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Academic Publishing 2012 - SAGE - Publishing in the digital age : implications for authors
 

Academic Publishing 2012 - SAGE - Publishing in the digital age : implications for authors

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    Academic Publishing 2012 - SAGE - Publishing in the digital age : implications for authors Academic Publishing 2012 - SAGE - Publishing in the digital age : implications for authors Presentation Transcript

    • Publishing in the Digital Age - Implications for authorsDan Huke, Commissioning Editor,Singapore Los Angeles | London | New Delhi Singapore | Washington DC
    • Outline● Developments in publishing in the internet age● Open Access publishing● Getting your work published● Rights and responsibilities● The future of academic publishing – the end of publishers? Los Angeles | London | New Delhi Singapore | Washington DC
    • Before we start… Los Angeles | London | New Delhi Singapore | Washington DC
    • Developments in Academic Publishing Los Angeles | London | New Delhi Singapore | Washington DC
    • Developments in Journal Publishing● Shift to online publishing – now largely complete • Readers arrive at articles via searching • Instant access to research • Online submission • Greater collaboration● Faster publication process● People (mostly) don’t read print journals Los Angeles | London | New Delhi Singapore | Washington DC
    • Developments in Journal Publishing● New publishing models • Open access • Comments from readers • F1000, PubMed, Recommendations, Google Scholar – new ways of highlighting important research • Institutional repositories, preprint servers● Multimedia formats Los Angeles | London | New Delhi Singapore | Washington DC
    • However…● Some things haven’t changed that much. • Journals retain status within the academic community • Research grants dependent of publication in ranked journals • Peer review hasn‟t changed much – although new models have emerged Los Angeles | London | New Delhi Singapore | Washington DC
    • Developments in Book Publishing● Much slower to begin the shift to digital● Readers less willing to read books on computer screen than to read journals● Things are starting to change rapidly now • 2 years ago, 2%-3% of book sales were ebooks. • Now, 25% of book sales are ebooks. Los Angeles | London | New Delhi Singapore | Washington DC
    • E-readers and Tablet Computers● Amazon book store and the Kindle • Started a mass market for ebook readers • Early ebooks were just copies of print versions● The iPad revolution • Started to change the potential for ebooks • Video, audio, interactive content● Android tablets • Brought down the cost of multimedia readers Los Angeles | London | New Delhi Singapore | Washington DC
    • Open Access Los Angeles | London | New Delhi Singapore | Washington DC
    • Open Access Publishing● Content is free to end-user to access online • Variety of different funding models● Peer review can be different • PLoS don‟t select on novelty of the work • arXiv doesn‟t have traditional peer review● Different models • Gold – author pays • Green – publish in any journal, then in repository Los Angeles | London | New Delhi Singapore | Washington DC
    • Los Angeles | London | New Delhi Singapore | Washington DC
    • Perceptions of OA● Lower quality?● Different in Asia?● What do you think? Los Angeles | London | New Delhi Singapore | Washington DC
    • Getting Your Work Published Los Angeles | London | New Delhi Singapore | Washington DC
    • Where to Start● Are you sure you have something to say?● Where is the best place to say it? ● Journal article? ● Book? ● Blog?● A genuine contribution to knowledge? • Original? • No salami slicing Los Angeles | London | New Delhi Singapore | Washington DC
    • Academic Book Publishing● Not all publishers are the same● The book market is changing fast● Do you even need a publisher? • (Obviously, I would say “yes”) Los Angeles | London | New Delhi Singapore | Washington DC
    • Journal Publishing - Where to Start● The guide for authors • Aims and scope • Subject area • Novelty? • Type of paper – Review, Communication, Regular Paper • Length● Plus other details • E.g. reference style Los Angeles | London | New Delhi Singapore | Washington DC
    • How to Choose a Journal Los Angeles | London | New Delhi Singapore | Washington DC
