The common ruminant in vietnam
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The common ruminant in vietnam

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  • From North to South, Vietnam can be divided into 8 agro-ecological zones, based on topography soil pattern and climate…. Nevertheless, with 75% of total area is mountainous region , it is narrow from mountain to sea, the slope patent is high thus in the dry season many parts of the country are facing shortage in fresh water. (from Nov. to April) <br /> In Viet Nam, The average annual precipitation is considered high, from 1,700 to 2,000 mm, coupled with densely river systems, making Vietnam a country with rich water resources. SO about 74 per cent of the population lives in rural areas and 65 per cent depend on agriculture for their livelihood. <br /> In Viet Nam ruminant production is based on small households; there are few dairy cattle in large commercial units. About 90% of farm households keep three to five cattle, mainly for draught, which can be sold when they need cash. There is some 10% of semi-commercial ruminant production units with 50 to 100 head in the North East, North West and North Central Coast; specialized cattle fattening is a source of main or additional income where crop production is not remunerative. <br /> Ruminant production is classified into dairy cattle, beef cattle, buffaloes and small ruminants. <br />
  • In Vietnam, water buffalo used to consider the most valuable possession of poor farmers: “the beginning of inheritance” (Con trâu là đầu cơ nghiệp) . They are treated as a member of the family: &quot;The husband ploughs, the wife sows, water buffalo draws the rake“ (Chồng cày, vợ cấy, con trâu đi bừa) and are friends of the children. Children talk to their water buffalo, &quot;Bao giờ cây lúa còn bông. Thì còn ngọn cỏ ngoài đồng trâu ăn.&quot; (Vietnamese children are responsible for grazing water buffalo. They will feed them a lot of grass if they work laboriously for men.). Using for various purposes such as draught power, meat and reproduction. <br /> concentrated in the Northern mountain provinces of Vietnam with a proportion of 58%. <br /> Draught power is not as critical as formerly, and since agricultural mechanization is developed in some regions the role of buffaloes is sometimes neglected. Even if soil preparation could be mechanized, the buffalo remains important for rural transport and meat. Buffalo meat accounts for half of all beef. Despite this the buffalo herd remains static; numbers fell by 0.43% from 1995 to 2000 (General Statistics, 2000) and have remained the same from 2000 to 2004. <br />
  • Belonging to swamp buffalos, Vietnamese ones are reared in different ecological areas for various purposes such as draught power, meat and reproduction. <br /> The body size is rather big with relatively identical appearance in black color, and a white “V” shape in its neck and chest, approximately 1% of them are in white which have been known as “White buffalo” <br /> Buffalos are also classified into 2 groups due to the body size: “Ngo buffalo” with big size (the weight of mature 400-500kg) and “Gie buffalo” in small size (300-400kg). <br /> The fertility is low: the first farrow is late (4-5 years of age), unclear come in-heat signs (estrous), calving interval is seldom (1,5-2 years/farrow) <br /> Buffalos have low milk production (600-700kga period lactation), high milk fat content (9-12%), low growth rate, low carcass ratio (43-48%). <br />
  • The Murrah buffalo is a river buffalo derived from India and Pakistan which has big body size, solid black, thin skin, curved twist horn. A mature male buffalo weighs about 700-750kg with average shoulder height of 133cm; buffalo calf weighs at 30kg; female Murrah buffalo shows in heat symptom at 30 months old in average. Milk productivity is pretty high at 2500-2800kg/ lactation of 9-10 moths. Milk fat contents is 7-9% . Carcass ratio is 48%. <br /> (Vietnam has imported the Murrah buffalo breed from India in 1970s with the aim to develop dairy buffalo and making crossing with the local one. Pure-bred Murrah are maintained and crossed with the Vietnamese local buffalo. But after some decades, it seems that the dairy buffalo is not fitted to our farming system and hardly to be accepted by our farmers. The productive traits of Murrah buffalo seem to be poor in local condition. <br /> Otherwise, there is a failure in F1 for reproductive performance. It may be caused by the attribution of different chromosome numbers between the two breeds. <br /> There are only few recording programs in place for research purposes. Records collected include: live weights at maturity; dressing percentage; milk yield and fat percentage. There is no interest in selection for dairy traits on buffalo. ) <br />
  • Traditionally, cattle, like buffalo, were not reared for their meat. In the past, cattle in Vietnam were principally draught animals, which were only culled and used as meat animals at the end of their useful working lives. Today, the beef cattle sector is the third largest sector in the livestock industry, after pigs and poultry, and so is an important contribution to the rural economy. Vietnam&apos;s beef cattle herd stood at 5.1 million head in 2011, versus a higher 6.1 million head in 2009. <br /> Most of meat consumed in supermarket, restaurants imported fresh beef from Australia, <br /> Australian imports are very competitive in prices thanks to the large scale production, while the farming in Vietnam remains in small scale. It is estimated that Australian live cows are priced at VND58,000 per kilo after tax. Meanwhile, the production cost in Vietnam is VND60,000 per kilo. <br />
