministry of Finance Taiwan, R.O.C. Mr. Tony SHIEH Director of Division One Financial Data Center Ministry of Finance Taiwan, R.O.C. 51968 1987 40 CMMI-ACQ ISO270015 157
  • 170. 0TWQlQql»tRue°gRÙ0W–›xŠgInternational Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governance Abstract6 In Chinese Taipei the use of information technology to provide innovativeservices to taxpayers and to facilitate tax administration can date back to 1968, at thattime the Ministry of Finance set up the Data Processing Center(DPC) to govern theuse of information technology in tax and finance related activities, in 1987 DPCrenamed as the Financial Data Center(FDC) until now this agency has pass throughseveral stage in introducing information technology to enhance convenience,effectiveness and efficiency for taxpayers and tax administrations. In line with the development of information technology, during last 4 decades theFDC had also developed a lot of computer systems using cutting-edge informationtechnology at each stage, and some of those computer systems could be treated asmilestone in the history of our information technology utilization, major events thatmarked our IT history are listed as following: 1. 1968 installed CDC 3300 mainframe 2. 1969 developed pilot system for income tax data processing and introduced Optical Character Reader 3. 1970 Upgraded CDC 3300 into multiprogramming system and established household registration file for the whole population 4. 1971 developed individual income tax return system and put to use 5. 1975 developed business income tax return system and put to use 6. 1976 implemented business tax system and put to use 7. 1979 implemented land value tax system and put to use 8. 1980 implemented business income tax system and put to use 9. 1983 implemented system for cross check on invoices received and issued by business 10. 1984 implemented revenue collection management system, system for nationwide personal property data consolidation, office automation system, and income assessment system for aliens 11. 1986 implemented off line data entry system on local revenue services 12. 1991 implemented nationwide personal property data consolidation network6 The full report of this case presentation, please see the appendix 3.158
  • 171. o ‹p˜Lv|ˆhÿNÿÿ Session Three system, system for restriction on departure of tax delinquent, and system for authorization of individual income tax remittance 13. 1992 set up information security principles and introduce anti-virus software, implemented system for individual income tax refund by direct transferring between banking accounts 14. 1993 set up data link between mainframes of Financial Data Center and Directorate General of Customs for nationwide property consolidation data inquiry, set up intranet among Financial Data Center and National Tax Administrations, developed case selection system for business income tax compliance investigation 15. 1994 implemented data base system for business tax filing assessment 16. 1997 developed system for cross check on invoices received and issued by business, and system for tax payment via ATM 17. 1998 implemented data dictionary for data management 18. 2004 set up network for tax information systems 19. 2006 FDC was awarded ISO 27001 certification for information security management system, and developed electronic invoice service platform for business transactions 20. 2007 FDC launched a national tax information system reengineering project to modernize the whole system 21. 2008 FDC was the first government agency awarded CMMI-ACQ certification in the world From information technology point of view, above-mentioned milestones alsoshows that our use of information technology evolved from centralized mainframesystem, the use of data base, networked information system, object oriented language,client server architecture based information system, and finally to web-basedinformation system, this evolution process matched the development of informationtechnology, but in order to use new technology effectively during each evolution stage,it cost us a lot to train related personnel to familiar with new technologies, but asinformation technologies more and more popular, it is necessary for us to keep upwith the cutting edge technology to develop useful and convenient system to meetrequirements of most civilian. As new information technologies emerged faster and faster, there were more 159
  • 172. 0TWQlQql»tRue°gRÙ0W–›xŠgInternational Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governanceand more systems were outsourced in the FDC, and in order ensure that contractorscould deliver products meet our expected costs, quality and schedule, we are the firstgovernment agency in the world that introduced CMMI-ACQ system to guide us inmanaging contractors, besides in order to prevent information security incident frombreaking out, we also set up ISO 27001 information security management system inaddition to information security infrastructure such as fire wall, anti-virus softwareetc. so that we can ensure safety and privacy of personal information in our database.160
  • 173. o ‹p˜Lv|ˆhÿNÿÿ Session Three Presentation SlidesInnovative services for taxpayers using information technology CHINESE TAIPEI Chun – Jung Su T O N Y S H I E H Outline 1 Evolution of use of Information Technology Strategies to create innovative services 3 Channels for Business requirements collection Innovative services Issues Solutions Conclusion 161
  • 174. 0TWQlQql»tRue°gRÙ0W–›xŠgInternational Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governance Evolution of use of information technology Mainframe architecture Client server architecture Web architecture Cloud computing Hardware File structure Data base Data warehouse Data structure Batch mode OLTP mode OLAP mode Operation mode Evolution of use of information technology Physical separation network architecture162
  • 175. o ‹p˜Lv|ˆhÿNÿÿ Session Three Strategies to create innovative servicesDriving foreces Business New requirements technologies Evaluation Replacing Strategies Continuous Integration Old improvement technology Expanding scope Goals More convenient of IT services Channels for Business requirements collection Toll free customer service number Citizen opinion e-mail box On line service applying on e-tax portal website Host symposiums by national tax administration Formal missive 163
  • 176. International Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governance Innovative services E-filing E-payment Web services Pre-assessment of individual income tax Deduction data digitalization E-invoice Different methods of tax return filing164
  • 177. o ‹p˜Lv|ˆhÿNÿÿ Session Three Operation of the electronic filing system 1. Connect PC to the internet Taxpayers 2.Authentication (citizen Certificate) Servers 3. download income & deduction dataCustomer Service(toll free number) 4. Check and Verify (tax calculated automatically) 6.Pay tax 5. OK confirm New services of e-filing 165
  • 178. 0TWQlQql»tRue°gRÙ0W–›xŠgInternational Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governance Tax payment channels 1 Fund transfer via designated banking account Fund transfer via ATM Credit card payment Fund transfer via telephone banking Fund transfer via financial chip card Cash payment via convenience store or banks Services on the website e-Government Service Portal (GSP) www.gov.tw e-Government Integrated Services The internet Public Network Public Network Government Service Network e-Tax Portal etax.nat.gov.tw Taxpayers E-Housekeeper Service 5 National Tax 23 Local Tax Revenue Taxation Administrations Services Data Base Financial Data Center (FDC)166
  • 179. o ‹p˜Lv|ˆhÿNÿÿ Session Three Services on the website1 Application form download Online tax services applying Trial assessment of related charge Tax information inquiry and progress of applied services inquiry Data exchange among government agencies Announcement of tax related informationPre-assessment of individual income taxQualified taxpayers for this service 1.their income subject to tax withholding, or their income come from stock dividends or written articles… 2.their exemption come from bringing up their lineal relatives 3.their deduction come from standard deductions 167
  • 180. 0TWQlQql»tRue°gRÙ0W–›xŠgInternational Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governance 2 stages deduction data digitalization Digitalize Deduction data special deduction deduction for 福 福 for the Donation Stage 2 deduction for losses from disabled or deduction handicapped medical expenses disaster 利 deduction for Stage 1 insurance tuition deduction interest on premium deduction a house mortgage e-invoice Replace paper invoice vision Create efficient business environment Environment protection &reduce carbon signature Reduce transaction cost business Automate accounting and consumer financial management government Promote e-commerce Reduce transaction cost Facilitate e-tax & e-auditing Easy invoice collection B2G B2C More accurate policy Easy checking invoice making B2B B2G lottery B2C Reduce transaction cost business Automate accounting and financial management Promote e-commerce e-invoice platform168
  • 181. o ‹p˜Lv|ˆhÿNÿÿ Session Three IssuesSoftware reusabilityProcesses integrationInformation Security Decision support Incompliant cases 17 SolutionsUse service oriented architecture to increase software reusabilityUse web architecture and business process management tools tointegrate related processesIntroduce data base firewall and application firewall to enhanceinformation security Set up data warehouse, and executive information system to collect and consolidate related information for decision making Use data mining tools to identify potential incompliant cases 18 169
  • 182. 0TWQlQql»tRue°gRÙ0W–›xŠgInternational Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governance Conclusion Innovation Convenient services Continuous Improvement Integration Thanks for your attention!170
  • 183. Guests Introduction
  • 184. Guests Introduction致詞貴賓(DISTINGUISHED GUESTS) Premier WU, Den-Yih Mr. Den-Yih Wu has been appointed as Premier of (吳敦義 院長) the Executive Yuan, which is the highest administrative organ of Taiwan, R.O.C., since 2009. Premier Wu was also the vice chairman and the secretary-general of the Kuomingtang (KMT), one of the major political parties in Taiwan. He was also the mayor of Kaohsiung City and the magistrate of Nantou County. He holds a bachelor degree in history from National Taiwan University.Minister CHU, Chin-Peng Dr. Chin-Peng Chu has been appointed as Minister of (朱景鵬 主委) Research, Development and Evaluation Commission of Executive Yuan, since 2009. The commission is a staff organization responsible for policy research and development, policy planning, policy supervision and evaluation. Dr. Chu is a professor of Public Administration at National Dong Hua University and was also the deputy mayor of Hualien County. He holds a doctorate degree from Justus-Liebig University in Giessen, Germany. Prof. SU, Tsai-Tsu Prof. Tsai-Tsu Su is a professor in the Department of (蘇彩足 主任) Political Science of National Taiwan University as well as the director of Taiwan Public Governance Research Center, Taiwan, R.O.C. Prof. Su is also the adviser of Research, Development and Evaluation Commission in Taipei City Government. She was an assistant professor at Sate University of New York. Her specialists are finance administration, public administration and policy. Her publications can be widely read in many international academic journals. She holds a doctoral degree in Public Policy from Carnegie Mellon University. 173
  • 185. International Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governance演講嘉賓(GUEST KEYNOTE SPEAKER) Prof. CHOW, Edward H.(周行一) echow@nccu.edu.tw Current Position:  Professor, Department of Finance, National Chengchi University, Taiwan, R.O.C.  Director of Investor Research Center of the College of Commerce of National Chengchi University, Taiwan, R.O.C.  Chairman, Editorial Board, Harvard Business Review-Complex Chinese EditionProfessional Experiences: Prof. Chow now also serves on the board of Executive Yuan’s National Stabilization Fund, on the Board of Asian Finance Association, on the Executive Yuan’s Managing Board of Financial Restructuring Fund, on the Board of International Development and Cooperation and Development Fund, on the Board of Gre Tai Securities Market (one of the two stock exchanges in Taiwan). He also serves as the independent director of Polaris Securities Group, as a member of Asian Shadow Financial Regulatory Committee, and on the Listing Board of the Taiwan Stock Exchange. Before joining National Chengchi University, Prof. Chow taught at Santa Clara University in California and National Central University in Taiwan. Prof. Chow was also the Dean of College of Commerce and the Chairman of Department of Finance of NCCU. He also served as the commissioner of Research, Development and Evaluation Commission of Executive Yuan of ROC, and served on the Board of Securities and Futures Investors Protection Center, on the board of Boston Bio-Tech Venture Capital Company, on the board of China Development Industrial Bank Holding Company, on the board of Taiwan International Securities Company as an independent director, and on the Board of Directors of the Securities and Futures Institute of R.O.C.. Prof. Chow received MBA and Ph.D. degrees from Indiana University-Bloomington. He published in academic journals such as Journal of Business, Journal of Banking and Finance, Journal of Financial Research, Pacific Basin Finance Journal, etc. He also published two important textbooks on investments and economics, two popular books on personal finance, and a monograph on corporate governance. He regularly advises public and private institutions and writes columns for major newspapers.174
