Public Speaking Seminar Material for NTUST-ISA


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Public Speaking Seminar Material for NTUST-ISA

  1. 1. Presented for NTUST – IndonesiaStudent Association
  2. 2. • Communication refers to the act, by one or morepersons, of sending and receiving messages thatare distorted by noise, occur within a context,have some effect, and provide some opportunityfor feedback (Joseph A. Devito)• Communication is a generally predictable,continuous, and always-present process of thesharing of meaning through symbol interaction(Myers and Myers)• Communication is the process of sending andreceiving messages. A source stimulates meaningin the mind of a receiver by means of a messageconveyed by symbols. The receiver respondseither mentally or physically to the message.(Rudolph Verderer)
  3. 3.  Source Message Channel Receiver Feedback Noise
  4. 4. • The originator of the communicationmessage• The source is usually an individual, however,it may be a group of people –a committee, acompany, or even a nation• In speeches you prepare and deliver, you willbe the source• As the source, what you say in speeches isaffected by your past experiences, moods,feelings, attitudes, beliefs, values, sex,occupation, religion, even climate andweather
  5. 5.  The idea or feeling that the sourcecommunicates. As the speaker, the content of your speecheswill be your message Messages have 3 components :◦ Meaning◦ Symbols◦ Form or organization
  6. 6.  The ideas and feelings within us. To communicate meaning, we must stimulate thesame or analogous meaning in the mind ofsomeone else To do this, we turn the ideas and feelings we haveinto symbols
  7. 7. • Symbols expressing the meaning – that is, wordsor actions that stand for or represent something• The process of turning ideas and feelings intosymbols is called encoding• In encoding, we select verbal symbols –words- torepresent our meaning.• At the same time, our facial expression, gestures,tone of voice, and attitudes -all nonverbal cues-accompany our words and affect the meaning ofour message.• Message may be intentional or unintentional. Byintentional, it mean that the speaker makes aconscious effort to select the symbols used incommunication; the message being sent has adeliberate purpose
  8. 8.  Good intentional communication requiresmessage preparation Whether we must speak virtuallyinstantaneous or whether we haveconsiderable time, our mind must stillconsider idea selection anddevelopment, message organization, and theverbal and non-verbal symbols that willconvey the message
  9. 9. • The means by which you convey the symbols• Words are delivered from one person toanother by air waves, facial expression aredelivered by light waves.• Usually the more channels that can be usedto carry a message, the more likely thesuccessful communication of that message• Effective speaking is basically two channel;that is, carried by sound and sight
  10. 10. • The destination of the message; the listeneror reader• Like the source, it may be an individual or agroup• The message is received in the form ofsymbols by means of sound waves and lightwaves. The receiver then turn these symbolsback into meaning• This process of turning symbols back intomeaning is called decoding.
  11. 11.  Just as the source’s experience affects thecharacter of the message being sent, so doesthe receiver’s experience affect the way it isreceived As a result, the meaning that is stimulated inthe receiver may not be the same as that ofthe source. Much depends upon how thereceiver’s field of experience affects thedecoding process. Moreover, we are seldomaware of the potential for misunderstandingwithin the decoding process
  12. 12. • Whether communication really takes place isdetermined by the verbal and non-verbalresponse of the receiver• Feedback tells the source whether themessage was heard, seen, or understood.• Different kinds of communication situationsprovide for different amounts of feedback :– A zero feedback situation– The free flow of interacting communication(complete interaction)
  13. 13. • Our ability to interpret, understand, or respond tosymbols is often inhibited by the amount of“noise” accompanying the communication• Noise can consist of both external interference inthe channels and the internal perceptions andexperiences that affect communication• More often, the noise that provides a barrier tocommunication is not physical but semantic noisethat grows from our perceptions and experiences–and semantic noises may cause us tomisinterpret or misunderstand without our evenknowing it
  14. 14. • Dynamic• continuous and always changing process• Interactive• I’m OK, You’re OK• Irreversible• Can not be placed or drawn• Contextual• Physical and social context