  • Beef cattle farming is practiced all over Vietnam, with the bulk of production taking place in the northern half of the country. The south of the country is disadvantaged because of the impact of its hot tropical climate on smallholders that attempt to rear larger sized animals such as beef cattle, including larger breeds of such cattle (see table below). <br />
  • Vietnam&apos;s beef cattle industry involves a number of different farming systems: <br /> Extensive calf-cow grazing systems, under which grazing in the open is practiced in the daytime and penning is used at night. The farmers operating these systems generally do not feed their cattle mixed animal feed, whether made by the farmer or purchased from a commercial supplier. The primary motivation of these farmers is generally wealth creation for their family, i.e. they have an asset, e.g. old cattle or a calf, that can be sold when they need money; <br /> Intensive calf-cow systems, under which the cattle are in pens most of the time but may spend a few hours each day free or tethered grazing. These farmers feed cultivated grass and also some locally made concentrate to their cattle. The primary motivation of these farmers is the commercial sale of fattened cattle, weaned calves or yearlings; and, <br /> Cattle fattening systems, under which cattle are usually kept in pens all the time. These farmers are commercially motivated, and much better funded than other cattle farmers. They buy old and young cattle from both the intensive and extensive cattle farmers for fattening up. The smallholder farmers involved in this activity usually feed their cattle with cultivated grass. Larger operations tend to use cultivated grass and some concentrates. <br /> Trade sources in the cattle trade in Vietnam advise that the quality of cattle that are derived from these 2 systems, and the cattle fattening systems, are generally variable. The cattle from the extensive farmers are generally too thin for market, and are in many cases, old. In direct contrast, the cattle from the fattening systems can be problematic to sell at a good price because they can be too fat for end market requirements <br />
  • There are up to 7 groups of indigenous cattle all over the country and they are considered to be one breed ( Yellow cattle). Each group is popular in a certain regions depending on the interest of the people and its adaptability to local conditions. The indigenous cattle in Vietnam are small in size (small ears, poorly developed hump and dewlap, almost all are in yellow, light yellow or dark yellow) and have low performance in meat and milk production, but they can adapt well with harsh conditions, and have good reproduction capacity. <br /> In general, weight of mature bull is about 200-250kg. <br /> The fertility is fairly good, mating period starts at 15-18 months old, early first farrowing age is at 30-32 months, quite short reproductive interval about 13-15 month/calving. <br /> Low milk production is about 300-400kg/lactation, high milk fat content (5,5%) <br /> Low growth rate, results in low carcass ratio (42-45%). <br />
  • To improve the productivity, draught power and milk production, Vietnam has imported many exotic animal breeds and semen. Under a limited nutrition, all F1 crossbreds beef cattle showed good adaptability, fatter growth rate and higher live weight as compared to local cattle. <br /> Some key points to note on breeds are as follows: <br /> Farmers using extensive cattle production are more likely to have herds that include between 70% and 90% local breeds, with the balance being Laisind. These farmers rarely buy cattle and so work with the gene pool that they started operation with. If they use AI, it is more likely that the semen will not be from an exotic breed bull; and, <br /> Farmers using intensive calf-cow systems tend to have a broader based genetic mix, which can include 60% to 70% Laisind, 20% to 30% cross breeds and 10% to 20% local breeds. These farmers do tend to buy cattle to improve their herd. If they use AI, it is more likely that the semen will be an exotic breed bull than a Laisind bull. <br />
  • As dairy farming is not traditional in Vietnam, there are no dedicated dairy breeds hereof. <br /> Dairy farming was first introduced to Vietnam at the beginning of the 20th century. Experiencing historical ups and downs, dairy farmers have considerably contributed to ensure food supply. However, it was not until 1990 that dairy farming has become a real goods production. <br /> At present, most dairy herds in Viet Nam are developed on a piece meal basis, with 120,000 out of 173,000 cows raised in 19,000 households nationwide. With each household on average raising 5 cows, the sector aims to lift the number to between 10 and 15. <br /> According to MARD, a total of 174,000 dairy cows in 2013, producing 420,000 tonnes of milk. However, production only served 30 percent of the domestic market <br /> 70 per cent of domestic demand for milk had to be met with imports primarily made up of sterilised, reconstituted milk. Because of this, Viet Nam remains one of the top 20 milk-importing countries, importing around US$841 million of milk in 2012. <br />