  • 186. Guests Introduction o發表貴賓(GUEST SPEAKERS) CHEN, Ming-Fong(陳明豐)  Superintendent, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taiwan, R.O.C.  mfchen@ntuh.gov.tw  Prof. Chen also serves as the attending physician of Department of Internal Medicine of National Taiwan University Hospital. Besides, he is the professor of Internal Medicine(Cardiology) of College of Medicine of National Taiwan University. He is also theboard director of various medical research associations in Taiwan as well as amember of international societies of medical researches. In addition to his academicand medical achievements, Prof. Chen was also in charge of affairs of administrationand management at the hospital. He was the secretary of Medical Affairs andSpokesperson, the director of Financial Management Center, the vice superintendentand the director of Health Management Center at National Taiwan UniversityHospital. He also holds the degree of EMBA at the Graduate Institute of Finance,College of Management of National Taiwan University, Taiwan, R.O.C. CHIEN, Hui-Jiuan(簡慧娟)  Executive Secretary, Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault Prevention Committee, Ministry of Interior, Taiwan, R.O.C.  moi1435@moi.gov.tw  Ms. Chien is a senior executive official responsible for the day-to-day operations of the Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault Prevention Committee, an agency in charge of thedevelopment as well as the promotion of policies, regulations and measures of thedomestic violence, sexual assault and sexual harassment prevention in Taiwan.Before this position, Ms. Chien also worked as the director of Immigration Affair ofNational Immigration Agency of Ministry of Interior and the director general ofChild Welfare Bureau of Ministry of Interior. She holds a Bachelors of Laws at theDepartment of Law of National Chengchi University, Taiwan, R.O.C.. Herspecialty is law, gender equality and gender violence prevention. 175
  • 187. International Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governance CHUA, Wei Tat (Ryan)  Manager, Employment Pass Services Centre (EPSC), Work Pass Division, Ministry of Manpower (MOM), Singapore  Chua_Wei_Tat@mom.gov.sg  His job scope in the Ministry of Manpower is to oversee and manage the operations of the Employment Pass Services Centre (EPSC) and registration of foreign expatriates’ biometrics(fingerprint/photo-images), verification of submitted documents, screening offoreign expatriates’ fingerprints and printing/issuance of secured identification (ID)cards. His experiences include pioneering the establishment of the EmploymentPass Services Centre (EPSC) in 2009. In this project, he collaborated with IDEO,NEC, HP to re-design the service experience for customers of EPSC and creating acustomer-centric business space that is operationally efficient. His achievementsinclude receiving the Singapore Quality Award (SQA) in 2010, the Minister forManpower Award, the Government Technology Award and the Public Service 21Service Excellence Gold Award for the setup of the EPSC and the issuance ofEmployment Pass. DERRICK, Amanda  Programme Director, Connect Digitally, Department for Education, U.K.  amanda.derrick@hertscc.gov.uk  Amanda Derrick is Programme Director for Connect Digitally, a multiple award-winning programme linking central and local government delivery. Amanda has led a collaborative partnership between 5 central government departments and 152local authorities and is a representative on the English Local Government DeliveryCouncil. From 2001 – 2007 Amanda was the driving force behind anothersuccessful and award winning national initiative: eAdmissions. Amanda has astrong leadership and delivery record in both the public and private sectors.Amanda’s previous work experience includes Principal Lecturer in ComputerScience and International Recruitment and Franchise. She has also worked as abusiness consultant. Amanda has an MA from Cambridge University.176
  • 188. Guests Introduction o KITAMI, Tomitaro  Chief Executive Staff of Planning Office, Department of Policy and Planning, Osaka Prefectural Government, Japan  kitamit@mbox.pref.osaka.lg.jp  Dr. Tomitaro Kitami participates in recent policy reforms introduced by Governor Hashimoto who, inaugurated in February 2008, was one of the most influential political figures in the Japanese local public reforms in 1990s. His reforms covervarious public issues, ranging from strengthening governance of local bureaucracyto introducing competitive circumstances between public and private schools usingvoucher. Before that, He also worked as the director as well as the consultingfellow for various public agencies in Japan such as the Ministry of Economy, Tradeand Industry, the Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry, the OsakaMunicipal Government, etc.. He holds the degree of Doctor of Laws at GraduateSchools for Law and Politics, University of Tokyo, and also graduated from John F.Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, and from School of Law,Boston University. Mr. Kitami also obtained the license of attorney at law in NewYork State in U.S.A. in April 1996. LEE, Ho-Chin  Executive Director of Commercial Marketing Group, Incheon International Airport Corporation, Republic of Korea  hojin@airport.kr  Mr. Ho-Chin Lee was appointed as Executive Director of Commercial Marketing Group of Incheon InternationalAirport Corporation in 2010. Over the past 20 years, Mr. Lee has dedicated himselfto Korean Airport Industry. He started his first career at Korea Development Bankand moved to Incheon International Airport Corp. where he has worked for morethan 20 years. He has made his successful career as Director of departments such asAsset Management Group, Aviation Operation and IT Strategy Group of IncheonInternational Airport Corp. He got a bachelor in science of public administrationfrom Yonsei University and a master degree from Inha University; Master ofScience in Logistics and Commercial Trade. As a man in charge of a commercialmarketing group, he played a major role in launching a Louis-Vuitton airport shop atIncheon airport for the first time in the history. 177
  • 189. International Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governance PETERS, Lorna  Business Process Lead, Connect Digitally, Hertfordshire County Council, U.K.  Lorna.Peters@hertscc.gov.uk  Dr. Peters is Business Process Lead for the Connect Digitally Programme. Lorna has successfully delivered on international and national IT projects within the public and private sectors. Her experience includes undertaking a leading role in the awardwinning eAdmissions national project and a senior lectureship in computing andcognitive science. The fusion of business skills and academic rigour has givenLorna the ideal background to lead on key areas of service transformation includingcustomer insight, business process improvement and benefits realisation. Lornahas also participated in a UK Government Cabinet Office initiative on benefitsrealisation management. ROBERTS, Alex  Assistant Manager, Innovation Policy, Innovation Policy Branch, Innovation Division, Department of Innovation, Industry, Science and Research, Australia  Alex.Roberts@innovation.gov.au  Mr. Alex Roberts is from the Innovation Policy team at the federal Department of Innovation, Industry, Science and Research, Australia. In 2008 he worked on the Secretariatsupporting the Review of the National Innovation System. The report from thatReview pointed to the potential of innovation in the public sector. In 2009 he wasa part of the team for the Australian Public Services Management AdvisoryCommittee project on public sector innovation, and was one of the authors of theresulting report, Empowering Change: Fostering Innovation in the Australian PublicService. Mr. Roberts has also been heavily involved with the recent follow up APS200 project which has provided advice on how Commonwealth agencies couldenact the recommendations of Empowering Change. He is also one ofthe regular posters at the Public Sector Innovation Blog run by the Department ofInnovation and facilitates the Public Sector Innovation Network.178
  • 190. Guests Introduction o ROGERS, Bryan  Executive Director, Pacific Gateway Workforce Investment Board, Long Beach, CA., U.S.A.  Bryan.Rogers@longbeach.gov  As its Executive Director, Rogers leads the Pacific Gateway Workforce Investment Network, a local workforce development agency that encompasses strategies tailored toassist with the skilled workforce needs of both businesses and residents. As part ofthat effort, Rogers coordinates regional workforce and economic developmentstrategies in concert with the cities of Long Beach, Torrance, Signal Hill, Lomitaand Los Angeles’ San Pedro Harbor communities. He leads a staff of 65 withmultiple teams focused on services and program support at five Career Centersthroughout the region, and coordinates extensively with local, state and federalcommunity partners and other stakeholders. Rogers supports the 45-person PacificGateway Workforce Investment Board, led by the private sector to guide theNetwork’s policy and investments. Rogers began his workforce career in 1992 asa summer intern working for the City of Long Beach Community DevelopmentDepartment, and served in several capacities for the Private Industry Council ofLong Beach. In 1999, Rogers gained national experience as a Senior Associate forthe U.S. Department of Labor’s Employment and Training Administration inWashington, D.C. before returning to Long Beach in 2001.Rogers is a current board member of the California Workforce Association, servingon its Executive Committee and as Treasurer. He also sits on the Boards of theCalifornia Council for Excellence and the LB Nonprofit Partnership. SHIEH, Tony(謝棟梁)  Director of Division One, Financial Data Center, Ministry of Finance, Taiwan, R.O.C.  dlshieh@fdc.gov.tw  Mr. Tony Shieh is Director of Division One of Financial Data Center. Division One is responsible for the development, maintenance, and guidance of national taxinformation systems as well as for setting up and maintaining information standards.Mr. Shieh also served as the senior analyst and the senior executive of FinancialData Center, and he was the secretary of the center and of the deputy minister ofMinistry of Finance. Besides, he was an officer of the Council for Economic 179
  • 191. International Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public GovernancePlanning and Development, Executive Yuan. In addition to serving for the publicagencies, Mr. Shieh also worked as the adjunctive assistant professor of NationalTaiwan University and the director of Test Center, Security and Future Institution.Mr. Shieh holds a doctorate degree in business administration from National TaiwanUniversity. SU, Chun-Jung(蘇俊榮)  Director-General, Financial Data Center, Ministry of Finance, Taiwan, R.O.C.  lucky@fdc.gov.tw  Mr. Chun-Jung Su is Director-General and the former deputy director-general of Financial Data Center. Under the Ministry of Finance, the center serves the goal of offering the publicconvenient and prompt service by adopting information and communicationtechnology, introducing information management systems, insuring informationsafety, integrating cross-organization financial information resources, and creatinginformation service values. Mr. Su also served as the deputy director and thesenior systems analyst of Department of Information Management of the RDEC,Executive Yuan. He also worked as the section chief, the system analyst and thespecialist in different public agencies, including Examination Yuan and KaohsiungNational Tax Administration, Ministry of Finance. Mr. Su holds a Master degree inComputer Science from Boston University, U.S.A.. TEO, Tze Whei (David)  Senior Manager of Processing, Applications & Processing Department, Work Pass Division, Ministry of Manpower (MOM) Singapore  David_Teo@mom.gov.sg  His job scope in the Ministry of Manpower is to oversee and manage the policy and operational changes pertaining to thesystems at the Applications & Processing Department in the Work Pass Division.His experiences include being a key member of the project team spearheading thedevelopment of the Employment Pass Online (EPOL) system in 2008, and paving theway for the automation of processing work in the Work Pass Division. Hisachievements include receiving the Singapore Quality Award (SQA) in 2010, theMinister for Manpower Award, the National Infocomm Awards (Merit) and theGovernment Technology Awards for the EPOL system.180
