There are now at least four different estimates published from four different sources using four different methodologies (see Figure 1). The main reasons for differences between estimates relate to the source of the primary data and assumptions about the drinking population. For instance, while both the World Advertising Research Centre’s (WARC) and Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) estimates are derived using the same source data of total litres of pure alcohol consumed each year, the WARC estimates are derived using the total population of Australia, while the ABS estimates are derived using the population aged 15 years and over. The result is that the WARC estimates are likely to be a significant underestimate of per capita alcohol consumption in Australia. However, it must still be emphasised that the estimates from the ABS, the National Alcohol Indicators Project (NAIP), and the WHO are also likely to contain some inaccuracies.
While almost half (48.3%) of the Australian population drink at low risk levels, one in five Australians (20.4%) drink at short-term risky/high risk levels at least once a month. This pattern of drinking is the equivalent of consuming seven or more standard drinks on any one day for males, and consuming five or more standard drinks on any one day for females (as defined by, the 2001 Australia Alcohol Guidelines. The new 2007 guidelines has changed substantially since). As Figure 2 shows, this type of drinking pattern is most prevalent among adults aged 20–29 years, one-quarter (24.9%) of whom do so on at least a monthly basis. Overall, Australian males are more likely than females to drink at short-term risky/high-risk levels on regular (at least once a month) occasions (17.1% of females compared to 23.6% of males). However, among teenagers, females are more likely than males to regularly drink at levels of risky/high-risk of harm in the short term: 28.3% of female teenagers compared to 24.5% of male teenagers. Between 2001 and 2007 there were only slight changes in the prevalence of drinking at risky/high risk of harm in the short term across the age groups (AIHW, 2008).
Transcript of "What works in alcohol social marketing slides"
What Works! A generational social marketing approach to changing alcohol consumption patterns Presented by Noel Turnbull
The Impetus for Social Marketing <ul><li>“ We are dealing with a different social situation. The 19th Century epidemics, bred in poverty and malnutrition, arose from the failures of the social system… It is (now) becoming clear that in the modification of personal behaviour, of diet, smoking, physical exercise and the rest…the responsibility of the individual for his (sic) own health will be far greater than formerly. It will not be possible to impose from without (as drains were built) the new norms of behaviour better serving the needs of middle and old age. They will come about in a new kind of partnership between community and individual.” </li></ul><ul><li>Dr Jerry Morris British Social Medicine Unit. </li></ul>Source: Berridge History Today August 2007
A Philosophical Viewpoint <ul><li>“ Giving Ulysses the rope with which to lash himself to the mast adds to his choice.” (In contrast do we want to regard) “reasoning, judgement, discrimination and self-control… as burdens the state can and should lighten.” </li></ul>Source: The Economist April 8 2006
What is Social Marketing? <ul><li>“ Social marketing is the application of marketing principles, the marketing process and marketing tools to further a social goal. Marketing is not inherently good or bad but value neutral and social marketing must be research-driven, focus on audiences, experts, intermediaries, and the behavioural sciences.” </li></ul><ul><li>Dr Ed Maibach </li></ul>Source: Social marketing presentation to DHAC 1999
The Andreason Model <ul><li>A four stage model: </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-contemplation in which people become aware of an issue </li></ul><ul><li>Contemplation when they start to think about the issue and for attitudes </li></ul><ul><li>Moving to action </li></ul><ul><li>Programs which reinforce and maintain changed behaviour </li></ul>Source: Alan Andreason Marketing Social Change 1995 ACT THINK SEE REINFORCE
The Role of Fear LET’S TALK Let’s Talk, Canada AIDS campaign Truth , the Florida anti-smoking campaign Grim Reaper TAC road safety Snake condoms
Alcohol and Fear <ul><li>Shanahan and Elliott Review of public information campaigns – addressing youth risk-taking (2000) for the National Youth Affairs Research Scheme </li></ul>
Alcohol Consumption in Australia Sources: WHO, 2005; ABS 2005; NAIP= Chikritzhs et. al. 2003; WARC, 2005 Per capita alcohol consumption in Australia, various source, 1989 to 2003
Alcohol Consumption Patterns Drinking at risky/high risk of harm in the long term by age and year, proportion of the population aged 14+ years, Australia, 2007 Source: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare 2008
Parents are Admired % 10-17 year olds Spontaneous Top Three Most Admired People Source: Quantum Research 66% 52% 22 20 14 8 7 5 5 2 1 My mother My father Siblings My friend Grandparent Aunt Other sports person Teacher Other relative My parents Michael Jordon
Parents are ‘Real’ and Trusted Source: Quantum Research A lot Some % 10-17 year olds 22% 25 28 31 29 38 49 54 52 75% 73 68 65 64 54 45 35 37 11 2% 2 3 4 7 8 6 11 Parents Fire Fighters Doctors Nurses Police Teachers Friends Govt Help Lines Charity Orgs Level of confidence in different institutions/people A lot Little/ None Some
Summary of Life Stages and Targeting Source: Quantum Research Receptive to messages Perception of risk / harms Primary role of drinking Defining attitudes Parent as role model / Lead by example Adult conversation Seen social consequences of heavy drinking – divorce, career, health Relax and sociable More time for me Legacy / imparting knowledge Older Families Health consequences heightened Less ability to bounce back after session Personal health - looks, weight Negligible Keep in check to accomplish all I need to do Negligible Social Relax De-stress Kick back Party hard Experiment Social cohesion Health intermediaries (GP’s) critical influencers in making choices Responsible parent Give me permission to ‘have a quiet one’ Give me permission to ‘have a quiet one’ Ground up / grass roots My time My choices Responsibility Good parent Socialise Finding self Fun Freedom / Explore Empty nesters / early retirees Younger Families Older singles / couples Young singles