  • Vietnam&apos;s dairy farming industry is mainly concentrated in the south east and Red River Delta areas of the country. These areas account for around 70% of operations based on their herd sizes. <br />
  • All of the state farms that existed in the 1980s have now closed, merged, or become private sector farms. <br /> This company has investment plans with an initial budget of over US$ 300 million for the period 2009-2012, which is mainly reported to be funded by a loan from a local bank. The long term investment budget is far higher than this, and is underpinned by a very large target in terms of: herd size which, if successful, would have close to 140,000 cows, with about 70% being milking cows, by 2017. raw milk production, which is being forecast at about 500 million litres in the same year. <br /> Ownership of 2–15 animals and a small area with crops or pasture, are availability of suitable animals, feed resources and improved feeding systems, improved breeding, reproduction and animal health care, management of animal manure, and organized marketing and marketing outlets <br /> There are a very small number of larger commercial dairy farms. Vinamilk and TH Milk operate larger sized dairy farms. Vinamilk continues to develop its supply capabilities and its senior management reported importing more than 2,000 dairy cattle in 2010. <br /> TH Milk, which is Vietnamese privately owned, is investing in development of: a very large dairy farming operation. <br />
  • About 15% of Vietnam&apos;s national dairy are pure bred Holstein Friesian dairy cattle and about 1% of the herd is reported to be Jersey cattle. The balance are cross-bred cows (F1 to &gt; F3), which are the result of AI (artificial insemination) cross breeding activities between Holstein Friesian dairy cattle, and Red Sindhi and local Yellow Cows <br />
  • The structure of the population of dairy cattle by genetics in Vietnam is a product of government policy, development programs that are linked to imported genetic supplies, and the climate/other dairying environmental issues. The low % of the national population of Holstein Friesian pure bred cattle in the south exists because of this region&apos;s hot and tropical environment, and the much larger size of its regional dairy herd, when compared to the north. <br /> Yields from pure bred Holstein Friesian cows in Vietnam has increased over the past 15 years, but are still low at around 3,900 litres per lactation, when compared to much higher yields achieved in the Developed World. In addition to this, crossbred cows are achieving a maximum of between 3,000 and 3,500 litres per lactation. <br /> According to sources with Dairy Vietnam, the most appropriate dairy cattle for climatic and other dairying environment conditions in Vietnam have 70% to 80% Holstein Friesian genes. <br />
  • Powder milk: the upper range of the powder milk market is still the most profitable one and also the market is showing the fastest growth. It is still dominated by a few international brands <br /> Liquid milk: is growing very fast with more than 55% dominated by Vinamilk <br /> Condensed milk: is still representing a significant share of the whole market and does not grow much and is today dominated by the Vietnam dairy market leader, Vinamilk and Dutch Lady <br /> Yogurt: is growing and currently dominated by Vinamilk with new competition from new entrant such as Kido <br />
  • Trade and government sources comment that high demand for liquid milk in Vietnam&apos;s biggest cities, especially Ho Chi Minh City, its most affluent consumer market, is one of the key stimulants for dairy farming activity across the whole country. While this is the case, trade sources comment that most Vietnamese consumers have unsophisticated demand characteristics. They do not understand the difference between; <br /> more expensive pasteurised chilled/fresh milk produced from local raw milk; and, <br /> less expensive shelf stable UHT/sterilised milk that is recombined in Vietnam from imported dairy and non-dairy ingredients. <br /> In view of the low household incomes, including at the level of today&apos;s middle income groups, the bulk of demand is currently for the lower cost recombined liquid milks. <br /> The market for locally produced raw liquid milk has two broad segments: <br /> industrial demand, which takes about 80% of raw milk; and <br /> the informal market sector, which takes the balance of raw milk supplies on a highly localised basis. <br />
