Nanyang Technological UniversityAn Insider’s Guide to Getting Published Ben Sng Senior Consultant Publishing Relationship BSng@emeraldinsight.com
Aims of the session• To ‘demystify’ the publishing process• To provide tips, insider knowledge and key questions to maximize your chances of publication• To encourage some of you to go beyond writing, e.g. reviewing, book reviewing, editorial roles• Q&A session: ask anything!• Follow-up: I’m always available to help• To get you sharing your knowledge, i.e. to get you writing
Emerald Group Publishing – company background• Founded in 1967 in Bradford, UK• Over 300 employees• Offices in China, India, Malaysia, Australia, Japan, USA, Dubai, Brazil, South Africa• 1996 launched the Emerald Fulltext database• 2005 launch of Emerald Management Xtra• 2007 launch of Emerald Backfiles• 2008 Series and Books acquisition from Elsevier
Regional development activitiesRecent initiatives: • 2009 launch of Journal of Indian Business Research (IIM Bangalore), and acquisition of Journal of Advances in Management Research (IIT Delhi) • 2010 launch of African Journal of Economic and Management Studies • 2011 launch of Journal of Accounting in Emerging Economies and Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies • Launched 4thApril 2011 Emerald Emerging Markets Case Studies collection
Emerald’s publishing philosophy• Emerald believe that good management can – must – make a better world• Emerald believe in inclusivity, internationality, innovation and independence• Supportive of scholarly research• Committed to improving author, reader and customer experience• ‘Research you can use’
What do we mean by research you canuse? Research that has an impact
The Emerald Portfolio28 subject areas including Sociology, HR Management, Marketing, Accounting & Finance, Built Environment, Economics, Health Care, Engineering, Education, Politics, Linguistics, Engineering, Tourism & Hospitality, Business & Management, Library & Information Studies200+ journals, 240+ book series, 300 stand-alone textsElectronic databases: Emerald Management eJournals and Emerald Management FirstOver 3,000 university libraries worldwide including 97 of the FT top 100 business schoolsOver 21 million Emerald articles were downloaded in 2010 – more than 50,000 a day!Potential readership of 15 million Full list of Emerald titles: http://emeraldinsight.com/journals http://books.emeraldinsight.com
HEALTH & SOCIAL CARE COLLECTION• Delivers evidence-based research to teaching professionals, students & researchers• 21 journals focused on social care & allied fields• Over 5,000 articles bridging the gap between research and practice• Latest health and social care research, policy and practice• Online access to both current and back issues
Across the following faculties :Anthropology PsychologyBehavioural Sciences Rehabilitation & TherapyEducation Social SciencesHealth Sciences Social WorkLaw SociologyProtective Services Welfare ServicesPublic Health
EMERALD GROUP PUBLISHING"All of the world’s top 100 business schools (listed by the Financial Times Global MBA Rankings 2011 – FT 100) have Emerald authors.“And"97 of the top 100 business schools (listed by the Financial Times Global MBA Rankings 2011 – FT 100) are Emerald customers."