    • How to Choose a Journal● Reputation (comments by peers)● Review examples of papers / and their reference lists.● Who is the editor?● Who is on the editorial board?● How international?● Do you know someone who has published in the journal? Los Angeles | London | New Delhi Singapore | Washington DC
    • How to Choose a Journal● Any indications of rejection rate or turnaround?● How visible?● Bibliometric factors: • Impact Factor? • h-index • is it listed by ISI and/or Scopus?● Does the publisher matter? Los Angeles | London | New Delhi Singapore | Washington DC
    • The Natural Home for Authors, Editor and Societies Commercial Academic Informa Stanford Palgrave Cambridge UP Wiley Blackwell American Springer Association Oxford UP Publishers McGraw Hill SAGE Harvard Yale UP Elsevier North Carolina Macmillan/NPG MIT Press Random House Chicago„The Sweet Spot‟ Los Angeles | London | New Delhi Singapore | Washington DCBig enough to count, small enough to care
    • The Needs of Publishers● Sustainability● To serve their market well● Quality / image / reputation● Commercial success● Demonstrate innovation (e.g. hot areas) Los Angeles | London | New Delhi Singapore | Washington DC
    • The Needs of Authors and Other Researchers● Contribute to knowledge (author)● Develop and extend own knowledge (reader)● Build career (recognition)● Keep up-to-date with developments Los Angeles | London | New Delhi Singapore | Washington DC
    • Does the Digital Age Make a Difference?● Different types of journal to consider● Easier manuscript submission • More work for editors! • Editors wary of plagiarism● Rapid review and publication • Need to ensure timeliness● Internationalisation of publishing process • Ensure your paper stands out • Consider readers around the world Los Angeles | London | New Delhi Singapore | Washington DC
    • Think about the (digital) readerexperience● Make sure your article has the right metadata● Do you need to make data available?● What can you do to make your paper more discoverable? Los Angeles | London | New Delhi Singapore | Washington DC
    • Why Papers Get Rejected Before Review ● Poor fit with the journal • Not within the scope • Wrong type of manuscript, e.g. case report ● Poor presentation • Bad grammar • Poor spelling • Incorrectly formatted ● Obviously weak methods or inadequate literature base ● Poor quality English language Los Angeles | London | New Delhi Singapore | Washington DC
    • Why Papers Get Rejected After Review● Referees are not convinced of the contribution to the knowledge base • Depending on the journal / model● Methods are not robust enough for the journal • E.g. too few observations on quantitative papers • E.g. transparency of qualitative methods● Specific sections are weak • Conclusion • Discussion Los Angeles | London | New Delhi Singapore | Washington DC
    • A Note on Language – Correct or Fit for Purpose?“…to boldly go where no man has bone before…”● The Star Trek debate and the split infinitive. • The Queen‟s English • The President‟s English (Churchill‟s view) • Commonwealth forms of English • Singlish? • English as a Second Language● Comprehensible or correct?● Consistent (e.g. the Economist style guide) Los Angeles | London | New Delhi Singapore | Washington DC
    • The Structure… one approach (scientific)• Title• Abstract• Keywords• Main text Introduction Methods Results Discussion• Conclusions• Acknowledgement• References• Supporting materials Los Angeles | London | New Delhi Singapore | Washington DC
    • Suggested Order for Writing1. Figures and tables2. Methods, results plus discussions3. Conclusions4. Introduction5. Abstract and title Los Angeles | London | New Delhi Singapore | Washington DC
    • Irritable Editors● Grammatical errors● Spelling mistakes – especially in the abstract!An example“Don’t submit garbage”More than 6 grammatical errors in the abstract and it goesstraight in the bin.Angry and irritable… or just very busy?Make the editor’s life easy. Los Angeles | London | New Delhi Singapore | Washington DC
    • Rights and Responsibilities Los Angeles | London | New Delhi Singapore | Washington DC
    • The Responsibilities of the Publisher● Sustainability of journals● Quality of journals● Quality of editor and editorial boards● Steer the relevance of the journal as a field develops (managing the aims and scope)● Dissemination of content● Uphold ethical values of the publication● Manage selection of editors and support of business process (production, distribution, marketing) Los Angeles | London | New Delhi Singapore | Washington DC