  • Total number of goats and sheep in 2012 is 1.3 million head <br /> The Goat sector in Vietnam is mainly privately owned and based on extensive rearing. The goat population has nearly doubled in the last ten years. Most goats, (72.7% 25 000 head) are in the northern, mountainous provinces. They are also found in coastal regions of Central Viet Nam, where the climate is hot, dry and water is scarce (21.3%). Only 6.3% are in South Viet Nam. Generally goats are raised in relatively dry areas with poor vegetation. In a harsh environment, goats perform better than other animals. <br /> Approximately 95% of goats are local breeds: the main ones are Grass breed, Bach Thao and cross bred. The Grass breed is wide-spread in many ecological zones; they are well adapted to poor nutrition and management, small and well known for high prolificacy. Most goats are reared for meat. The Bach Thao is bigger than the Grass breed and also are dual-purpose for meat and milk; average milk yield varies from 1.5–3 litre/day over 150–165 days. <br /> Since 1993 the demand for goat products (both milk and meat) has increased considerably but returns to farmers remain below potential due to low productivity, largely associated with feed quality. The Government places a high priority on the development of viable goat rearing; improving access by very poor communes to breeding schemes, and working with communes to improve husbandry and feeding strategies for goats are appropriate means of addressing rural poverty. Six breeds: Barbary, Beetal, Jumnapury, Alpine, Saanen and Boer were imported to improve body size and milk yield of local goats. <br /> Most goats are privately-owned by smallholders with an average of 5–7 animals. In forests, mountainous and hilly regions, many farms keep 100-200 goats. State farms just maintain some for research and breeding. Goats are kept in fields during the day, at night they are housed without feed or water. In the plains of North Viet Nam meat goats are herded, but in the South they are penned or tethered under fruit trees. Dairy goats are kept in pens with feed and water. <br /> The management of reproduction is poor. For meat goats, bucks and does run together without controlled mating which leads to high mortality of newborn kids. However, dairy goats are very well managed. <br />
  • Approximately 95% of goats are local breeds: the main ones are Grass breed, Bach Thao and cross bred. The Grass breed is wide-spread in many ecological zones; they are well adapted to poor nutrition and management, small and well known for high prolificacy. Most goats are reared for meat. The Bach Thao is bigger than the Grass breed and also are dual-purpose for meat and milk; average milk yield varies from 1.5–3 litre/day over 150–165 days. <br /> Since 1993 the demand for goat products (both milk and meat) has increased considerably but returns to farmers remain below potential due to low productivity, largely associated with feed quality. The Government places a high priority on the development of viable goat rearing; improving access by very poor communes to breeding schemes, and working with communes to improve husbandry and feeding strategies for goats are appropriate means of addressing rural poverty. Six breeds: Barbary, Beetal, Jumnapury, Alpine, Saanen and Boer were imported to improve body size and milk yield of local goats. <br />
  • In the South-eastern region, where the limited amounts of good roughage, combined with intensive production in peri-urban areas has forced dairies into heavy dependence on concentrates; this has increased feed competition with other livestock. Green maize can solve the year-round green fodder supply for cattle, and especially in the dry season. <br /> In the North Central and South Central Coast, where fattening of one or a few cattle is common, fresh grass, cane tops, maize stover, and rice straw are supplemented with fresh Leucaena leucocephala leaves. Some farmers feed a concentrate mixture at 0.5% of the animal’s body weight. Chopped leucaena or cassava leaves, are mixed with a home-mixed concentrate of maize, cassava meal, rice bran, salt, ground oyster shell and molasses. <br /> In rice growing areas, weeds constitute about half of the feed (from road edges, fields and ponds) with rice straw and other crop residues. Animals are stall fed and tethered in uncropped and idle land during the growing period of the rice. Rice straw is the principal feed after harvest; other crop residues such as maize stover and legume hay are fed, when available, in the wet season. At rice harvest, paddy fields are communal grazing in the short gap between crops, which may be two or three times per year depending on the number of rice crops grown. <br /> Rice straw, with a total 25-30 million tons produced annually, is low in available energy, protein and vitamins and imbalanced in essential minerals, but it contains a large pool of structural carbohydrates which can potentially be degraded by rumen microbes into volatile fatty acids, and thus an energy source for ruminants. Urea Treated Rice Straw (UTRS) is the most suitable method of improving the quality of rice straw and increasing crude protein concentration and rumen degradability. <br /> Cassava tops and sugar cane can be ensiled by conventional methods, with or without additives. Ensiling reduces cyanogen content markedly by HCN volatilisation and to a lesser extent, the tannin content of the raw materials. A supplement of cassava top silage, especially with a molasses additive, to a grass diet of dairy heifers, increased the dry matter and digestible crude protein intake (Man and Wiktorsson, 2001). <br />

The common ruminant in vietnam The common ruminant in vietnam Presentation Transcript

  • THE COMMON RUMINANT LIVESTOCK IN VIETNAM Present by NGUYEN THI HONG TUOI
  •  There are 8 agro-ecological zones.  About 74% of the population lives in rural areas and 65% depend on agriculture for their livelihood.  In Viet Nam ruminant production is based on small households; there are few large commercial units.  Ruminant production is classified into dairy cattle, beef cattle, buffaloes and small ruminants.