Singapore and EmeraldSingapore universities work closely with Emerald:• Editors• EAB• Authors• Reviewerson publications, forums, conferences and awards
Nanyang Technological UniversityAccess to:• EM Plus (collection of 229 journals)• Engineering• Emerald Management First 12• Computer Abstracts• Computer & Communication Security• International Civil engineering Abstracts
Nanyang Technological UniversityMost popular journals for 2011Journal of Knowledge ManagementJournal of Consumer MarketingEuropean Journal of MarketingManagement DecisionInternational Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management
Highest Downloads for subject areas 2011• Marketing• Library & Information Studies• Information & Knowledge Management• Human Resource Management• Operations & Logistics Management• Accounting & Finance
CHANGE in USAGE compared to Last Year• Competitiveness Review :An International Business Journal > 4 timesChinese Management StudiesForesightJournal of Risk Finance
Part 1: Journal publishing
Key differences between books and journals Journals BooksFrequency Regular IrregularFormat Predominantly electronic Predominantly printLength 1 article = approx 3-6,000 words 1 chapter = approx 5-10,000Size Tends to be around 6 articles Usually 10-12 chaptersReview Typically double-blind MixedProcess peer-reviewedRoute to Predominantly subscriptions Libraries and individualsMarket from academic libraries
Editorial supply chain and journalmanagement structure: journals Publisher/ Author Editor Managing Production Users EditorQuality research EAB and reviewers The link between the QA – sub-editing Access viapapers publishing company and proof reading library Solicits new and editor papers Convert to SGML Hard copy Research review Handles Helps editors succeed in their role for online databases Database process and build a first class journal Print production Third party Promotes journal Overall responsibility to peers Despatch for journal Attends Promotion and Added value from conferences marketing publisher Develops new Attends conferences areas of coverage Handles production issues
Being published means…• Your paper is permanent – published material enters a permanent and accessible knowledge archive – the ‘body of knowledge’• Your paper is improved – through the interventions of editors, reviewers, sub-editors and proof-readers• Your paper is actively promoted – it becomes available to a far greater audience• Your writing is trustworthy – material which has been published carries a QA stamp. Someone apart from the author thinks it’s good
Ideas: where to start• Are you working on a Doctoral or Master’s thesis?• Have you completed a project which concluded successfully?• Are you wrestling with a problem with no clear solution?• Do you have an opinion or observation on a subject?• Have you given a presentation or conference paper?If so, you have the basis for a publishable paper
Co-authorship as a possibility• With supervisor, across departments, someone from a different institution• Demonstrates the authority and rigour of the research• Especially useful for cross-disciplinary research• Ensure the manuscript is checked and edited so that it reads as one voice• Exploit your individual strengths• Agree and clarify order of appearance of authors and the person taking on the role of corresponding author
What journal should you submit to?Choosing a journal to publish in is an investment decision. A good choice can enhance the impact of your work and your reputationThomson Reuters ISI is the most well known ranking, but others exist:• Citations are a good, but not complete, guide to quality• Usage is a good measure of utility• Other factors to consider are relevant readership, recent articles, most communicative, societies and internationality, likelihood of acceptance, circulation, time from submission to publication• Be political (e.g. national vs international) and strategic (e.g. five articles in ‘low ranked’ journals vs one in ‘top ranked’ journal)
QUESTION ? What rankings, lists and other resources do you use for your research in NTU?
RANKINGS• ISI,• Scopus,• Google Scholar,• ABS,• ERA
THOMSON REUTERS (ISI)BackgroundThomson Reuters, formerly known as Thomson Scientific, (andformerly known as Thomson ISI!), has provided access toacademic research information for over 50 years following thework of its founder Dr Eugene GarfieldISI is by far the most respected ranking for academic journalsin the world, and is used for key decisions such as whether anauthor will publish with a journal, and whether a library willsubscribe to it.More information at http://scientific.thomsonreuters.com/