  • 192. Guests Introduction o主持貴賓(GUEST MODERATORS) CHAO, Yung-Mau(趙永茂)  Dean, College of Social Sciences, National Taiwan University, Taiwan, R.O.C.  Visiting Professor, Center for Asian Studies, University of South Carolina, U.S.A.  Visiting Professor, Institute of Political Development and Governance, Peking University, The People’s Republic of China  Expertise in Local Government & Politics, British Politics & Society, Comparative Government on South-East Asian Countries  chaoym@ntu.edu.tw JAN, Chung-Yuang(詹中原)  Minister without Portfolio, The Examination Yuan, Taiwan, R.O.C.  Professor, Department of Public Administration, National Chengchi University, Taiwan, R.O.C.  Member, Board of Management, International Association of Schools and Institutes of Administration, IASIA  Expertise in Public Policy, CPC Administrative Systems, Administrative Information Systems, Crisis Management, New Right Political Philosophy  cychan@nccu.edu.tw SHIH, Ning-Jye(施能傑)  Chair and Professor, Department of Public Administration, National Chengchi University, Taiwan, R.O.C.  Advisory Counselor of Advisory Council (Former Chair), Transparency International—Chinese Taipei, Taiwan, R.O.C.  Former Minister, Research, Development and Evaluation Commission, the Executive Yuan, Taiwan, R.O.C.  Expertise in Government Human Resource Management, Policy Analysis, Government Performance Management, Comparative Administration  njshih@nccu.edu.tw 181
  • 193. International Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governance與談貴賓(GUEST DISCUSSANTS) CHEN, Chia-Shen(陳家聲)  Professor (Former Chairman), Department and Graduate School of Business Administration, College of Management, National Taiwan University, Taiwan, R.O.C.  Consultant, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Taiwan, R.O.C.  Chairman, Committee of Career, Chinese Youth Career Development Association, Taiwan, R.O.C.  Expertise in Business Consultation, Organizational Behavior, Human Resource Management, Organizational Design and Development, Innovation and Entrepreneurship  chiashen@management.ntu.edu.tw CHIOU, Chang-Tay(丘昌泰)  Professor, Department of Public Administration and Policy, National Taipei University, Taiwan, R.O.C.  Dean (Former), College of Hakka Studies, National Central University, Taiwan, R.O.C.  Director (Former), Research Center for Public Opinion and Election, National Taipei University, Taiwan, R.O.C.  Expertise in Public Policy and Management, Disaster and Risk Management, Environmental Policy, Local Government Management, Hakka Studies  tedchiou@mail.ntpu.edu.tw KIM, Byong-Seob  President, Korea Association for Public Administration, KAPA, Republic of Korea  Dean, Graduate School of Public Administration, Seoul National University, Republic of Korea  Chairman, Presidential Committee on Government Innovation and Decentralization, Republic of Korea  Expertise in Administrative Organization, Administrative Reform, Research Methods for Public Administration and Policy  bskimn@snu.ac.kr182
  • 194. Guests Introduction oMORITA, Akira President, Japanese Society for Public Administration, JSPA, Japan Professor, Graduate Schools for Law and Politics/Faculty of Law, and Graduate School of Public Policy, The University of Tokyo, Japan Senior Fellow (Former Director) of Todai Policy Alternatives Research Institute, The University of Tokyo, Japan Expertise in Public Management Theory, Public Policy Process, Local Government, Bureaucracy, Civil Service morita@j.u-tokyo.ac.jpPENG, Thomas C.P.(彭錦鵬) Associate Professors, Department of Political Science, National Taiwan University, Taiwan, R.O.C. Associate Research Fellow, Institute of European and America Studies, Academia Sinica, Taiwan, R.O.C. Secretary General, Taiwan Competitiveness Forum, Taiwan, R.O.C. Expertise in Public Administration, Public Personnel Administration, Electronic Government tpeng@sinica.edu.twWANNA, John Sir John Bunting Chair of Public Administration, School of Politics and International Relations, Australian National University, Australia Academic Faculty, Australia & New Zealand School of Government Editor AJPA, National Council, Institute of Public Administration Australia National, Australia Expertise in Australian Politics and Public Policy, Budgetary Systems and Reforms, Policy Implementation, Comparative Government john.wanna@anu.edu.au 183
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  • 196. –D“Nÿ Appendix IAppendix 1EMPOWERING CHANGE: FOSTERING INNOVATION IN THEAUSTRALIAN PUBLIC SERVICE1EXECUTIVE SUMMARYThis report was commissioned by the Management Advisory Committee (MAC) toconsider how to develop and strengthen a culture of innovation in the AustralianPublic Service (APS).Increasingly, governments are recognising that innovation is not a tangential activitywith limited relevance to their mainstream work, but an activity that is core to beingable to achieve key public sector goals.A substantial and growing body of innovation already takes place in the Australianpublic sector, as evidenced by the examples set out in this report. The public sectorhas been and continues to be home to many talented people who have come up withsignificant innovations, either on their own or in collaboration with others.However, the research and consultation undertaken for this report suggest that theinnovation potential of the public sector is much greater than currently realised.While there is a wide range of research and scholarship on innovation, until recentlyit has tended to focus on innovation in the private sector. Now a broader recognitionthat innovation is essential to a productive, high performing public sector isprompting useful new research and literature focusing on public sector innovation.The United Kingdom has been a leader both on new thinking and on action to seekto embed innovation in the public sector. A great deal of useful recent work has beenpublished, in particular by the National Endowment for Science, Technology and theArts in the United Kingdom.The 2009 publication of The public innovator’s playbook: nurturing bold ideas ingovernment by Deloitte and the Harvard Kennedy School and of Innovation in thepublic sector: enabling better performance, driving new directions by the AustralianNational Audit Office are important contributions that indicate the growing interest1 The following “Executive Summary” is the excerpt in MS Word file from the report EmpoweringChange: Fostering Innovation in the Australian Public Service published by Management AdvisoryCommittee in 2010. The report can be browsed and downloaded from:http://www.apsc.gov.au/mac/empoweringchangeannex.htm. Retrieved April 26th, 2011. 185
  • 197. 0TWQlQql»tRue°gRÙ0W–›xŠgInternational Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governanceand importance of the topic. The bibliography to this report provides a usefulresource for those looking for new ideas and inspiration.All of these sources acknowledge that innovation can present particular challengesto the public sector. It is inherently experimental and anti-hierarchical. It can easilybe perceived as risky or disruptive and may seem contrary to notions of good publicadministration. However, as evidenced in this report, that is far from the case.DRIVERS OF INNOVATIONAt its most effective, innovation is a continuous process that can lead to newservices or service delivery modes, the development of new concepts, new policy oradministrative approaches, and new systems. In this report, we have considered theinnovation cycle to comprise five stages: idea generation, idea selection, ideaimplementation, sustaining new approaches and diffusing new approaches.The public sector is diverse and the work it undertakes is wide-ranging, so theinnovation process will vary depending on the context in which it is taking place.An agency’s purpose, capabilities and culture will all have impacts on howinnovation occurs, as will the nature of the project to which it is being applied andthe presence of external influences.Innovation competes for attention with many other organisational priorities, such asaccountability and efficiency, but there is an increasing number of reasons whyinnovation needs to be given greater priority than it has previously received.Public expectations of government service delivery are increasing. This is largelybeing driven by private sector service improvements, but also by comparativeimprovements in public services nationally and internationally and by demographicshifts in society.Ongoing financial pressures require the public sector to deliver productivity gainsand improved services with minimal long-term funding growth. Incremental gainsthrough continuous improvement can only achieve so much in this respect.Larger and more intractable social and economic challenges, in particular, mayrequire new and radical approaches. We need a public sector with the capacity todevelop those approaches.The pace and scale of change and the global and local challenges facinggovernments require an increasingly nimble and innovative public sector to developeffective responses. Increasingly complex policy challenges also make it unlikelythat any one agency or, in some cases, any one government will have all the answers186
  • 198. –D“Nÿ AppendixoIrequired. Collaboration with the public, industry, academia and other governmentswill be needed to identify the best solutions. Such collaboration is a mainstay ofinnovation.THE CURRENT STATE OF INNOVATIONA desire to work for the public benefit, rather than incentives or rewards, has beenidentified as a core ethic of public servants and is a key driver for innovation in thepublic sector (Bourgon 2008, p. 400). The Australian Government’s annual State ofthe Service Report has repeatedly indicated significant enthusiasm among APSemployees for new ideas and a positive attitude towards finding better ways of doingtheir job. Among staff, however, there is a perceived lack of opportunity and supportfor creativity and innovation within the APS.To date, there has been an ad hoc, rather than an ongoing, approach to innovation inthe APS. There has been no systemic approach to recording and evaluatinginnovative methods or to sharing relevant knowledge and learning across the APS.Recent statements (and, indeed, the commissioning of this report) indicate supportfor developing the innovative potential of the APS at the highest levels ofgovernment and the service. A number of current reviews will provide momentumfor this process, including the report of the Government 2.0 Taskforce and the reportof the Review of Australian Government Administration.BARRIERS TO INNOVATIONSome powerful barriers, in particular political risk and public scrutiny, have aspecific impact on public sector innovation. Governments and ministers are judgedon their success and, in seeking to avoid criticism or failure, they can beconservative or resistant to innovative approaches. Political risk also contributes torisk-averse attitudes among public servants, and innovation is inherently risky. In thepublic sector, failures tend to happen in the full glare of public scrutiny, withconsequent risks for the reputations and careers of public servants. It can be easier toavoid criticism by not taking risks.This report acknowledges and examines a diverse range of barriers to innovation inthe public sector. They include risk aversion; failure of leadership; resourceconstraints; lack of direction and measurement; policy conflicts; hierarchicalattitudes; silo mentality; legislative limitations; accountability concerns; andresistance to change. Some are a function of necessary public sector requirementsfor accountability, probity, impartiality and transparency and cannot be easily sweptaway. There is no panacea. Finding ways to overcome such barriers will take 187
  • 199. 0TWQlQql»tRue°gRÙ0W–›xŠgInternational Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governancecreativity and determination.This report makes a number of recommendations that could assist in addressing suchbarriers (for example, mechanisms of review and specific programs forexperimentation) and also provides an Innovation Toolkit (Appendix 4) designed toassist agencies and individual public servants to increase the extent and effectivenessof their innovation efforts and to overcome obstacles. While the range of barriers toinnovation may seem extensive, there is an array of things that agencies can do toaddress obstacles and drive organisational innovation.SOURCES OF INNOVATIONInnovation, at its most effective, draws new ideas and perspectives from a widerange of internal and external sources and from all levels of authority.Staff, especially frontline staff, can be a rich source of innovation, basing their ideason a wealth of knowledge about the practical side of existing policy and serviceimplementation. Innovative agencies need to find ways to tap into that knowledgeand build on it.External sources including the general public, experts, the business sector and theacademic community can provide new perspectives and new approaches that anagency could never generate within its own walls. External input facilitatesinnovation at all levels, from future policy directions to the specifics of a newservice delivery mechanism. Partnering can not only be a source of new ideas, butcan also potentially assist with resource constraints and the management of risk.Citizens and businesses are especially important external sources of ideas. Notonly are they outside the public sector, but they also directly feel the impact of newpolicies and services. Governments cannot effectively address needs and concernsthat they do not fully understand, and consultations for this report suggested that theAPS could do much to improve its ability to capture public perspectives and lift thequality of its external interactions.It is also important that agencies collaborate with one another (and also withagencies in other tiers of government) to maximise the sharing of best practice andother effective approaches throughout the public sector. Dissemination of innovativeideas and approaches can help governments to avoid ‘reinventing the wheel’ andmaximise the value of investments in innovative activity.Innovation is becoming a focus not only for governments across Australia butglobally. A range of other national governments are investigating the possibilities188