    • The Responsibilities of the Author● Professional ethics as a researcher searching the truth (no fraud or distortion)● Accurate and professional account of research and relevance to others (clear concise communication)● A commitment to the public good and public values (despite intense competitive pressure in research)● Respect to peers and to the public served (issues such as privacy) Los Angeles | London | New Delhi Singapore | Washington DC
    • The Responsibilities of the Editor & the Reviewers● Maximise objectivity of review process● Maintain focus of the journal (aims & scope)● Engage key stakeholders in the relevant research community● Check and advise on quality & quality improvements● Guide strategy for the journal Los Angeles | London | New Delhi Singapore | Washington DC
    • Author rights in the digital age(Journals)● Copyright situation can be much more complex● Funders may require authors to make their papers available in repositories • Responsibilities sometimes at odds with publisher requirements • It may be up to you to ensure the paper is posted in the right place● Publisher policies vary Los Angeles | London | New Delhi Singapore | Washington DC
    • Author rights in the digital age(Books)● iBook store vs Google eBooks approach • iBooks Author files can only be sold via iBooks • Google aim to deliver content to variety of devices● Old contracts and new technologies • Older book contracts don‟t always cover online technologies● Selling individual chapters and repurposing content • Concept of the “book” is changing Los Angeles | London | New Delhi Singapore | Washington DC
    • The Future of Publishing Los Angeles | London | New Delhi Singapore | Washington DC
    • Future of Publishing● The semantic web● “Intelligent” articles● Data mining • “…is the process of discovering new patterns from large data sets involving methods at the intersection of artificial intelligence, machine learning, statistics and database systems. The goal of data mining is to extract knowledge from a data set in a human-understandable structure” Los Angeles | London | New Delhi Singapore | Washington DC
    • Efficiency and Cost-effectiveness● Publishing is an outsourced function of universities • Content dissemination • Contributing to knowledge and debate● Close partnerships are essential • Matching values • Working together to promote scholarship • The “Natural Home” Los Angeles | London | New Delhi Singapore | Washington DC
    • The end of publishers?● Recent debate about the effectiveness of the publisher – academic community partnership● Elsevier boycott● The perceived “Excessive profiteering” of academic publishers● SOPA, PIPA and the RWA Los Angeles | London | New Delhi Singapore | Washington DC
    • The economics of digital journalpublishing● Problems of launching new journals● NIH and Wellcome Trust mandates● Lower cost, online-only models Los Angeles | London | New Delhi Singapore | Washington DC
    • In defence of publishers● The costs of peer review are not zero● Providing a filter – and marketing content appropriately● Innovation • Backfile digitisation • Robust dissemination● Protecting academic integrity Los Angeles | London | New Delhi Singapore | Washington DC
    • All publishers are not the same… …a few words on SAGE● “Big enough to matter, and small enough to care” • 5th largest publisher – but much smaller than the big 4 (Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Taylor and Francis, Springer)● Independent● Philanthropy and investment Los Angeles | London | New Delhi Singapore | Washington DC
    • Innovation and Investment● Launching new titles where there is an academic opportunity, but little commercial promise● Open Access● Society partners Los Angeles | London | New Delhi Singapore | Washington DC
    • And finally… Los Angeles | London | New Delhi Singapore | Washington DC
    • Always…Ask for help and advice on content and onfinal form.E.g. ask a friend (a native speaker?) toproofread your workDon’t work in splendid isolation!Publishing is… Los Angeles | London | New Delhi Singapore | Washington DC
    • … a people business.Relationships are vital! Los Angeles | London | New Delhi Singapore | Washington DC
    • Thanks for listeningDan Hukedan.huke@sagepub.co.uk Los Angeles | London | New Delhi Singapore | Washington DC