Why Parents as Campaign Targets? <ul><li>Whilst all life stage segments are potential audiences to alcohol–moderation/education messages, some are more receptive than others – due mainly to life stage issues/ need states </li></ul><ul><li>Parents represent a life stage that can allow great leverage – both in terms of their own drinking behaviour as well as influencing the behaviour of their children </li></ul><ul><li>An impact on their behaviour will span generations </li></ul><ul><li>Looking for generational change – not change next week </li></ul>
Alcohol and Parents: the Rationale for Targeting <ul><li>In terms of their age and life stage they represent both a group taking on the responsibility of parenting as well as those with teenage children that are starting to see the ‘finish line’ but still facing a number of life challenges and needing to achieve goals… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal career </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal health </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Achieving personal / shared dreams (inventory of things to do / achieve) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seeing children through school into adulthood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security and dependability </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Alcohol remains a key part of their lives – particularly in terms of interpersonal/ social connectedness </li></ul><ul><li>However have heightened respect for alcohol from exposure to the problems of excessive alcohol consumption </li></ul><ul><li>Our AustraliaSCAN research has identified that parents are seeking out advice on how to be ‘good’/ ‘responsible’ parents and are attuned to messages that allow them to be better parents </li></ul>
Generational Change: Parents’ Influence on the Next Generation <ul><li>Parents fulfil many roles to their children as want to be friend, mate, confidante and advisor – to pass on the lessons learnt – to guide, influence and protect </li></ul><ul><li>Children learn from their parents and model their behaviour on positive role models </li></ul><ul><li>Previous research has identified that children admire their parents over and above any celebrities or others in our community – parents as role models, therefore, cannot be underestimated (Australian Childhood Foundation) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>YouthSCAN will further confirm this research </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In this context – connecting with parents about making better choices around alcohol will directly influence their children – so they will be able to provide a positive example so young are not ‘self taught’ drinkers through binges with peers and family BBQ’s where parents are drinking heavily </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parents as demonstrating responsible drinking and being a positive role models </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Giving parents the knowledge/ tools to guide children as to the difference between responsible & irresponsible drinking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allowing parents to put alcohol in positive social perspective, for example drinking with family/ or at social gatherings across genders/ generations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demonstrating how alcohol enhances an occasion but does not create an occasion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Illustrating how alcohol used wisely need not be associated with negative/ aggressive behaviour or hangovers etc. </li></ul></ul>
Re-framing Parents’ Drinking <ul><li>How do I drink sensibly knowing I’m a parent and my children are learning from me? Most would not know the answer to this… </li></ul><ul><li>Motivating parents to re-frame their drinking is key to this approach. Initiating an ‘emotional conversation’ with parents about their drinking will challenge personal beliefs that suggests ‘anything goes’ and that the only limit on your drinking is your own level of responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Hence the need to create a positive drinking model for parents to base their behaviour on </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge and learning they can then pass down to their children – both as an example of how they drink (behaviour) and as a way to talk to their children about alcohol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Additional support for parents via information can help them to know they are drinking positively as role models </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Showing tangible/ clear behavioural demonstrations of positive drinking behaviour </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Work alongside Australia’s drinking culture – confrontation of the culture will lead to audience shutting out messages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As we have already identified, there are many barriers in place to ‘protect’ self from these messages </li></ul></ul><ul><li>An emotional based campaign that motivates parents and ultimately empowers them as parents where they find it unacceptable to get drunk or drink in certain ways is key (in their desire to be a ‘better parent’) </li></ul>
Outcomes <ul><li>28% of parents modified behaviour and reduced drinking in front of children </li></ul><ul><li>41% more self-conscious </li></ul><ul><li>36% discussed issue with partner </li></ul><ul><li>29% discussed with friends or colleagues </li></ul><ul><li>83% now thinking about how children form their attitudes to alcohol </li></ul><ul><li>47% agree that parents are children’s role models </li></ul>Source: Quantum Research
What Next? <ul><li>Tackling earlier age of alcohol initiation which has reduced from 19 to 15.5 years (Roche et al 2007) </li></ul><ul><li>Parents of pre-teens and life-stage triggers </li></ul><ul><li>Safer drinking cultures </li></ul><ul><li>New partnerships </li></ul>
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