  • 200. –D“Nÿ AppendixoIand developing their own approaches to public sector innovation. Many of thesewarrant consideration by the APS and concerted action is required if Australia is tobe at the forefront of these developments.RECOMMENDATIONSIn accordance with its terms of reference (see Appendix 1), this report makes 12recommendations designed to support and drive an innovation culture within theAPS.Strategy and cultureRECOMMENDATION 1Innovation needs to be part of an agency’s strategic thinking and planning. Toimplement a culture of innovation across the APS, Agency strategic plans shouldinclude strategies to identify and pursue innovative options and solutions. A processsuch as the three horizons approach (see Appendix 6) is an example of how thismight be approached.RECOMMENDATION 2Flow of information facilitates innovation and is a key to greater innovation inGovernment. While there will always be some constraints on information sharing inthe public sector, the APS should adopt a culture of openness in the developmentand implementation of government policy. This will require a paradigm shift in theapproach of many agencies where much development of new ideas is done in aclimate of secrecy. In particular, the APS should adopt innovative practices andincreased openness in the development of new policy proposals through reformssuch as:  introducing outside experts into the policy development process (e.g. as participants in inter-departmental committee processes)  transparent consultation processes  reviewing the rationale for data restrictions (including by the Australian Bureau of Statistics, the Australian Taxation Office and other key public data collections) as greater availability of data will drive innovation  undertaking detailed design and implementation post the announcement of an initiative, in consultation with users and stakeholders  identifying the risk associated with an innovative project or initiative 189
  • 201. 0TWQlQql»tRue°gRÙ0W–›xŠgInternational Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governance upfront and how it will be managed  including analysis of the new policy development process in the evaluation of program and delivery outcomes.RECOMMENDATION 3A specific feature of the public sector environment is political risk and itsmanagement. To facilitate innovation, particularly where the innovation is radical orlarge-scale and where risks are high, Agencies should consult with Ministers toidentify and agree on a risk environment to enable innovative approaches. Thiscould include a stage gate approach, such as the two stage approval process used fordefence procurement to manage risk.LeadershipRECOMMENDATION 4Leadership is a critical factor in creating a more innovative public sector. Building aculture of innovation in the public sector will require leadership from agency headsand the SES. This should be facilitated by:  equipping APS leaders with the requisite tools and training  explicitly adding innovation to the APS Values and in the Integrated Leadership System  using innovation as a criterion in leadership, recruitment and performance management systems  identification of agency objectives for innovation performance  annual reporting of innovation performance by agencies  supporting communities of practice within agencies and across agencies—groups of professionals exploring common issues  encouraging team approaches to solve problems creatively—across agencies and including external stakeholders, customers and suppliers  facilitating openness to new ideas and influences through formal secondment or exchange programs for staff  identifying innovation champions for particular projects or issues.RECOMMENDATION 5190
  • 202. –D“Nÿ AppendixoIThe public sector does not have the competitive drivers of innovation evident in theprivate sector. Public sector agencies therefore need to take a more proactiveapproach to incorporating innovation into their operations. To facilitate the adoptionof innovative practices in the APS, agencies should use the Innovation Toolkit (setout in Appendix 4 of this report) to engage staff and build knowledge and experienceof the innovation process. The Innovation Toolkit sets out approaches that agenciescan adopt to capitalise on opportunities for innovation and, over time, embed aculture of innovation within their organisation.Systemic/structural issuesRECOMMENDATION 6To identify and address systemic barriers to innovation across the APS a mechanism(or mechanisms) should be established to challenge innovation barriers in atransparent manner. There are models which could be adopted and which are usedwithin government and the private sector (these are discussed more in Appendix 7).The Band 3 team proposed under Recommendation 11 could be charged withestablishing and reporting on the effectiveness of such a mechanism.RECOMMENDATION 7Funding processes can act as a disincentive to innovation by transferring all the risksto the innovating agency. It is recommended that central agencies should reviewfunding mechanisms with a view to removing disincentives to APS innovation andreport findings to the Band 3 SES team (Recommendation 11).RECOMMENDATION 8Collaboration and experimentation are two key inputs to realising innovation. Toembed these into the public sector, the APS should establish a collaborativeexperimentation program, modelled on the Danish MindLab, to develop and trialsolutions to significant and cross agency problems in areas including policy andservice delivery. A key activity under this program would be the development andimplementation of collaborative pilots and trials.Resourcing and managing innovation in the APSRECOMMENDATION 9Technology is re-shaping public interactions with business and government andincreasing public expectations of engagement and service delivery. To realise theseexpectations and to capture the value of engagement, agencies should be timely and 191
  • 203. 0TWQlQql»tRue°gRÙ0W–›xŠgInternational Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governancesmart adopters of:  Web 2.0 tools and approaches  Ideas Management SystemsThe work of the Government 2.0 Taskforce provides key directions andrecommendations on Web 2.0 issues.RECOMMENDATION 10Procurement can foster innovative solutions for public sector challenges. It isrecommended that agencies facilitate innovative solutions by focusing on outcomes,rather than specifications, through:  being open with potential suppliers about what the agency is trying to achieve and why.  engaging with the market prior to commencing the procurement process to identify the problem to be solved and gauge what the market can deliver.  establishing a secure portal for the receipt of unsolicited innovative proposals where potential suppliers can suggest innovative proposals without risking loss of intellectual property or competitive advantage.2  using a stage-gating approach to invite and filter proposals for larger procurement processes (Recommendation 3) and so maximise opportunities to develop innovative ideas.RECOMMENDATION 11To champion thought leadership, training, coordination of action, and to maintainup-to-date expertise on innovation in the public sector, the APS establish a team ofSES Band 3 officers. This team would report to the MAC on priority areas for actionon an ongoing basis and would be supported by a secretariat drawn from the APSC,PM&C and DIISR. Priority areas for action to include:  establishment and maintenance of an Innovation Toolkit website to support innovative agencies and public servants  formalisation and support for innovative public sector communities of practice.2 Subject to, and compliant with, normal public sector agency audit and reporting requirements.192
  • 204. –D“Nÿ AppendixoIRecognition, sharing, learningRECOMMENDATION 12Because long term value is captured through dissemination and diffusion ofinnovations, the APS and its agencies should institute mechanisms to recognise,celebrate and share innovation efforts, including:  supporting and developing the nascent Public Sector Innovation Network (formed through the development of this report) to create a knowledge exchange and innovation resource for the APS  an annual public sector innovation conference, bringing together public sector innovation practitioners to share experiences of innovation processes and outcomes  awards (possibly in conjunction with the conference) for innovation in the public sector, recognising the efforts of innovative individuals, teams and agencies  prominent reporting of APS innovation activity—through mechanisms such as agency annual reports, a potential innovation section of the APSC State of the Service Report and proceedings of the annual conference 193
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  • 206. –D“NŒÿ Appendix IIAppendix 2Innovative Service Practice Sharing of the Implementation of the“113 Protection Hotline”Ms. Hui-Jiuan CHIENExecutive SecretaryDomestic Violence and Sexual Assault Prevention Committee,Ministry of Interior, Taiwan, R.O.C.I. Introduction The handling of domestic violence and sexual assault issues is multifaceted,requires the combined resources of related professional networks and followsinter-disciplinary, inter-sectorial and inter-agency principles to ensure effectiveprevention of domestic violence and sexual assault. This approach involves socialaffairs, police, medical care, education and judiciary. To assist the victims of domesticviolence and sexual assault as well as the children in child protection cases, theDomestic Violence and Sexual Assault Prevention Committee (DVSAPC), under theMinistry of the Interior, as an official planning and service delivery agency, launchedthe “113 Protection Hotline” (to be referred to as the 113) on January 13, 2001. Thisservice was to replace a number of preexisting protection hotlines such as the080-422-110 Child and Adolescent Protection Hotline and the 080-000-600Protect-You Hotline. The new 113 Protection Hotline was designed to act as onesingle window for case reporting and consultation for all local governments. Its goalwas to establish a new government channel to provide quality services to the publicwith value and convenience. As anticipated, the “113” has indeed become thepredominant hotline that is well known to the public. It has become agroundbreaking social welfare hotline service admired and followed by many. An operational assessment found the original 113 service ineffective andunsatisfactory. It was a decentralized model with call-handling tasks performed bystaff of the central and 25 local governments, causing difficulties in delivering badlyneeded services. Considering the situations mentioned above and the need tomaximize the effect of limited resources in the country and after consultation with 195
