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NTLT 2013 - Monique Dalziel - VARK Teaching and Learning Styles

NTLT 2013 - Monique Dalziel - VARK Teaching and Learning Styles



VARK Teaching and Learning Styles

VARK Teaching and Learning Styles



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  • These two games were developed ‘to teach pharmacotherapeutics in an Advance Pharmacy Practice Experience’ (Barcley, Jeffres, Bhakta, 2011, p.1) <br /> The disadvantage of games is in the time it takes to develop and test the games. <br /> The advantage of them is that they are a great tool for revision <br /> Students enjoy using them <br /> They can be played over and over again <br /> They incorporated a range of learning preferences <br />
  • Techniques by researchers Bandler, Grinder, and Dilts & Zaner-Bloser, formed the foundation for neuro-linguistic programming <br />
  • Abstract sequential <br /> briefs texts <br /> References publications <br /> <br /> <br /> Concrete random <br /> Artifacts exploring <br /> Hands on art materials <br /> Games simulation <br /> investgation <br /> <br /> <br /> Concrete sequential <br /> Flow charts computer progs <br /> Workbooks overheads <br /> Guides charts <br /> Outlines bulleting boards <br /> Flip charts diagrams <br /> maps <br /> <br /> <br /> Abstract random <br /> Non verbals discussion <br /> Multimedia music <br /> Art posters <br />

NTLT 2013 - Monique Dalziel - VARK Teaching and Learning Styles NTLT 2013 - Monique Dalziel - VARK Teaching and Learning Styles Presentation Transcript