  15. 15.  Speaking over the audiencethis happens when the speaker talks above the level ofunderstanding of his or her audience. It occurs mostoften when expert forget that their audiences are lessknowledgable about a particular subject than theythemselves are Talking down to the audienceThis error is less common. It occurs when speakerscondescend to their audience. Most often it is theresult of the speaker underestimating an audience’sintelligence or understanding of a topic Speaking on a different attitudinal wave lengthspeaker have to recognize that the audience’s attitudewill influence their reception of a particular speech
  16. 16. To Aristotle, there were 5 important elements inpublic speaking :1. The ideas (invention) that are talked about inthe speech2. The style or language that the speaker uses3. The arrangement or organization of thespeaker’s ideas4. How the speaker deliver his or her speech5. The speaker’s ability to speak from memory
  17. 17.  The overall effectiveness of a speech dependslargely on the speaker’s credibility◦ The imprression the audience forms of a speaker asa person◦ Their opinion of the speech as a presentationCredibility gaps : disparitas between what public figuressay and what those who hear and read their statementsbelieve
  18. 18.  Reliability : the ability to inspire confidence Expertise : must know what he or she istalking about Dynamism : active, energetic, andenthusiastic Consistency : the quality of holding the sameposition over time and of holding positionsthat agree with one another Sociability : the quality of being friendly andpleasant
  19. 19.  Honesty : telling the truth Sincerity : what we say and believing it to betrue Concern for the message : must believe notonly that a statement is true but also that it isimportant Concern for listeners : project concern for thebest interests and welfare of the audience Personal attractiveness : physically attractive
  20. 20.  Introduce yourself or have someoneintroduce you Tell the audience why you are talking aboutthe topic Tell the audience about any specialexpertise you have that relates to the logic Do not admit to limited knowledge easily Suggest that you have the best interests ofthe listener at heart Maintain a competent and relaxed style Take the speaking situation seriously Appear involved
  21. 21.  Unclear purpose Too much information Lack of organization and leadership Not making the real need Monotous and sloppy Not enough support
  22. 22. 1. Effective speaking begins with good content2. Effective speaking involves organizingmaterial so that it develops and heightensthe speech purpose3. Effective speaking is a product of clear, vivid,emphatic, and appropriate wording adaptedto audience knowledge and interests4. Effective speaking requires good delivery
  23. 23.  Openingtell what you will tell …. % Contenttell it …. % Closingtell what you have told …. %
  24. 24.  Selecting Your Topic◦ In public speaking, as in conversation, people talkabout the things they are concerned with◦ Where speakers sometimes have trouble is intranslating their concerns into specific topics◦ If good topics do not often occur to you, trybrainstorming –the old word-association process
  25. 25.  Determining Your Specific Purpose◦ Heading of purpose stated : (1) to entertainan audience, (2) to inform an audience, and(3) to persuade an audience◦ Questions tests : Am I really interested in the topic ? Does my purpose meet the assignment ? Whetherthe assignment is made by purpose (to inform or topersuade), or by type of speech (expository ordescriptive), or by subject (book analysis or currentevent), your specific purpose should reflect thenature of that assignment Can I cover the topic in the time allocated ? Is this topic one that will provide new information,nes insight, or reason for a change of opinion forthe audience ? Are my motives for speaking legitimate ?
  26. 26.  Analyzing Your Audience◦ What is the nature and extent of my audience’sknowledge of this topic ?◦ What is the nature and the extent of my listener’sinterest in this topic ?◦ What is the nature and the intensity of my listener’sattitude toward this topic ? Finding Your Material◦ Your own knowledge, observation, interviewing,source material
  27. 27.  Preparing the body◦ selecting and stating main points As a rule, main points are complete sentencestatements that best develop the specific purpose Stating main points is also a matter of order – timeorder is a kind of organization in which each of themain points follows a chronological sequence ofideas or events Space order is a kind of organization In which eachof the main points indicates a spatial relationship Topic order is a kind of organization in which eachof the main points arbitrarily develops a part of thepurpose.◦ selecting and adapting developmentmaterials
  28. 28.  Preparing the Introduction◦ To get initial attention ( 7 – 50 % of the speech)◦ To create a bond of goodwill between speaker andaudience◦ To lead into the content of the speech Startling statement Question Quotation Anecdote, Narrative, Illustration Personal Reference Suspense compliment