  • 207. 0TWQlQql»tRue°gRÙ0W–›xŠgInternational Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governancelocal governments, the central government opted to integrate and streamline thepreexisting services by reengineering work process, adopting new technologies andimplementing new management strategies. On September 1, 2007, the fruit of theseefforts was the establishment of the “113 Centralized Call Center” (operated by theMinistry of Interior). This service was to provide for the public and the victims adedicated national service window for case reporting and counseling relating to childand adolescent protection, domestic violence and sexual assault. With this service, thecentral government effectively handled all 113 calls for the local governments whowere, by law, responsible for providing the service. This single-window-operatedservice model was to enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of inter-governmentalcollaboration and to leave no gaps in the nationwide protection network.II. Background and Evolution of the 113 Protection HotlineA. The Period When There Was Nowhere to Go for Help and Resources Were Lacking The first domestic violence case reported by a newspaper in Taiwan occurred onOctober 18, 1951. A woman surnamed Chen wandered along Hengyang Street inTaipei City in tears and attempted to end her own life. This victim was saved by apassersby and subsequently helped by a non-governmental organization. The womanwas said to have frequently been beaten and mistreated by her husband following theirmarriage, even during her pregnancy to the extent that she was unable to breastfeedher son after giving birth because she, herself, was nutritionally-deprived. As a result,she tried to escape from her home. Of the many domestic violence incidents, Chen’scase was just the tip of the iceberg. Sexual assaults have a lifelong impact on the victims who feel betrayed andtrapped in the traumatic experience. Low discovery, reporting, prosecution andconviction rate of sexual assault kept the high numbers of this crime hidden. Thevictims found it difficult to seek justice from their families, from society and thejudiciary. The road to recovery seemed dark and endlessly long. Without a dedicatedagency and protective network, these cases in the past were unfortunately neglectedand considered isolated situations.B. The Period for the Incorporation of Mandatory Reporting In 1993, to protect the rights of children, Taiwan kept to the spirit of the UnitedNations Convention on the Rights of Children in amending the Children Welfare196
  • 208. –D“NŒÿ Appendix II oAct, making reporting mandatory. Mandatory reporting signaled the beginning of anew era where the powers of the state could intervene in family affairs. In 2003, theChildren Welfare Act and the Youth Welfare Act were integrated to create theChildren and Youth Welfare Act that sets extensive standards for mandatoryreporting of cases involving the protection of children and youth. In 1997, theSexual Assault Crime Prevention Act completed the legislative process for theestablishment of various protection mechanisms for victims of sexual assault and forthe reinforcement of community supervision and treatment of sex offenders. In 1998,Taiwan passed the Domestic Violence Prevention Act, the first such law in Asia. In2005, furthermore, amendments were made to the Sexual Assault CrimePrevention Act to affirm the implementation of mandatory reporting by variousprofessions upon discovery of sexual assault. These amendments ensured thatvictims of domestic violence and sexual assault could garner more support andassistance through government intervention. With a better understanding as to howthe laws could be applied in family affairs and the recognition of acts of violence asacts of crime, the number reported cases has increased annually.C. The Period of Setting Up the Reporting Hotline Starting in 1993, the Taiwan Provincial Government established the 24-hour080-422-110 Child and Juvenile Protection Hotline to serve as the reporting channelfor child and juvenile protection cases. In March 1997, this service was expanded toinclude emergency assistance for women suffering from marital violence andservices were integrated to become the Taiwan Provincial Hotline Center for Child,Juvenile and Woman Protection. Under the Ministry of Interior, the Child WelfareBureau took charge of the operation in 1999. In 1997, as one of the strategies in implementing the Sexual Assault CrimePrevent Act, the Ministry of the Interior collaborated with local governments toestablish the around-the-clock, 080-000-600 National Protect-You Hotline withexpansion in 1999 to include counseling service on domestic violence prevention.Non-governmental organizations were contracted to handle both landline and mobilecalls outside government office hours.D. The Integration Period of the Reporting Channels On January 13, 2001, the Ministry of Interior merged the 2 hotlines, 080-000-600and 080-422-110, into the 113 Woman and Child Protection Hotline. “113” waschosen for easy memorization. A nationwide network of 26 call intake points (1central and 25 local) was established. At the end of 2009, the hotline was renamed asthe “113 Protection Hotline”. In other words, this service is extended to both genders 197
  • 209. 0TWQlQql»tRue°gRÙ0W–›xŠgInternational Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governanceand all ages.E. The Period of Nationwide Centralization of Call Handling The 113 Protection Hotline originally utilized a decentralized model of callhandling and as a result, a few problems were noted: inconsistent quality, poorefficiency, and management difficulties. With the filing system maintained at the locallevel, coordination and assignment of social workers could only be completedmanually. Information transfer was done mainly by fax and this process was prone toerror and omission, was time-consuming and resource-intensive. On September 1,2007, the Ministry of Interior integrated and centralized all 26 call centers by takingover the call-handling functions. Every year, the 113 Protection Hotline handles about 180,000 calls. Each callcould potentially link to a life and safety situation. One call reported a womanwandering in the park at night with several children. Telephone contact was madewith the woman. It was found that this woman had married her husband with her fivechildren after the death of her former husband. She gave birth to two more children.Under the combined pressure of financial difficulties and alcoholism, the husbandoften beat this woman and even attempted to kill her. The victim escaped with herchildren and was sleeping in the park without a place to go or anyone to turn to. The113 Hotline staff succeeded in convincing the victim to think more positively and toseek help. She was subsequently referred to a local Domestic Violence PreventionCenter for assistance. In a separate incident, a girl, after being abused by family for an extended period,ran away from home wandering the streets aimlessly at night. A The After beingalerted by a member of the public, a Hotline staff made an emergency call to a localsocial worker and the girl was taken to a shelter for protection. These two cases areindicative of the types of calls and service provided by the 113 Hotline staff on a dailybasis. While online, staff taking the calls has to assess the need and urgency online todetermine what actions to take. If necessary, local social workers and policeauthorities may be mobilized to take immediate action to assist or protect the caller.The case is also forwarded to the local government responsible for any follow-up thatmaybe necessary. This service creates an all-win situation for the victim, the centralgovernment, and the local government.198
  • 210. –D“NŒÿ Appendix II oIII. Introduction to the 113 Centralized Call-Handling Service ProjectA. Problems Encountered Prior to Centralization of Call-Handling (1) Inconsistent Quality among the Call Takers Although the old model used one single 113 telephone number, the call intaketasks were performed locally. Local governments, responsible for local staff oftenlacked needed resources. In some instances, volunteers or military service draftees, inlieu of actual military service, with appropriate training were used to handle the calls.These call-takers did not have the professional knowledge, training, practicalexperience and skills needed for taking crisis calls. Their response and decisions wereat times not appropriate with the result that opportunities were missed to providetimely assistance. (2) Poor Efficiency of Decentralized Call-Handling Prior to the centralization of call-handling, there were 26 call intake locations inthe country (1 central and 25 local) staffed with 57 positions. Regardless of callvolume, each local government had to have at least one staff assigned to take calls atall times. Statistics showed the central intake location, with its eight positions,accounted for 61% of the total call volume. The remaining 49 positions distributedamong 25 local governments accounted for just 39% of the total call traffic. Theproblem was a imbalance in distribution of workload. (3) Telephone being the Only Channel for Help Prior to the centralization of call-handling, the 113 Protection Hotline waslimited to handling telephone calls only. However, in 2004, according to “ComputerUsage in Taiwan”, a survey conducted by Directorate-General of Budget, Accountingand Statistics, Executive Yuan, the home computer usage increased year by year, to ahigh of 57.13% in 2004. Overall, the prevalence of Internet usage was close to 50%(48.23% to be exact) and it proved to be an excellent channel for those who preferredto be anonymous by using text communication to seek assistance, thereby, avoidingdirect contact over the phone. (4) Performance Varied from Region to Region The call center directly operated by the Ministry of Interior was equipped withcall-waiting function, pre-recorded voice messages and display of call traffic statistics.If all lines were busy, the average wait time was about 15 seconds. These technologiesallowed staff to take appropriate action in dealing with incoming calls when the 199
  • 211. 0TWQlQql»tRue°gRÙ0W–›xŠgInternational Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governancevolume was high. In contrast, the 113 Protection Hotline call centers operated by the25 local governments were without similar equipment. Many callers simply gave up. (5) Difficult to Manage Service Quality Prior to the centralization of call-handling, the local governments only providedstaffing during the day. Incoming calls during the night and all mobile calls werehandled at the local level by private organizations commissioned by the Ministry ofInterior.. Two different types of service were inefficient and confusing to the public. (6) Problematic Data Archiving The 113 Protection Hotline was intended for protection against domesticviolence and sexual assaults and protection for children and juveniles. If a caseneeded follow-up, a report form was filled out and sent by fax to the appropriate localgovernment in charge. Ironically, due to inter-operability issues, the 113 Hotline staffcould not access the “National Domestic Violence, Sexual Assault and ChildProtection Database”. Fax messages were of poor quality and required manual filing.Redundant data entry, lack of control of information transfer, complex administrativeforms, all rendered the system very ineffective.B. Solutions To solve the aforementioned problems and to maximize effective use ofresources, the 113 Protection Hotline, under the “e-Care” program of the ExecutiveYuan, initiated a process to improve its service and quality. Described below wereactions taken. (1) Central-Local Vertical Integration a. Establishing a Standardized Process for Service In order to set up a standardized process, several directives were developed by the central government. These included “Directions for Centralizing Call-Handling of 113 Protection Hotline” , “Benchmarks for Emergency Reporting and Coordinating Mechanism”, “Feedback Process for Emergency Reporting” as well as guidelines for reporting to police. The objective was to establish a seamless and instantaneous system of service delivery. b. Promoting Collaboration and Consensus Building among Staff To solve problems in case management and other related difficulties, “113 Protection Hotline Status Review Conferences” were convened regularly to promote collaboration and consensus building. At these conferences113 Hotline200
  • 212. –D“NŒÿ Appendix II ooperators, local governments and agencies gathered to discuss issues related tocase assignment, the referral process and information sharing. c. Establishing a Mechanism for Simultaneous Reporting To enhance mandatory reporting, a process was developed to accommodatedifferent modes of reporting, be it by fax, telephone or internet, so that local socialwelfare agencies could be contacted for immediate action.(2) Horizontal Integration of Related Agencies a. Seamless Reporting & Barrier-Free Connection Various reporting channels, such as social affairs, police, education and laboraffairs were integrated into a single window of service. Appropriate technologieswere used to provide more “diversified” and “readily available” services as part ofthe protection network. More options were available to staff in deciding on typesof action and service. b. Zero Discrepancy between the Urban and Rural Areas Resource availability and service quality varied from region to region. Staffin different regions had different understanding about the goals and objectives ofthe hotline service. To help narrow the gap, opportunities were created to increaselateral communication, experience and information sharing.(3) Widespread Adoption of Information-Communication Technologies a. Establishing Electronic Case-Assignment System A computer-based system made it possible for 113 Hotline to performcase-assignment, dispatching case files to appropriate local governments forimmediate action. Local governments could receive the case files within 24 hourson a work day with responses returned to the 113 Hotline for follow-up andtracking centrally. This process gave the 113 Hotline staff immediate access tocase status and history. b. Establishing a Quick Search System for Case Information and a Geographic Information System The Quick Search System made it possible for the 113 Hotline staff to locateinformation and available resources while online talking to callers. The Geographic Information System provided the exact location of where thecall originated, greatly enhancing the ability to provide emergency services. 201