THOMSON REUTERS (ISI)What is an Impact Factor (IF)?Journals are ranked in the JCR depending on how many times the articles included in that journal are cited in other ISI- ranked journals. The ranking is published every June and corresponds to the previous year’s data.ISI uses a calculation of citation data over a three year period to produce an Impact Factor for a given year.For example, the Impact Factor for Supply Chain Management (our highest ranked journal) is 2.341 and relates to 2009The average Impact Factor for Emerald journals in 2009 has increased to just over 0.700
THOMSON REUTERS (ISI)How are Impact Factor calculations made?ISI uses the following equation to work out theimpact factor of a particular journal:A= 2010 cites to articles published in 2008-2009B= number of articles published in 2008-2009A/B = 2010 impact factor for the journal
THOMSON REUTERS (ISI)Confused? Here’s an example!Using the Journal of Newcastle Business School Genius asan example, there were 20 citations in 2010 in other ISIjournals from its 2008-2009 issues (A). In this two-yearperiod there were 60 articles published (B), which meantthat the impact factor for Journal of Newcastle BusinessSchool Genius in 2010 was 20/60 = 0.333A= 2010 cites (20)B= articles published (60)A/B = 2010 impact factor (0.333)
Apart from ISI………. While ISI may have most attention in Europe, there are many other rankings that provide useful – and potentially more relevant – information…
RECENT DEVELOPMENTSThe world is changing…• ABS List: Updated every two years, increasing influence in UK• Spain: Moved to use ISI in assessment; BUT some universities using Scopus• Sweden: Also using ISI in assessment• Australia: New ERA in 2012 – Role of Government and Associations?• ISI: Series and books index in 2011
ScopusScopus impact• Created in 2005 by Elsevier• Now includes over 18,000 titles• Winning government contracts against ISI• Good site navigation; institution-level data
GoogleScholar‘Free and easy’• Covers EVERYTHING• Free and easy to use• Issues with data integrity• Still in ‘beta’ phase• Easy to get lists of citations, but not to sort
ERA Excellence in Research AustraliaEligibility criteria :Be a periodicalHave been published between 1st Jan. 2005 to 31st Dec. 2010Publish original peer reviewed researchHave one or more ISSN
Follow Journal Guidelines Be ‘savvy’… ie. wise, smart, knowing Don’t give an Editor a good reason to put your article in the wrong pile!
Target! “Many papers are rejected simply because they don’t fulfil journal requirements. They don’t even go into the review process.”• Identify a few possible target journals/series but be realistic• Follow the Author Guidelines – scope, type of paper, word length, references style, etc• Find where to send your paper (editor, regional editor, subject area editor). Check a copy of the journal/series or the publisher’s web site• Read at least one issue of the publication – visit your library for access• Include a cover letter – opportunity to speak directly to the editor, convince them of the importance of your manuscript to the journal
Example of author guidelines Every journal has detailed notes and guidelines
Not all Editors are scary...• Send an outline or abstract and ask if this looks suitable and interesting (or how it could be made so)• If it’s not suitable for their journal, can they suggest another journal for you to consider?• Confirm how an editor would like a submission, e.g. e-mail; hard copy or online submission system
Emerald has introduced structured abstracts• A structured abstract – in 250 words or less (no more than 100 in any one section)• Purpose – Reasons/aims of paper• Design – Methodology/’how it was done’/scope of study• Findings – Discussion/results• Research limitations/Implications (if applicable) – Exclusions/next steps• Practical implications (if applicable) – Applications to practice/’So what?’• [NEW] Social implications (if applicable) – Impact on society/policy• Originality/value – Who would benefit from this and what is new about it? www.emeraldinsight.com/structuredabstracts
Example of a good abstractJ J Turner and K Wilson (2006) ‘Grocery loyalty: Tesco Clubcard and its impact on loyalty’,British Food Journal, vol. 108 (11), pp. 958-964Purpose – The aim of the research is to identify the impact of the Tesco Clubcard on customer loyalty. The secondary aim isto contrast customer perceptions of the Clubcard, staff and “feeling valued” to identify which factor has the greater impact oncustomer loyalty to store.Design/methodology/approach – Quantitative analysis was used based on 60 questionnaires conducted with randomlyselected customers in Tesco Metro Dundee in 2005. Tesco were not involved in the research other than to provide approval ata store level for the research to take place outside their