The common ruminant in vietnamPresentation Transcript
THE COMMON RUMINANT
LIVESTOCK IN VIETNAM
Present by NGUYEN THI HONG TUOI
There are 8 agro-ecological
About 74% of the population
lives in rural areas and 65%
depend on agriculture for their
In Viet Nam ruminant
production is based on small
households; there are few
large commercial units.
Ruminant production is
classified into dairy cattle, beef
cattle, buffaloes and small
Water buffalo used to consider the most valuable possession of poor
farmers: “the beginning of inheritance”, treated as a member of the
family: "The husband ploughs, the wife sows, water buffalo draws
the rake“ and are friends of the children.
Swamp buffalo rearing is a backyard activity with 99% in the hands
of smallholders, for draught power since agricultural mechanization
is developed the role of buffaloes is neglected. Even if soil
preparation could be mechanized, the buffalo remains important
for rural transport and meat. The total number of buffaloes kept 2.6
million head (58% in the North).
Belonging to swamp buffalos,
Vietnamese ones are reared in
different ecological areas for
various purposes (draught
power, meat and reproduction).
With 2 groups “Ngo buffalo” and
The first farrow is 4-5 years of
age, unclear come in-heat
signs, calving interval is 1,5-2
Milk production (600-700kg a
period lactation), high milk fat
content (9-12%), low growth
rate, low carcass ratio (43-48%).
Murrah buffaloMurrah buffalo
Derived from India and Pakistan
A mature male buffalo weighs 700-750kg;
the calf weighs at 30kg; shows in heat
symptom at 30 months old. Milk
productivity is 2500-2800kg/lactation of
9-10 months. Milk fat contents is 7-9%.
Carcass ratio is 48%.
• Cattle were principally draught animals,
which were only culled and used as meat
animals at the end of their useful working
• The beef cattle sector is the third largest
sector in the livestock industry (5.1
million head in 2011).
• Most of meat consumed in supermarket,
restaurants have imported fresh beef
• The beef products available on the
market are sourced from Cambodia, Laos
Vietnam's Cattle Population by Region in 2009
Region '000 Head %
Red River delta 603 11.4
Northern midlands and mountains 924 16.9
North central and central coast area2,144 40.8
Central highlands 689 11.7
South East 408 7.8
Mekong River delta 665 11.4
Total 5,436 100.0
Source: General Statistics Office of Vietnam
Structure of the beef
cattle farming sector
O Extensive calf-cow grazing systems
O Intensive calf-cow systems
O Cattle fattening systems
The indigenous cattle are small inThe indigenous cattle are small in
size, have low performance in meatsize, have low performance in meat
and milk production, but they canand milk production, but they can
adapt well with harsh conditions,adapt well with harsh conditions,
and have good reproductionand have good reproduction
The fertility is fairly good, matingThe fertility is fairly good, mating
period starts at 15-18 months old,period starts at 15-18 months old,
early first farrowing age is at 30-32early first farrowing age is at 30-32
months, quite short reproductivemonths, quite short reproductive
interval about 13-15 month/calving.interval about 13-15 month/calving.
Low milk production is about 300-Low milk production is about 300-
400kg/lactation, high milk fat400kg/lactation, high milk fat
content (5,5%)content (5,5%)
Low growth rate, results in lowLow growth rate, results in low
carcass ratio (42-45%).carcass ratio (42-45%).
Vietnamese cattle breedsVietnamese cattle breeds
Beef cattle breeds
Status of the sector
Dairy farming was first introduced to Vietnam at the beginning
of the 20th
century. However, it was not until 1990 that dairy
farming has become a real goods production.
With 120,000 out of 174,000 cows raised in 19,000 households
nationwide in 2013, producing 420,000 tons of milk served 30%
of the domestic market, 70% of domestic demand for milk had
to be met with imports primarily made up of sterilized,
Vietnam remains one of the top 20 milk-importing countries,
importing around US$841 million of milk in 2012.