  • 213. 0TWQlQql»tRue°gRÙ0W–›xŠgInternational Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governance c. Establishing Caller ID and Address Display System The ability for the system to display caller ID (calling number), calling location address and mobile phone location helps dispatch emergency services and follow-up. d. Establishing Automatic Report Acknowledgement by Fax System Professionals making mandatory reports were required to call the 113 Hotline to confirm receipt of their reports. These calls, administrative in nature, often affected line availability for people in need. To reduce the number of administrative calls, new technologies were adopted to generate automatic acknowledgement by fax upon receipt of mandatory report forms. e. Establishing the 113 Online Reporting System A new e-reporting system was established for the 113 Hotline service to provide a new and efficient channel for case reporting. Increased efficiency and rate of reporting also helped early detection of cases with potential crisis. Communication and counseling via Internet or by email helped reduce apprehension and anxiety of some callers seeking assistance. f. Establishing Case Management System To provide instant and continuous access to needed information, a case management system was established to integrate information about both offenders and victims of domestic violence and sexual assault. This system included services for children and juveniles under protection and male victims of abuse. g. Establishing Data Security System System integration created a comprehensive repository of highly sensitive personal information that required proper protection. A multidimensional data protection system was put in place that included network security, hardware security and application security. h. Establishing the 113 Hotline Backup System To ensure the year-round, 24/7 continuous operation of the 113 Hotline, a remote backup system was established. In the event, the main operating system was attacked and became inoperable; the backup system would automatically be activated to ensure continuous operation. i. Establishing Attack-Blocking System202
  • 214. –D“NŒÿ Appendix II o To ensure a high connecting rate for incoming calls to the 113 Hotline and toprevent any malicious or harassment calls, an attack-blocking mechanism was setup. This mechanism helped in prioritizing incoming calls according to level ofrisks.(4) Investing in Social Resources a. Selecting Professional Call-Handling Service Provider In order to utilize the resources in the private sector and to make up theresource shortfall in the public sector, the call-handling operation was handedover to a private professional organization through a public-private partnership.Additionally, protection issues were made as high priority in these organizations.Comprehensive public education was also conducted to raise the awareness of the113 Protection Hotline. b. Incorporating Internet-based Service Providers To enhance timeliness in emergency rescue, the 113 Hotline collaborateswith some internet-based services, such as “Baby Home” for collaboration andinformation sharing. Baby Home is a web-based family oriented service andmerchandizing company. The goal was to facilitate reporting of suspected casesthat had been discovered online so that appropriate local governments could becontacted to investigate. c. Matching Foreign Interpreters Foreign nationals (or their spouses) were recruited and trained to serve as interpreters for the 113 Protection Hotline to provide instant interpretation through three-way calling to provide non-Mandarin speaking foreigners opportunity to obtain necessary assistance, and thereby allowing the service to transcend beyond language barriers.(5) Elevating Service Effectiveness a. Establishing the 113 Hotline Evaluation Mechanism The113 call conversation was recorded and experts and academics fromrelated fields were invited to evaluate the quality of the service. Ten randomlyselected call recordings (120 recordings a year) were carefully evaluated. Once inevery six months, based on the evaluation result, bilateral communications werecarried out to effectively establish the service evaluation and exit mechanisms forthe call-handling staff, ensuring the hotline’s quality of service. 203
  • 215. 0TWQlQql»tRue°gRÙ0W–›xŠgInternational Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governance b. Organizing “113 Hotline Service Quality Enhancement Seminar” Seminars with participation by experts and academics, representatives from different organizations and the 113 Call Centers, were organized to discuss such issues as goals and objectives of the 113 Service. Assessment of such areas as call-handling, referrals, reporting, service quality, evaluation, and improvement were monitored. c. Conducting “113 Service On-site Assessment” Experts and academics were engaged regularly to conduct 113 Call Center On-site Assessments and Performance Reviews. d. Conducting “113 Administrative Meeting” In principle, the Ministry of Interior held monthly meetings with the 113 Hotline Call Centers to resolve any issues and concerns, to coordinate among agencies, and to strengthen service delivery. e. Conducting “113 Hotline Staff Team Building Project” Special camps to promote team cohesion and consensus building were organized. These camps also offered courses and training in gender-based violence prevention, career development strategies, and self-care, amongst others. f. Conducting “113 Satisfaction Survey” On November 11, 1999, a public opinion research company was commissioned to conduct a satisfaction survey on 113 Hotline services. The survey examined services provided on a 30-calendar day period (24 hours a day) to gauge quality. (Attachment 5). g. Establishing “Practicum Placement Partnership Plan” To increase the call-handling staffs’ understanding of the best practices of domestic violence and sexual assault prevention, a practicum, placement program was arranged with the Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault Prevention Center of Taipei City. This program provided practicum-learning opportunities to staff of 113 Hotline call centers. h. Establishing “Promotion Plan for the Integration of Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault Prevention Network” To integrate the prevention network and to enhance the communication channels, the 113 Hotline Service developed a program to work with the Domestic204
  • 216. –D“NŒÿ Appendix II o Violence and Sexual Assault Prevention Network by sending its staff to various local governments for on-site visits and partaking in meetings. This program enhanced bilateral collaboration and consistency between the call center’s initial response to the 113 calls and subsequent follow-up service delivered by the local governments. i. Preparing “Service Manual for 113 Protection Hotline Personnel” A professional agency was contracted to develop a comprehensive operational manual covering such topics as policy and procedure, case differentiation, and record management and retention. The benefits of this manual helped establish a standardized operation and served as a reference guide for case assignment, telephone call intake technique, available resources, sample cases. j. Developing “Professional Training Courses” To provide continuing professional training to the staff of the 113 Hotline Service, a multi-level core curriculum was developed. Courses in the curriculum included core activities in domestic violence and sexual assault prevention, special topics, and management of unusual cases.C. Benefits of Centralizing Call-Handling Service (1) Significant Improvement in Usability In centralizing the 113 Hotline Service, better use of information technologyhelped reduce the impact of malicious and harassing calls. The attack-blockingcapability of the improved system significantly reduced the invalid calls from 91.92%in 2001 to 26.80% in 2009, in other words, raising the ratio of valid incoming callsfrom 8.08% for 2001 to 73.20% for 2009. (2) Steady Growth in Processing Capacity: A special public promotion campaign of the 113 Hotline Service using a slogansuch as “One Number, One Window, Three Types of Services” resulted in increasedreporting. The rate has increased year after year. (3) Multi-Channel and Multi-lingual Services Resulting in Significant Increase in Number of Services: The centralization of the 113 Hotline Service included expansion of services.The web-based service center provided instant counseling and reporting as well asspecial services in five different languages: English, Thai, Vietnamese, Indonesianand Cambodian. The expansion contributed to a higher rate of usage. 205
  • 217. 0TWQlQql»tRue°gRÙ0W–›xŠgInternational Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governance (4) Standardization of Operating Procedures & Real-Time Online Supervision: A standardized operating procedure as shown in Figure 1 was developed. Thecall-handling staff and hotline supervisor were required to immediately and strictlyfollow the operating procedure for quality assurance and service delivery. Supportedby the automatic call monitoring and recording system and three-way callingcapability, the supervisors could assist the staff instantly to solve any problemswhile on the line. Fig. 1 113 Call-Handling Service Flow Diagram206
  • 218. –D“NŒÿ Appendix II o (5) Call Waiting Time Down by 50%: Since the centralization of the 113, the average waiting time for incoming callsdropped from 27second prior to the centralization to 14.67 seconds. (6) Improving Public Satisfaction and Government Image: The 113 system conducted daily satisfaction surveys by randomly sampling validcalls of 5 minutes or longer. The survey found that over 97.88% of the callers weresatisfied with the service. The result of another satisfaction survey conducted by apublic opinion research company during a designated period also showed the overallsatisfaction rate to be as high as 95%. The efforts invested in centralizing the 113Hotline Service were successful, showing the government’s determination inproviding better protection service to the public. (7) Single Window Providing Outstanding Service & Electronic Case Assignment System Improving Efficiency: The centralized operating model and the automated case assignment systemenabled local governments to receive case assignment immediately. This systemachieved 100% automatic case assignment rate, and the improved service receivedthe public’s recognition and approval as demonstrated by the satisfaction surveyresult of 90%. (8) Fully Integrated System Providing Seamless Emergency Assistance.: The fully integrated 113 Hotline System provides diversified services coveringhealth, social welfare, police and other related sectors. Assistance can be requested bytelephone or via Internet. The Ministry of Interior worked with internet serviceproviders, such as NCC and Baby Home, to develop new ways to shorten the responsetime in providing protection service. Cases requiring follow-up were assigned to therespective local government for immediate action in providing emergency rescue,shelter placement, medical treatment assistance, litigation assistance, financialsupport and/or psychological counseling. Figure 1 depicts the workflow of thissingle entry, victim-centered approach to service delivery. (9) Significant Savings in Manpower and Materials further Enhance Overall Performance: The centralization of services resulted in reducing the number of positions from57 to 12. The total number of employees, including supervisors and administrativestaff, was reduced to 56, down from 228 previously, a reduction of 172 people. 207
  • 219. 0TWQlQql»tRue°gRÙ0W–›xŠgInternational Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governance In addition to savings in human resources, the maintenance costs of hardwareand software also went down. With call centers now taken over by the central government, the personnel at thelocal governments, as required by the old model, were reassigned to provide otherservices to victims. (10) Better Trained Call-Handling Staff Assuring Service Quality The centralized service model stipulated all staff handling calls were restricted tosocial work professionals. New recruits must all go through a one-month long basictraining. A full-time supervisor was placed to provide online instant guidance. Anannual assessment team consisting of experts and academics conducted on-siteevaluations, including assessment of randomly selected call recordings. With theseinitiatives, service quality has been assured.208
  • 220. –D“NŒÿ Appendix II oFig. 2 113 Case-Assigning & Service Process 209
  • 221. 0TWQlQql»tRue°gRÙ0W–›xŠgInternational Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governance210