premises.Findings – A positive moderate relationship was found r=0.388, p=0.01 between the owning of a Clubcard and loyalty tostore. It was also found that there was a positive moderate relationship between the Clubcard returns and customer loyalty,with r=0.334, p=0.01. The research, however, found no relationship between loyalty and customers feeling more valued byTesco, nor did the research reveal a significant relationship between Tesco staff and customer loyalty.Research limitations/implications – The research is restricted in so far as it only considers Tesco Clubcard in the groceryretail sector and as it is an exploratory study the research is limited in so far as the number of participants is only 60. A furtherlimitation surrounds the issue of generalisability as only one Tesco retail outlet in Dundee was used. Further research needsto include other Tesco formats and contrast with grocery retailers who do not use loyalty cards.Practical implications – It is suggested that Tesco consumers are influenced by having a loyalty card in so far as itcontributes to making them loyal. However, other factors need to compliment such a card, with consumers seeing the Tesco“provision” as inter-related.Originality/value – The paper is useful to both practitioners and academics in the fields of relationship marketing and loyalty.The research provides some initial insight into consumer perspectives in the value of loyalty cards.Keywords: Customer loyalty, Loyalty schemes, Supermarkets
What makes a good paper?HINT: Editors and reviewers look for …• Originality – what’s new about subject, treatment or results?• Relevance to and extension of existing knowledge• Research methodology – are conclusions valid and objective?• Clarity, structure and quality of writing – does it communicate well?• Sound, logical progression of argument• Theoretical and practical implications (the ‘so what?’ factors!)• Recency and relevance of references• Internationality/Global focus• Adherence to the editorial scope and objectives of the journal• A good title, keywords and a well written abstract
Essentials of a research paper• Purpose of the paper/Introduction• Research methodology used – the ‘whys and hows’• Literature review – critical examination of what has gone before• Argument and findings• Conclusion should – restate the purpose, encapsulate the main findings and include the most interesting bits• References should be: • complete • consistent with the style used in the journal • included in the list (anything not cited can be listed as further reading)
How to increase electronicdissemination• Use a short descriptive title containing main keyword – don’t mislead• Write a clear and descriptive abstract containing the main keywords and following any instructions as to content and length• Provide relevant and known keywords – not obscure new jargon• Make your references complete and correct – vital for reference linking and citation indices• All of this will make your paper more discoverable which means more dissemination and possibly more citation
Peer Review Before you submit your article, do your own peer review• Let someone else see it – show a draft to friends or colleagues and ask for their comments, advice and honest criticism• We are always too close to our own work to see its failings• Always proof-check thoroughly – no incorrect spellings, no incomplete references. Spell checkers are not fool- proof Spot the error: “A knew research methodology introduced in 2007…”
Timetable from submission to initial feedback to authors• The Editor(s) do an initial read to determine if the subject matter and research approach is appropriate for the journal (approx. 1-2 weeks)• The Editor(s) identify and contact two reviewers (approx. 1 week)• Reviewers usually have 6-8 weeks to complete their reviews• The Editor(s) assess the reviewers comments and recommendations and make a decision (approx. 2 weeks)• Expected time from submission to review feedback: 3-4 months
Once you have submitted your articleA request for revision is good news!• You are now in the publishing cycle. Nearly every published paper is revised at least once• Don’t panic – ask for an extension if you know you can’t meet the deadline• Even if the comments are sharp or discouraging, they’re not personalIf your paper is rejected:• Don’t give up! At least 50% of papers in business and management don’t get published. Everybody has been rejected at least once• Ask why, and listen carefully! Most editors will give detailed comments about a rejected paper. Take a deep breath, and listen to what is being said• Try again! Try to improve the paper, and re-submit elsewhere. Do your homework and target your paper as closely as possible• Keep trying!