  • Water buffalo used to consider the most valuable possession of poor farmers: “the beginning of inheritance”, treated as a member of the family: "The husband ploughs, the wife sows, water buffalo draws the rake“ and are friends of the children. Swamp buffalo rearing is a backyard activity with 99% in the hands of smallholders, for draught power since agricultural mechanization is developed the role of buffaloes is neglected. Even if soil preparation could be mechanized, the buffalo remains important for rural transport and meat. The total number of buffaloes kept 2.6 million head (58% in the North). WATER BUFFAL O View slide
  •  Belonging to swamp buffalos, Vietnamese ones are reared in different ecological areas for various purposes (draught power, meat and reproduction).  With 2 groups “Ngo buffalo” and “Gie buffalo”  The first farrow is 4-5 years of age, unclear come in-heat signs, calving interval is 1,5-2 years/farrow.  Milk production (600-700kg a period lactation), high milk fat content (9-12%), low growth rate, low carcass ratio (43-48%). Vietnamese buffalosWATER BUFFALO View slide
  • Murrah buffaloMurrah buffalo Derived from India and Pakistan A mature male buffalo weighs 700-750kg; the calf weighs at 30kg; shows in heat symptom at 30 months old. Milk productivity is 2500-2800kg/lactation of 9-10 months. Milk fat contents is 7-9%. Carcass ratio is 48%. WATER BUFFALO
  • • Cattle were principally draught animals, which were only culled and used as meat animals at the end of their useful working lives. • The beef cattle sector is the third largest sector in the livestock industry (5.1 million head in 2011). • Most of meat consumed in supermarket, restaurants have imported fresh beef from Australia. • The beef products available on the market are sourced from Cambodia, Laos and Thailand. BEEF CATTLE
  • Vietnam's Cattle Population by Region in 2009 Region '000 Head % Red River delta 603 11.4 Northern midlands and mountains 924 16.9 North central and central coast area2,144 40.8 Central highlands 689 11.7 South East 408 7.8 Mekong River delta 665 11.4 Total 5,436 100.0 Source: General Statistics Office of Vietnam BEEF CATTLE
  • Structure of the beef cattle farming sector O Extensive calf-cow grazing systems O Intensive calf-cow systems O Cattle fattening systems BEEF CATTLE
  • {{  The indigenous cattle are small inThe indigenous cattle are small in size, have low performance in meatsize, have low performance in meat and milk production, but they canand milk production, but they can adapt well with harsh conditions,adapt well with harsh conditions, and have good reproductionand have good reproduction capacity.capacity.  The fertility is fairly good, matingThe fertility is fairly good, mating period starts at 15-18 months old,period starts at 15-18 months old, early first farrowing age is at 30-32early first farrowing age is at 30-32 months, quite short reproductivemonths, quite short reproductive interval about 13-15 month/calving.interval about 13-15 month/calving.  Low milk production is about 300-Low milk production is about 300- 400kg/lactation, high milk fat400kg/lactation, high milk fat content (5,5%)content (5,5%)  Low growth rate, results in lowLow growth rate, results in low carcass ratio (42-45%).carcass ratio (42-45%). Vietnamese cattle breedsVietnamese cattle breeds
  • Beef cattle breeds
  • Status of the sector Dairy farming was first introduced to Vietnam at the beginning of the 20th century. However, it was not until 1990 that dairy farming has become a real goods production. With 120,000 out of 174,000 cows raised in 19,000 households nationwide in 2013, producing 420,000 tons of milk served 30% of the domestic market, 70% of domestic demand for milk had to be met with imports primarily made up of sterilized, reconstituted milk. Vietnam remains one of the top 20 milk-importing countries, importing around US$841 million of milk in 2012. DAIRY CATTLE
  • The Regional Location of the Dairy Herd Across Vietnam Region % of Dairy Herd North East 5 North West 7 Red River Delta 12 North Central Coast 4 South Central Coast 4 Central Highlands 3 South East 58 Mekong Delta 7 Total 100 DAIRY CATTLE