  • 222. –D“Nÿ Appendix IIIAppendix 3Innovative Services for Taxpayers Using Information TechnologyMr. Chun-Jung SUDirector-GeneralFinancial Data CenterMinistry of Finance, Taiwan, R.O.C.Mr. Tony SHIEHDirector of Division OneFinancial Data CenterMinistry of Finance, Taiwan, R.O.C.I. Introduction In Chinese Taipei the use of information technology to provide innovativeservices to taxpayers and to facilitate tax administration can date back to 1968, at thattime the Ministry of Finance set up the Data Processing Center(DPC) to govern theuse of information technology in tax and finance related activities, in 1987 DPCrenamed as the Financial Data Center(FDC) until now this agency has pass throughseveral stage in introducing information technology to enhance convenience,effectiveness and efficiency for taxpayers and tax administrations. In line with the development of information technology, during last 4 decades theFDC had also developed a lot of computer systems using cutting-edge informationtechnology at each stage, and some of those computer systems could be treated asmilestone in the history of our information technology utilization, major events thatmarked our IT history are listed as following: 22. 1968 installed CDC 3300 mainframe 23. 1969 developed pilot system for income tax data processing and introduced Optical Character Reader 24. 1970 Upgraded CDC 3300 into multiprogramming system and established household registration file for the whole population 25. 1971 developed individual income tax return system and put to use 211
  • 223. 0TWQlQql»tRue°gRÙ0W–›xŠgInternational Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governance 26. 1975 developed business income tax return system and put to use 27. 1976 implemented business tax system and put to use 28. 1979 implemented land value tax system and put to use 29. 1980 implemented business income tax system and put to use 30. 1983 implemented system for cross check on invoices received and issued by business 31. 1984 implemented revenue collection management system, system for nationwide personal property data consolidation, office automation system, and income assessment system for aliens 32. 1986 implemented off line data entry system on local revenue services 33. 1991 implemented nationwide personal property data consolidation network system, system for restriction on departure of tax delinquent, and system for authorization of individual income tax remittance 34. 1992 set up information security principles and introduce anti-virus software, implemented system for individual income tax refund by direct transferring between banking accounts 35. 1993 set up data link between mainframes of Financial Data Center and Directorate General of Customs for nationwide property consolidation data inquiry, set up intranet among Financial Data Center and National Tax Administrations, developed case selection system for business income tax compliance investigation 36. 1994 implemented data base system for business tax filing assessment 37. 1997 developed system for cross check on invoices received and issued by business, and system for tax payment via ATM 38. 1998 implemented data dictionary for data management 39. 2004 set up network for tax information systems 40. 2006 FDC was awarded ISO 27001 certification for information security management system, and developed electronic invoice service platform for business transactions 41. 2007 FDC launched a national tax information system reengineering project to modernize the whole system212
  • 224. –D“Nÿ Appendix III o 42. 2008 FDC was the first government agency awarded CMMI-ACQ certification in the world From information technology point of view, above-mentioned milestones alsoshows that our use of information technology evolved from centralized mainframesystem, the use of data base, networked information system, object oriented language,client server architecture based information system, and finally to web-basedinformation system, this evolution process matched the development of informationtechnology, but in order to use new technology effectively during each evolution stage,it cost us a lot to train related personnel to familiar with new technologies, but asinformation technologies more and more popular, it is necessary for us to keep upwith the cutting edge technology to develop useful and convenient system to meetrequirements of most civilian. As new information technologies emerged faster and faster, there were more andmore systems were outsourced in the FDC, and in order ensure that contractors coulddeliver products meet our expected costs, quality and schedule, we are the firstgovernment agency in the world that introduced CMMI-ACQ system to guide us inmanaging contractors, besides in order to prevent information security incident frombreaking out, we also set up ISO 27001 information security management system inaddition to information security infrastructure such as fire wall, anti-virus software etc.so that we can ensure safety and privacy of personal information in our data base.II. Current status of operation of the electronic filing system Currently there are 3 different ways for taxpayers to file their duty(chart 1),including document filing, 2-D barcode returns, and e-filing, taxpayers usually tent touse document filing if they have complex income sources and withholding/exemptionsituation for their own benefit, and before we developed e-filing system, 2-D barcodereturns are more convenient than traditional document filing, because taxpayers needonly download their income, withholding data and calculate in their own personalcomputer, once they confirm the results then they can print tax returns in 2-D barcodeforms for filing, they don’t need to collect related documents about income andwithholding. 213
  • 225. 0TWQlQql»tRue°gRÙ0W–›xŠgInternational Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governance E-filin Contracto Financial Cente scan 2-D barcode returns National Tax AdministrationManual National Tax Administratio Data Chart 1. Ways for tax return filing Originally taxpayer need to collect income, withholding, deduction, exemptiontax filing related paper documents as evidences and filing them with tax returns, butsince 1999 we had developed e-filing system for tax return on the internet, becausethe use of the internet were more and more populated in Chinese Taipei, in addition tothe use of internet we also build a huge data base to store nationwide data of income,property, withholding, deduction, members of families and so on, such that most oftaxpayers do no need to collect related paper documents before they file tax returns,they just need to check the data we provide and make confirmation on the internet, ifthe data are incorrect or insufficient, then they can choose to file tax return by paperdocuments, the process of e-filing is shown as chart 2. From the chart 2 we can see that e-filing system offer a very convenient channelto taxpayers for filing tax returns, they need only use their citizen certificate to loginto the system, then download their income and deduction data check if it is correct,after they confirm the data the e-filing system will calculate amount of taxautomatically, and then they can choose the way of payment to finish tax filingprocedure, so the whole process only take them several minutes. But in the world of the internet it is also full of risk of information leak, and theimpact on the leak of personal information such as personal income or property data ismore sever, so in order to protect such information from hacking, we had adopted214
  • 226. –D“Nÿ Appendix III oseveral effective measures to maintain the security of e-filing transaction and it’s datatransfer, firstly, we use citizen certificate to authenticate and check identification andthe whole process of data transfer is encrypted, besides during the period of tax returnfiling we request National Security Operation Center of National Information andCommunication Security Taskforce to help us monitoring our portal website, if thereare hacker’s attacks found then they will notice us and coordinate telecommunicationcarriers to apply counter measures jointly to keep normal operation of this e-filingsystem. Servers 2. download income &deduction data 1.Authentication (Certificate) 5. OK Taxpayers 3. Check and Verify (tax calculated automatically) Transfer Customer Service Chart 2. Process of e-filing Above-mentioned measures can only ensure confidentiality and integrityeffectively, but due to the period of tax filing only last for a month and the populationof taxpayers is huge, so the availability of the e-filing system and network become amajor problem that must be handled carefully, especially most of taxpayers usuallydon’t file their tax returns until the last few days before deadline of tax filing, so thatthe system must have enough capacity and network bandwidth to sustain this surgeload; usually we deployed redundant servers and networks to balance and share theload, besides we also prepare remote backup site to ensure the availability of thee-filing system. 215
  • 227. 0TWQlQql»tRue°gRÙ0W–›xŠgInternational Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governance By using the e-filing system taxpayers do not need to collect income anddeduction documents so that taxpayers can just sit at home to file their tax, thereforemore and more taxpayers prefer to use e-filing system as shown in Table 1, on theother hand revenue services and tax administrations do not need to allocate a lot ofspace to accommodate those paper documents, the amount of paper documents savedalso grew year by year(Table 2), and save a lot of time for government employees tohandle these documents, in the near future enterprises may not need to mail incomeand deduction documents to their employees via post office, these enterprises just filethose documents via networks or media directly to the FDC, so by using e-filingsystem can save a lot of time and money for taxpayers, enterprises and government, atthe same time this system also let taxpayers, enterprises and government employeesenjoy tremendous convenience and improvement in efficiency. Table 1. number of income tax return filing via different channels type e-filing Manually 2D Barcode Total ReturnsTaxation No. of Rate % No. of Rate % No. of Rate % No. ofyear Cases Cases Cases Cases2005 1,713,436 33.16 2,293,108 44.38 1,160,133 22.45 5,166,6772006 2,230,061 42.86 1,918,717 36.88 1,054,294 20.26 5,203,0722007 2,456,424 46.77 1,914,760 36.46 881,082 16.78 5,252,2662008 2,689,042 50.06 1,835,168 34.16 847,844 15.78 5,372,0542009 3,128,515 57.24 1,678,054 30.72 658,418 12.04 5,465,987 Table 2. Number of cases declared of withholding/exemption and dividend type e-filing Manually 2D Barcode Total ReturnsTaxationyear No. of Rate % No. of Rate % No. of Rate % No. of Cases Cases Cases Cases2005 650,970 83.96 111,707 14.41 12,611 1.63 775,2882006 722,490 89.42 77,306 9.57 8,206 1.02 808,0022007 763,309 92.81 52,467 6.38 6,660 0.81 822,436216
  • 228. –D“Nÿ Appendix III o2008 773,638 92.73 46,114 5.53 14,574 1.75 834,3262009 776,357 92.01 45,538 5.4 21,899 2.59 843,794III. Pre-assessment for individual income tax In order to take care of taxpayers more considerate, we had provided a newinnovative service this year, for those taxpayers who meet certain criteria such as: 1.their income subject to tax withholding, or their income come from stockdividends or written articles… 2.their exemption come from bringing up their lineal relatives 3.their deduction come from standard deductions If taxpayers meet the above criteria then they will receive a pre-assessmentnotice for individual income tax, on that notice we had a tax payable amountaccording to related income data we had collected by then, taxpayers need to check ifit is correct or not, if it is correct then they can make confirmation on the Internet orsend reply-notice back to the tax administrations, or they can pay tax directly frombanks or convenient stores, and the whole process of individual income tax filing isdone. On the other hand if taxpayers found that the amount of tax payable on thepre-assessment notice are wrong, then they can use other above mentioned filingchannels to file their individual income tax.IV. Digitalize Deduction data In the past taxpayers need to need to file their individual income tax returnswith a lot of appendixes including various deduction data, such as insurance premiumdeduction, tuition deduction, special deduction for the disabled or handicapped,deduction for losses from disaster, deduction for interest on a house mortgage,donation deduction, deduction for medical expenses..etc. It takes taxpayers a lot oftime to collect and keep those paper documents for the whole year, on the other hand,when taxpayers file those documents to national tax administrations, it also takes timefor employees of national tax administrations to process those documents, and need alot of space to store those documents. In order to mitigate burden of both taxpayersand national tax administrations, we had collected and kept those digitalizeddeduction data in our data base, taxpayers do not need to collect those tax filingrelated documents anymore, they only need to download these data and a client 217