How to revise your paper• Acknowledge the editor and set a revision deadline• Clarify understanding if in doubt – ‘This is what I understand the comments to mean…’• Consult with colleagues or co-authors and tend to the points as requested• Meet the revision deadline• Attach a covering letter which identifies, point by point, how revision requests have been met (or if not, why not)
CASE STUDY:Analysis of 133 rejected articles1. Motivation/Background (not interesting/relevant to Main Section Articles--First-Round Rejections readers, etc) (Aggregate Analysis)2. Design Issues (flawed/poorly 100 Frequency (Absolute) planned research design)3. Statistical Issues 80 (inappropriate statistical 60 procedures, etc) 404. Results/Implications/Conclus 20 ions (insufficient/trivial 0 contributions, etc) 1 2 3 4 55. Manuscript Preparation Reasons for Rejection Issues (poor organization/poor writing) (Data & graphs courtesy of Jim Rebele, Editor-in-Chief of Journal of Accounting Education)
Process of acceptance for a journal –just one example
Plagiarism and referencing• Plagiarism (from the Latin plagium meaning ‘a kidnapping’) is the act of taking someone else’s work and passing it off as your own (false attribution). It is considered fraud!• Hard to detect with peer review but there are new tools to help us• Emerald’s entire portfolio is included in iThenticate web-based software from iParadigms http://www.ithenticate.com/• For more general information visit http://www.plagiarism.org/
Copyright• As the author, you need to ensure that you get permission to use content you have not created before submitting your manuscript otherwise this may delay your paper being published• Supply written confirmation from the copyright holder when submitting your manuscript• If permission cannot be cleared, that content cannot be republished• More information including a permissions checklist and a permissions request form is available at: http://www.emeraldinsight.com/authors/writing/best_practice_guide.htm http://www.emeraldinsight.com/authors/writing/originality.htm
How to promote your work Why? • Influence policy • Raise your profile • Attract collaborators and funding • New opportunities e.g. in consulting, the media How? • Use your network e.g. through listservs, press releases or simply link to the article in your email signature • Contact the authors in your reference list • Hone your media skills and ‘brand image’ • Ask the publisher to provide you with leaflets • Present at a conference based on your paper • Tell your librarian and press office
Summary• Is your research useful?• Is your research targeted?• Have you followed the author guidelines?• Do you have a good title and abstract?• Revise based on feedback• Consult the submission check list• Persevere!•
Summary• Know who your friends are - all the people in the publishing supply chain who will help you• Be ‘savvy’ – do your research!• Learn from others’ mistakes – do exactly what is required by the journal• Don’t be afraid to market yourself and your research• Think about all areas of ‘impact’ – citations, usage, practice, PR, teaching, society, environment
Emerald supporting authors• Dedicated editorial and author relations support staff• Quality-assured copy-editing and production service• Emerald Literati Network with more than 100,000 members• Committed to protecting our authors’ work from copyright infringementsJournals EarlyCite• Online Scholar One Manuscript Central submission process• Complimentary journal issue and five reprints upon publicationOnline resources For Researchers For Authors • www.emeraldinsight.com/research • For Authors www.emeraldinsight.com/authors • How to… guides • How to… guides • Outstanding Doctoral Research Awards • Meet the Editor interviews and Editor news • Research Fund Awards • Editing service • Emerald Research Connections • Annual Awards for Excellence • Calls for Papers and news of publishing opportunities
Other useful resources• www.isiwebofknowledge.com (ISI ranking lists and impact factors)• www.harzing.com (Anne-Wil Harzings site about academic publishing and the assessment of research and journal quality, as well as software to conduct citation analysis)• www.scopus.com (abstract and citation database of research literature and quality web sources)• www.cabells.com (addresses, phone, e-mail and websites for a large number of journals as well as information on publication guidelines and review information)• www.phrasebank.manchester.ac.uk (a general resource for academic writers, designed primarily with international students whose first language is not English in mind) What do you use?
Beyond authorshipOther important publishing work that you might wish to get involved inincludes:• Book reviewing• Refereeing/peer review• Editorial advisory board membership• Contributing editorship• Regional editorship• Editorship• Interested in proposing a book/series or a journal?Contact us at email@example.comFor details of opportunities in this area please do get intouch with us!
Talk to us, use us!• Tell us how we can help you• Give us feedback online• Use our “How To...” guidesFor any answers you didn’t get today (or weretoo shy to ask) …BSng@emeraldinsight.com Write for us!