Sustainable Development in Bogota and Paris


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Sustainable Development in Bogota and Paris

  1. 1. Sustainable development in Bogotá and Paris IE APPLICATION Natalia Orjuela Mahecha PHOTOGRAPHY: Fôret de Fontainebleau(author's picture)
  2. 2. Do you think that the lifestyle of the inhabitants of your town or city reflects behavior that is in line with the concept of sustainable development? In your opinion, what should be improved?
  3. 3. Definition of sustainable development “A way of human development consisting on meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”.
  4. 4. The three pillars of sustainable development Balanced economic growth Social well-being Ensuring the social prosperity of people Building and developing economies without straining the resources Environmental protection Maintaining the quality of the natural resources and, where possible, reversing its degradation
  5. 5. A tale of two cities Paris, France • Where I spent the last six years • Where I started my professional career • Where I became a French citizen Bogotá, Colombia • Where I was born • Where I grew up and studied • Where my cultural roots are This presentation illustrates how the lifestyle of these two cities contributes to the concept sustainable development and proposes improvement actions
  6. 6. Contents 1. Bogotá 2. Paris 3. Proposed improvement actions 4. Key takeaways
  7. 7. 1. Bogotá PHOTOGRAPHY: Bogotá (author’s picture)
  8. 8. Bogotá Founded on 1538 Population: 7.7 million Density: 4,800/km2 GDP per capita: US$ 10,700 SOURCE: PHOTOGRAPHY: La Candelaria (author’s picture)
  9. 9. Balanced economic growth  PHOTOGRAPHY: Transmilenio in Bogotá ( After a period of economic booming, unleashed growth and limited urban planning have resulted in a transport system not meeting the mobility needs of the city.
  10. 10. Bogotá has embraced the concept of sustainable tourism1. Constant growth in the number of visitors… Number of foreign tourists in Bogotá 1,000,000 Balanced economic growth … handled through sustainable tourism initiatives Standards and certifications Example: Sustainable tourism certification 900,000 Informative activities Example: “X Encuentro turismo sostenible” 800,000 700,000 600,000 500,000 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012  Sustainable Infrastructure Example: El Dorado green buildings for business purposes 1 The “sustainable tourism” aims to minimize the impact on the environment and the local culture and to create wealth and employments for local population SOURCE: Observatorio Turístico de Bogotá;;;
  11. 11. Environmental protection  The Bogotá river is heavily polluted, since it receives 65% waste water from the capital. PHOTOGRAPHY: River Bogotá waste removal (
  12. 12. Environmental protection  People in Bogotá is not used to waste recycling. To compensate this behavior, the city has leveraged a “natural” system of waste pickers. SOURCE: PHOTOGRAPHY: Waste pickers (http://;
  13. 13. Despite huge improvements during the last 10 years, Bogotá can still improve in terms of security. Number of murders per 100,000 people Significant urban insecurity 16 12 8 4 0 Bogotá New York Bogota’s ten-year report on citizen’s culture Limited citizen sensitivity about violence Poor political contributions Bogota’s major Gustavo Petro Urrengo “*…+ creo que ahí hay una campaña de cultura ciudadana que debemos acometer… no usar el celular en la calle” “*…+ I think we should undertake a citizen culture campaign… do not using mobile phones in the street” SOURCE:;; Social prosperity 
  14. 14. The city offers alternatives to improve social wellbeing, such as Sunday’s “ciclovía”. PHOTOGRAPHY: Bogota’s Sunday “ciclovía” (http:/ Social prosperity 
  15. 15. 2. Paris PHOTOGRAPHY: Tour Eiffel (author’s picture)
  16. 16. Paris (region) Founded on 1538 Population: 11.9 million Density: 990/km2 GDP per capita: €51,118 SOURCE: INSEE PHOTOGRAPHY: The Seine (author’s picture)
  17. 17. Balanced economic growth  Equitable commerce is booming in Paris, reducing transport costs and helping local producers. PHOTOGRAPHY: Agricultural Market in Courbevoie (author's picture)
  18. 18. Balanced economic growth  Downtown Paris housing rental price is twice as expensive as suburbs’ rental price. As a result, those with less resources are forced to live far from Paris, facing externalities such as travel time and insecurity. PHOTOGRAPHY: Paris family buildings (author’s picture)
  19. 19. Environmental protection  Parisians are aware of the need of recycling. For instance, the amount of recycled materials increased by 3.5% between 2010 and 2011. SOURCE: “Rapport 2011 gestion des déchets à Paris” (”) PHOTOGRAPHY: Packed plastic waste (; Garbage truck (
  20. 20. Environmental protection Citizens have embraced eco-friendly transports like Velib, Autolib and subway. Despite that, the car is still the dominant means of transport, a source of traffic and pollution. PHOTOGRAPHY: Traffic jam (Fernando Mayor); Autolib & Velib (author’s picture) 
  21. 21. Social prosperity  “Green lungs” like Bois de Boulogne offer space for sports and entertainment. PHOTOGRAPHY: Bois de Boulogne (author’s picture)
  22. 22. Social prosperity  Smoking represents €10 million tax income for the French state. However, cigarettes are not only dangerous for health but also for the shape of the city. Each year, 30 billions cigarette butts are thrown on the street, taking 12 years to decompose. SOURCE:; PHOTOGRAPHY: Smoking woman (; Cigarette butts
  23. 23. 3. Proposed improvement actions PHOTOGRAPHY:
  24. 24. Some ideas to keep on improving Balanced economic growth Social well-being Environmental protection  Foster sustainable and equitable commerce by sharing and exchanging products, instead of throwing and buying.  Increase public transportation in line with population increases and convince people to use it.  Allow for telecommuting for people living far from their job.  Create a refill system for shampoo plastic bottles, detergents, etc.  Install led lamps for public lighting.  Educate further on good citizenship: Respect others, throw your waste in the garbage, help handicapped people, maintain your temper in public spaces, etc.  Encourage sustainable reward programs granting people with “points” every time there is positive act contributing to sustainable development (e.g., recycling, buying green products).
  25. 25. Key takeaways 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Regardless of the economic development degree of a city, there are always things to improve. Paris is much more “developed” than Bogotá, but still shows significant sustainability gaps. In fact each one has a different way to tackle sustainability. Bogotá is still on the way to become sustainable. New ideas are under development, but require a change of culture and also a lot of investment. Paris has the resources to fight sustainability issues. However, this is not sufficient: Political intent and citizenship action is required to improve. Lifestyle of the inhabitants of a city depends on public services, infrastructure and government urban management. Sometimes, there are good initiatives in the pipeline. Still, poor execution often hinders from success. For instance, “Día sin Carro” and “Pico y Placa” in Bogotá intended respectively to improve air quality and traffic. “Día sin Carro” has proven to ineffective due to the number of buses, which consume low quality diesel. “Pico y Placa” has showed an increase in the number of cars, since public transport is not yet developed.
  26. 26. Thank you! PHOTOGRAPHY: Goats in Tuileries Gardens munching and naturally mowing grass (