  • 229. 0TWQlQql»tRue°gRÙ0W–›xŠgInternational Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governanceprogram to check if they are correct and calculate tax amount. Then they can print a2D barcode return out on their personal computers and then national taxadministration will scan this 2D barcode return and transform them into digital form,or they could use e-filing to download related data and calculate the amount of tax,then make confirmation via the internet, and the whole process of tax return filing isdone. This innovative services not only reduce time and cost for taxpayers andnational taxpayers, but also reduce a lot paper so that make significant contribution toenvironment protection.V. Electronic payment including payment by credit card The efficiency of tax collection is closely related to fund allocation andmanagement of treasury and may affect taxpayers’ compliance, so it is very importantto provide convenient and efficient channels for tax payment, currently in ChineseTaipei we offer 6 different kinds of channels for taxpayers to pay their tax, including: 1. designated account transfer Taxpayers sign and submit “authorization letter for tax payment from designatedbank account” then revenue services will transfer amount of tax or refund from and todesignated bank account before due date of tax payment. 2. fund transfer via ATM In 1995 we cooperated with banks, and used their ATMs to offer 24x7 taxpayment service, although the amount of fund could transfer via ATM is limited, butfor most of taxpayers, this service greatly improved the convenience of tax payment. 3. credit card payment As the use of credit card as a tool of payment is more and more popularized, andthe line of credit is much more than the amount of money that could transfer via ATM,besides taxpayers could delay their cash payment by using credit card payment andearn some interest. 4. cash payment via convenient store In Chinese Taipei you could always find convenient store almost in every street,and these stores open 24x7, in addition to sell articles for daily use these stores alsooffer toll collection services for the utilities, so in 2004 we cooperated with theseconvenient stores to offer tax payment service.218
  • 230. –D“Nÿ Appendix III o 5. fund transfer via telephone In 1995 we offer tax payment service via telephone banking system to transferfund from bank account. 6. fund transfer via financial chip card In 2005 banks in Chinese Taipei replaced magnetic strip financial card withfinancial chip card, and the security of card usage is greatly improved, so wedeveloped fund transfer system via financial chip card on the internet, since thentaxpayers could pay their tax in real time at home. All of above-mentioned tax payment channels need network information systemin the backend to connect different information systems of convenient stores, banksand our tax information..etc. in order to integrate disconnected processes of taxpayment that scattered in different organization, and result in an efficient andconvenient tax payment environment, so that there is no longer long waiting line infront of bank counters, besides it saved a lot of time and human labor for revenueservices, and upgrade service quality and efficiency of government agencies.VI. Utilization of the website In nowadays the use of the internet and web-based application has become animportant part of daily life in Chinese Taipei, people are used to spend some timeduring a day to check their mail box and surf the internet, therefore many governmentagencies, banks, and other organizations use websites to offer their services, becauseof the convenience and popularization in using web-based applications on the internet,we had also developed an e-Tax Portal(chart 3) to integrate diversified services fordifferent kinds of users, including employees of national tax administrations andrevenue services, taxpayers, and employees of other government agencies. In fact, this website is not only a unified portal for national tax administrationsand revenue services to provide one-stop inter-organization tax services, but also anintegrated platform for providing secure, fast, useful and convenient tax services tofacilitate related users to exchange information, process tax related businesses andinquire status information, so in the back end of the website we need to connect thiswebsite with several platforms of related government agencies through theGovernment Service Network and the Internet. 219
  • 231. 0TWQlQql»tRue°gRÙ0W–›xŠgInternational Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governance Innovation of e-Government Service Portal e-Government Integrated (GSP) www.gov.tw Services Public Government Network Service Network e-Tax Portal etax.nat.gov.tw Taxpayer E-Housekeeper Service 5 National Tax Administrations 23 Local Tax Revenue Taxation Services Data Chart 3. e-Tax Portal Website Currently there are six major types of services on this portal website: 1. Application forms download 2. Online tax services applying 3. Trial assessment of related charge, including tax, belated surcharge, belated interest...Etc. 4. Tax information inquiry or status of progress of applied services inquiry 5. Data exchange among government agencies 6. Announcement of tax related important information The first and second items on the above list are classified as online applications,and the third to the sixth items are classified as information services.220
  • 232. –D“Nÿ Appendix III o Online application procedures: Before the emergence of the e-Tax Portal website, many tax related applicationprocedures need to be processed by different units or organization, it cost a lot time oftaxpayer, but now by reengineering those processes we could offer full-functionone-stop services by this portal, by the end of 2009 there were 149 items of servicesonline, among these services various kinds of tax filing, personal income or propertydata update are the most popular services people used, and these one-stop servicesprevent taxpayers from going around different agencies and save a lot time. Information services: There are 3 major information services offered by this portal website, the first isinquiry regarding to personal tax information or to see what is the progress of certainapplication procedure, the second is information exchange between governmentagencies to support implementation of policies proposed by other ministries such asincreasing employment rate, financing for small or medium size business,management of foreign workers. And the final information service item on the portalwebsite is the announcement regarding to tax regulations. Web-based interfaces are more friendly, besides through the powerfulconnectivity of the internet enable us to integrate originally scattered processes intoone-stop full-function process, so utilization of the e-tax portal website is increasedyear by year.VII. Electronic invoice Originally invoice is a proof of business transaction, and we have used it verysmooth for about 6 decades, but business environment has been changing fast and fastin nowadays, and time of business transaction cycle is also going shorter and shorter,while the volume of business transaction is surging rapidly, and there are differenttypes of e-commerce emerging on the Internet, those changes have made traditionalinvoice difficult to meet the requirements of contemplate business environment, ittakes more transaction cost, because businesses need to keep those paper documents,and spend a lot of time for book-keeping, also traditional invoice obstructdevelopment of e-commerce, so in order to facilitate business transactions betweenbuyers and sellers, we have implemented a e-invoice platform for buyers and sellers,they can use this platform to issue and receive e-invoice on the Internet, and for thesake of e-commerce security, the platform also embed necessary security mechanismsto ensure confidentiality, integrity, and non-repudiation. Besides the platform also setup a distant backup site and activity logging function for recovery from disaster, so it 221
  • 233. 0TWQlQql»tRue°gRÙ0W–›xŠgInternational Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governanceis a secure and convenient innovative service for business transaction. We believe thatas more and more buyers and sellers use the Internet there will be more and morepeople willing to use e-invoice, and this will also reduce a lot paper consumption,because there are about 8 billion invoices issued per year. On the other hand, in order to encourage our civilian using e-invoice, we alsodesigned many add on functions on the e-invoice platform and cooperate withconvenient stores, chain stores, mall, supermarkets, ..etc to join into this platform, andprovided various kinds of carriers to store e-invoices so that people can collecte-invoices easily, and they can also check if they hit jackpot of invoice lotteryautomatically. While on the business side, if they join e-invoice platform their accounting andfinancial management system could be further computerized, this may save a lot ofcost. Convenience and lower cost are major driving force to promote utilization ofe-invoice, our e-invoice has reach these two objectives, but we still try our best tomake improvement continuously on this platform in the hope of replacing paperinvoice completely.VIII. Conclusion Summary From lessons of the history of system development we can learn that it is acapital and labor intensive investment in information technologies, and they obsoletevery fast; because they are fragmented functionally and hard to reuse, these are majorproblems embedded in old systems but in order to improve the efficiency andconvenience of both taxpayers and employees of tax administrations, the best strategyis to integrate fragmented systems to form a full-function one-stop process, but thedegree of integration depends on what technology you used, in nowadays web-basedtechnology is the best technology that could facilitate integration. In order to provide various kinds of taxation services we have collectnationwide personal income and property data, so in addition to improve convenienceand efficiency of services we need also take information security into accountseriously, and it is a hard decision regarding to how to trade off between convenienceand security, fortunately there comes out some new technology to help ussafeguarding information security and not at the expense of efficiency.222
  • 234. –D“Nÿ Appendix III o Future issues to be solved utilizing information technology In the process of system development and utilizing information technology thereare still issues yet to be solved, these issues mainly come from 2 kinds ofconsideration, including issues from technical consideration and from businessconsideration, these issues are listed as following: 1. technical issue  How to improve the degree of integration and reusability of legacy systems to create more streamlined, convenient services? 2. business issues  How to provide updated, critical and consolidated information that high level executives need to make decision and give order for taking action?  How to provide estimate or forecast information to assist tax policy making?  How to identify potential incompliant case for further investigation? From technical view there maybe many solutions to these issues, but in FDC wehad launched a large project to replace our legacy system with new informationtechnologies and solve above issues, currently our potential solutions are listed asfollowing: 1. We will use Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) to enhance reusability bysharing common service components, and process engine to integrate related processto create a streamlined convenient service. 2. develop Executive Information System to integrate related criticalinformation needed by high level executives such as performance trends, data thatreflect exceptional situations, and alert that reflect event that cross the line ofthreshold so that high level executives should give instruction to their subordinates totake action. 3. Build data warehouse and Online Analytic Processing system to estimate andforecast potential impact result from tax policy changing. 4. Use data mining technique on related data warehouse to identify patterns ofpotential incompliance of taxpayers. Modern information technologies enable us to break cost barrier, geographicbarrier, time barriers, and organization barrier so that enhance convenience for 223
  • 235. 0TWQlQql»tRue°gRÙ0W–›xŠgInternational Conference on Best Practices and Innovations in Public Governancetaxpayers and efficiency in tax administration, but in addition to convenience andefficiency we always need to take information security into account, because most oftax related data concerns privacy of taxpayers, so in utilizing information technologyin the domain of taxation we always need to trade-off between convenience,efficiency and security, if it is hard to make decision then it is better to let informationsecurity have the priority; on the other hand, before we decide to use new informationtechnologies or develop new services, the maturity in using new technology andawareness in information security of taxpayers, should also be taken into account;besides the availability of related software, hardware are also critical successfulfactors of new services.224