The Regional Location of the Dairy Herd Across Vietnam
Region % of Dairy Herd
North East 5
North West 7
Red River Delta 12
North Central Coast 4
South Central Coast 4
Central Highlands 3
South East 58
Mekong Delta 7
Structure of the dairy farming
Ownership of 2–15 animals and a small area with crops
or pasture, are availability of suitable animals, feed
resources and improved feeding systems, improved
breeding, reproduction and animal health care,
management of animal manure, and organized
marketing and marketing outlets.
There are a very small number of larger commercial
dairy farms. Vinamilk and TH Milk operate larger sized
dairy farms. Vinamilk continues to develop its supply
capabilities and its senior management reported
importing more than 2,000 dairy cattle in 2010.
TH Milk, which is Vietnamese privately owned, is
investing in development of: a very large dairy farming
operation. It has plans to supply 50% of Vietnam's milk
Dairy cattle breeds
O 15% pure bred Holstein Friesian
O 1% Jersey cattle
O The rest of cross breeding between Holstein
Friesian dairy cattle, and Red Sindhi and local
Dairy Cattle Herd Structure by Dairy Cattle Gene Content in 2006 (%)
National Herd Northern Region Herd Southern Region Herd
Holstein Friesian 15 35 8
Jersey 1 2 -
F1 24 33 21
F2 25 17 28
F3 22 9 24
>F3 13 4 19
Total 100 100 100
% of national herd 100 17 65
The Goat sector is mainly privately owned and based on
extensive rearing with 72.7% in the North. They are also
found in coastal regions of Central Vietnam (21.3%). Only
6.3% are in South Vietnam.
Most goats are privately-owned by smallholders with an
average of 5–7 animals. In forests, mountainous and hilly
regions, many farms keep 100-200 goats. Goats are kept in
fields during the day, at night they are housed without
feed or water in the North, but in the South they are
penned or tethered under fruit trees. Dairy goats are kept
in pens with feed and water.
The goat and sheep sector
(1.3 million head in 2012)
The sheep population in Vietnam is small with an
increasing tendency. Sheep are mainly raised in the South
Central coast of Vietnam, namely the Phanrang sheep.
This breed adapts well to the dry and hot climate and low
feed quality of this region.
The goat and sheep sector
(1.3 million head in 2012)
In the South-eastern region, Green maize can solve the year-round green fodder
supply for cattle, and especially in the dry season.
In the North Central and South Central Coast, where fattening of one or a few cattle
is common, fresh grass, cane tops, maize stover, and rice straw are supplemented
with fresh Leucaena leucocephala leaves. Some farmers feed a concentrate mixture
at 0.5% of the animal’s body weight.
In rice growing areas, weeds constitute about half of the feed with rice straw and
other crop residues. Animals are stall fed and tethered in uncropped and idle land
during the growing period of the rice. Urea Treated Rice Straw (UTRS) is the
most suitable method of improving the quality of rice straw and increasing
crude protein concentration and rumen degradability.
Cassava tops and sugar cane can be ensiled by conventional methods, with or
without additives. Ensiling reduces cyanogen content markedly by HCN
volatilisation and to a lesser extent, the tannin content of the raw materials. A
supplement of cassava top silage, especially with a molasses additive, to a grass diet
of dairy heifers, increased the dry matter and digestible crude protein intake (Man
and Wiktorsson, 2001).
Animal health situation
• The prevalence of many animal diseases in Vietnam is influenced by nutrition stress,
climate, animal production system, breed, and pattern of animal transportation and
exchange. Animal diseases cause a tremendous economic loss in animal production in
• The imported exotic breeds of livestock with high productivity are normally more
susceptible to disease than indigenous animals. Many infectious diseases are found in
Vietnam caused by virus (FMD), bacteria (Pasteurellosis) and parasites (Faciolosis)
• The animal diseases, vaccines, drugs, and additives are controlled by the Animal
Health department, the six regional veterinary centers, and the veterinary sub-
department in each province. The veterinary network covers to community level.
• The majority of veterinary vaccines used in Vietnam are manufactured in the two
vaccines factories, which operate as self-financing Government Enterprises and are
under the control of the National Center of Veterinary drug Control-Animal Health