  • Structure of the dairy farming Ownership of 2–15 animals and a small area with crops or pasture, are availability of suitable animals, feed resources and improved feeding systems, improved breeding, reproduction and animal health care, management of animal manure, and organized marketing and marketing outlets. There are a very small number of larger commercial dairy farms. Vinamilk and TH Milk operate larger sized dairy farms. Vinamilk continues to develop its supply capabilities and its senior management reported importing more than 2,000 dairy cattle in 2010. TH Milk, which is Vietnamese privately owned, is investing in development of: a very large dairy farming operation. It has plans to supply 50% of Vietnam's milk by 2017. DAIRY CATTLE
  • Dairy cattle breeds O 15% pure bred Holstein Friesian O 1% Jersey cattle O The rest of cross breeding between Holstein Friesian dairy cattle, and Red Sindhi and local Yellow Cows. Dairy Cattle Herd Structure by Dairy Cattle Gene Content in 2006 (%)   National Herd Northern Region Herd Southern Region Herd Holstein Friesian 15 35 8 Jersey 1 2 - F1 24 33 21 F2 25 17 28 F3 22 9 24 >F3 13 4 19 Total 100 100 100 % of national herd 100 17 65 DAIRY CATTLE
  • Key dairy products Powder milk Liquid milk Condensed milk Yogurt DAIRY CATTLE
  •  The Goat sector is mainly privately owned and based on extensive rearing with 72.7% in the North. They are also found in coastal regions of Central Vietnam (21.3%). Only 6.3% are in South Vietnam.  Most goats are privately-owned by smallholders with an average of 5–7 animals. In forests, mountainous and hilly regions, many farms keep 100-200 goats. Goats are kept in fields during the day, at night they are housed without feed or water in the North, but in the South they are penned or tethered under fruit trees. Dairy goats are kept in pens with feed and water. The goat and sheep sector (1.3 million head in 2012)
  •  The sheep population in Vietnam is small with an increasing tendency. Sheep are mainly raised in the South Central coast of Vietnam, namely the Phanrang sheep.  This breed adapts well to the dry and hot climate and low feed quality of this region. The goat and sheep sector (1.3 million head in 2012)
  • Feeding systems  In the South-eastern region, Green maize can solve the year-round green fodder supply for cattle, and especially in the dry season.  In the North Central and South Central Coast, where fattening of one or a few cattle is common, fresh grass, cane tops, maize stover, and rice straw are supplemented with fresh Leucaena leucocephala leaves. Some farmers feed a concentrate mixture at 0.5% of the animal’s body weight.  In rice growing areas, weeds constitute about half of the feed with rice straw and other crop residues. Animals are stall fed and tethered in uncropped and idle land during the growing period of the rice. Urea Treated Rice Straw (UTRS) is the most suitable method of improving the quality of rice straw and increasing crude protein concentration and rumen degradability.  Cassava tops and sugar cane can be ensiled by conventional methods, with or without additives. Ensiling reduces cyanogen content markedly by HCN volatilisation and to a lesser extent, the tannin content of the raw materials. A supplement of cassava top silage, especially with a molasses additive, to a grass diet of dairy heifers, increased the dry matter and digestible crude protein intake (Man and Wiktorsson, 2001).
  • Animal health situation • The prevalence of many animal diseases in Vietnam is influenced by nutrition stress, climate, animal production system, breed, and pattern of animal transportation and exchange. Animal diseases cause a tremendous economic loss in animal production in Vietnam. • The imported exotic breeds of livestock with high productivity are normally more susceptible to disease than indigenous animals. Many infectious diseases are found in Vietnam caused by virus (FMD), bacteria (Pasteurellosis) and parasites (Faciolosis) • The animal diseases, vaccines, drugs, and additives are controlled by the Animal Health department, the six regional veterinary centers, and the veterinary sub- department in each province. The veterinary network covers to community level. • The majority of veterinary vaccines used in Vietnam are manufactured in the two vaccines factories, which operate as self-financing Government Enterprises and are under the control of the National Center of Veterinary drug Control-Animal Health department.