  • VARK Teaching and Learning Styles Author: Neil D Fleming Researched by : Monique Dalziel Marion Heinz
  • The purpose  To highlight the importance of a range of teaching methods to cater for the learning styles of adult students  To recommend some practical activities to demonstrate a variety of teaching and learning methods
  • VARK modes The four learning preferences of VARK:  Visual  Aural  Read/Write  Kinaesthetic
  • VARK shows a learning preference not a learning strength  Many students have two or more learning preferences  Multi modal students (more than 2 preferences) often need to use two methods to learn effectively  Encouraging students with the same learning preference to work together is useful as they are often on the same wavelength and communicate together more effectively
  • Background  Developed by Neil Fleming, at Lincoln University, NZ, in 1987  VARK package designed to be ‘advisory rather than diagnostic and predictive’.  Widely used around the western world  Version 2.0 launched 1998 in Missouri, USA with Dr Charles Bonwell.  Current version 7.1
  • Adult learners  Need to have a purpose for learning (a goal)  Are highly motivated (at least initially)  Expect to put their learning into practice  Have to multi task because of other commitments  Have life experience to bring to their learning (Ihejirika, 2013, p.312)
  • Learning Preferences are evolving  First year learners often have an Aural preference (especially females) and are more likely to be uni-modal  Older students are more likely to remain uni- modal  First year males have a preference for Kinaesthetic learning  Final year students are usually bi-modal or multimodal  Aural preference is less prevalent in later years of study (Jindal, Kharb & Samanta, 2013, p.34 Barclay, Jeffres & Bhakta, 2011, Article 33 James, D’Amore & Thomas, 2011, p. 420)
  • Metropolitan & Rural Differences Australia study compared first year nursing students from rural and metropolitan cohorts: Findings:  Rural students had a higher preference for Visual & Kinaesthetic than metropolitan students  Rural group had a higher single preference than metropolitan group NB:  Second language students exhibited lower scores in Visual & Aural categories (James, D’Amore & Thomas, 2011)
  • Problem based learning Advantages of PB learning  Fosters team building  Communication  Critical thinking skills  Active learning method supports principles of adult learning e.g. promotes independent self- directed enquiry Disadvantages of PB learning  Tutor needs to ‘let go’ and allow student-centred learning  Takes time to develop good case scenarios  Difficulties with groups working together  Students may feel there is not enough tutor input Chunta & Katrancha, 2010, p.560
  • Linking VARK to problem based learning 4 stages of PB learning 1. Problem analysis 2. Brainstorming 3. Self-directed learning 4. Solution testing
  • Based on VARK preferences, problem-based learning is good for all learners:  Kinaesthetic (practical)  Students can concentrate on real life scenario  Learn by recall the occasion  What happened  How was it managed  What was the outcome  What was the method used  How does it link to the theory  Visual  Learners can visualize the situation  Link it to what they visually remember from reading  Picture the situation  Recall what was said
  • PB links to Learning Preferences Aural:  Students can concentrate on real life scenario (listening & simulation)  Recall the interactions  Role play the situation  Discuss the implications  Make decisions based on verbal discussion Read Write:  Make notes of the proceedings (record keeping) linked to practice and theory  Provide texts to back up decisions  Write up or draft outcomes for formal recording
  • Using educational games to reinforce learning  Two card games  Cardiology Go Fish  Infectious Disease Gin Rummy  Used as a teaching strategy for health professionals in pharmacy practice  VARK learning preferences were incorporated in the games  ‘Nursopardy’ – based on the game of ‘Jeopardy’  Used in Fundamentals of Nursing  To be used to as a revision tool  Students enjoyed the innovative approach to learning  Recommended as revision in first semester (Barcley, Jeffres, Bhakta, 2011) • (Boctor, 2013)
  • VARK and links to other Learning Methods
  • VARK and NLP ‘We see, we hear, we feel, we taste and we smell. In addition,… we have a language system.’ (Grinder & Bandler, cited in Fleming 2001, p.63) The three principal forms of communication identified in NLP were : Visual, auditory and kinesthetic (Rose, 1985, cited in Fleming 2001, p.63) - the learners’ ‘lead channel’ for accessing information and organizing their experience (Grinder & Bander, cited in Fleming, 2001, p.64-65)
  • VARK and Kolb VARK Read Write: Briefs, references, texts, publications Kinaesthetic: Hands on, games, exploring, arts, simulations Visual: Flowcharts, workbooks, outlines, maps, diagrams Aural: Discussion, music Mapping VARK to Kolb Abstract sequential Concrete random Concrete sequential Abstract random Four types of learners: Activists – like new experiences, problem solving etc Reflectors – cautious and thoughtful, consider all angles Theorists – link observations to logical models Pragmatists – practical, apply new ideas and don’t reflect too much. Honey & Mumford’s modification Of Kolb’s learning style Inventory
  • Conclusion  The basis of VARK lies in research on perception and people’s preferences  These preferences can change as learners progress in their studies  Learners can have more than one learning preference  Providing a range of preferences will give learners greater choice on how they take in information  Learning preferences are affected by age, locality, gender and ethnicity  Problem-based learning is recommended as it covers all learning preferences  Educational games for revision cater well to different learning styles
  • Reference List Barclay, S. M., PharmD., Jeffres, M. N., PharmD., & Bhakta, R., PharmD. (2011). Educational card games to teach pharmacotherapeutics in an advanced pharmacy practice experience. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 75(2), 1-33. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/883153475?accountid=40261 Boctor, L. (2013). Active-learning strategies: The use of a game to reinforce learning in nursing education. A case study. Nurse Education in Practice, 13(2), 96-100. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nepr.2012.07.010 Chunta, Kristy S, PhD, RN,A.C.N.S.-B.C., C.M.C., & Katrancha, Elizabeth D, MS,R.N., C.S.N. (2010). Using problem-based learning in staff development: Strategies for teaching registered nurses and new graduate nurses. The Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing, 41(12), 557-564. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/00220124-20100701-06 D'Agustino, S. (2012). Toward a course conversion model for distance learning: A review of best practices. Journal of International Education in Business, 5(2), 145-162. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/18363261211281753 Fleming, N.D. (2001). Teaching and learning styles: VARK strategies. Christchurch, N.Z.: Author Ihejirika, J. C. (2013). Teaching strategies for adult learners: Implications of learning characteristics for effective teaching-learning transaction. Academic Research International, 4(2), 310-315. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1353301094?accountid=40261 James, S., D’Amore, A., & Thomas, T. (2011). Learning preferences of first year nursing and midwifery students: Utilising VARK. Nurse Education Today 31, 417-423. Jindal, M., Kharb, P., & Samanta, P. P. (2013). Comparative analysis of instructional learning preferences of medical students of first and seventh semester. International Journal of Physiology, 1(1), 32-36. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1399519158?accountid=40261