  29. 29. • Preparing the Conclusion– The summary• Summarize the main points– The appeal• Used conclusion for a persuasive speech, that now theyhave heard all the arguments after describing thebehavior you would like them to follow– The challenge• Calls for an audience to try something new– Humor• Humorous conclusion– Emotional appeal• Affects the emotions of the audience
  30. 30.  Structure1. 2.3. a.b.c. 1) 2) 3) A) B) C) Logic There is level in logical Utilityas a skeleton of a speech, not the speechitself
  31. 31.  ClarityContributes to achieving instant intelligibility byeliminating ambiguity and confusion.◦Accuracy : refers to the ability to select preciselythe word that best represents the idea◦Specificity and concreteness : go hand in hand insharpening meaning by reducing choice on thepart of the listener◦Lack of clutter : it should be free from extraneouswords and excessive qualification and detail
  32. 32.  VividnessClear language helps the audience see themeaning; vivid language paints meaning inliving color. Vividness means full of life,vigorous, bright, and intense. If your languageis vivid, your audience will picture yourmeanings in striking detail Emphasis◦Proportions : the amount of time spent oneach of the ideas in the speech◦Transition : the words, phrases, andsentences that show idea relationships.Transitions summarize, clarify, forecast, and inalmost every case emphasize◦Repetition : an exact duplication of idea or itmay be a restatment
  33. 33.  AppropriatenessMeans using language that adapts to theneeds, interests, knowledge, and attitudes of theaudience without offending, angering, or in someway turning it off.◦Adapt your language to the audience◦Use personal pronouns◦Use audience questions◦Allude to common experience◦Build hypothetical situations◦Avoid inappropriate language
  34. 34. Delivery is the use of voice and body to helpconvey the message of the speech. Althoughthe best delivery will not save the poorlyprepared speech, particularly poor delivery maywell harm your speech so much that evenexceptional content and organization arenegated. Speech delivery may be the decidingfactor in the audience’s estimation of youreffectiveness
  35. 35.  Desire to communicate◦ If you really want to communicate, yourvoice will have a quality in it that audienceswill recognize and respond to◦ If you are really well prepared, you will be lessnervous than if you are only partly prepared Eye contact◦ As a speaker, you have a certain amount ofcontrol over your listeners’ attention simplyby looking at them◦ Not only does good eye contact helpattention, it also increases audienceconfidence in the speaker
  36. 36. • Spontaneity– The impression that the idea is being formed at thetime it is spoken• Voice– The meanings expressed by the way we sound(called paralanguage) may tell our audience whatwe intended and may contribute to the meanings ofour words :• Pitch : refers to the highness or lowness of the voice• Volume : the loudness of the tone we make• Rate : the speed at which we talk• Quality : the tone, timbre, or sound of voice• Vocal variety and expressiveness vs. monotonous voiceand constant pattern
  37. 37.  Articulation◦ The shaping of speech sounds into recognizableoral symbols that go together to make up a word Bodily action◦ Serves many key functions in communication.◦ Often defines the meaning of ideas Facial expression : the eyes and mouth Gesture : the movement of hands, arms, and fingers Movement : should occur to help focus on transition,to emphasize an idea, or to call attention to aparticular aspect of the speech
  38. 38. • Speech Setting– Was there anything about the room (size, lighting,heating, and the like), distribution of the audience,public address system, or any other aspect of settingthat added to or detracted from the speaker’s potentialsuccess ?• Speech Audience– Was there anything about the audience size, age, sex,race, religion, socioeconomic level, attitude, interests, orknowledge that added to or detracted from thespeaker’s potential success ?• The Speaker– Was there anything about the speaker’s attitude, dress,demeanor, posture, and the like that added to ordetracted from his potential success ?• The Speech– Content, organization, style, delivery
  39. 39. • Content– Was the speaker prepared ?– Was the speaker’s reasoning, support, or prooflogical?– Was the speaker ethical in the handling of hismaterial?– Did the speaker have specific evidence to supportor to explain his major statements ? Or did hespeak in generalities ?• Organization– Did the introduction gain attention, gain goodwillfor the speaker, and lead into the speech ?– Were the main points clear, substantive ideas ?– Did the conclusion tie the speech together ?
  40. 40. • Style– Was the speech in an oral style ?– Were the ideas clear ?– Was the language vivid ?– Were ideas presented emphatically ?– Was the language appropriate ?• Delivery– Did the speaker have a positive attitude ?– Did the speaker look at his audience ?– Was the delivery spontaneous ?– Did the speaker show sufficient variety andemphasis?– Was articulation satisfactory ?– Did the speaker show sufficient poise and havegood posture ?