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Comparative Reproductive Anatomy
Comparative Reproductive Anatomy
Comparative Reproductive Anatomy
Comparative Reproductive Anatomy
Comparative Reproductive Anatomy
Comparative Reproductive Anatomy
Comparative Reproductive Anatomy
Comparative Reproductive Anatomy
Comparative Reproductive Anatomy
Comparative Reproductive Anatomy
Comparative Reproductive Anatomy
Comparative Reproductive Anatomy
Comparative Reproductive Anatomy
Comparative Reproductive Anatomy
Comparative Reproductive Anatomy
Comparative Reproductive Anatomy
Comparative Reproductive Anatomy
Comparative Reproductive Anatomy
Comparative Reproductive Anatomy
Comparative Reproductive Anatomy
Comparative Reproductive Anatomy
Comparative Reproductive Anatomy
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Comparative Reproductive Anatomy

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  • http://www.drostproject.org/en_bovrep/guide.html
  • http://animalsciences.missouri.edu/reprod/Notes/index.htm
  • http://nongae.gsnu.ac.kr/~cspark/teaching/chap2.html
  • For more information on hormones: http://www.equine-reproduction.com/articles/estrous.htm
  • http://www.vivo.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/reprod/index.html
  • http://nongae.gsnu.ac.kr/~cspark/teaching/chap9.html
  • http://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0006/148038/Beef-cattle-breeding-systems.pdf
  • The AI procedure: http://www.smartlilplayer.com/html/ai.htmlhttp://www.ansci.wisc.edu/jjp1/ansci_repro/misc/websites09/thur/Ovsynch/Ovsynch.htm
  • Transcript

    • 1. Bovine  Ovary – primary reproductive organ, produces gametes and sex hormones  Oviduct – transport sperm to ovum and embryo to uterine horns
    • 2.  Uterus –attachment site of placenta Cervix – elastic muscle protects uterus from contaminants Vagina – female organ of copulation connecting the vulva to cervix; elastic tissue for birth canal Vulva – external opening of reproductive canal
    • 3.  Cow: almond shaped ovaries; one larger than the other Ewe/Doe: almond shaped ovaries; half the size of the cow Mare: kidney shaped ovaries; three times larger than cow Sow: cluster of grapes shaped ovaries; half the size of the cow Bicornuate uterus: 80 – 90% is uterine horn; sow, cow, doe, ewe Bipariite uterues: 80 – 90% is uterine body; mare
    • 4.  Functions: › Hormonal Control › Transport Sperm › Produce Gametes › Facilitate Fertilization › Nourish Embryo and Fetus › Participate in Parturition › Recycle
    • 5.  Polyestrous – cycle year round: cow, sow Seasonally polyestrous – cycle in one season, anestrus in another: Horse (spring/summer), ewe and doe (fall/winter) Monestrous – cycle once then anestrous: dog Monotocous - one offspring each gestation period: cow, mare, doe, and ewe Polytocous – multiple offspring each gestation period: sow
    • 6.  Testes – sperm and testosterone production Epididymis – transport, maturation and storage Ductus deferens – transport and ejaculation Penis - copulation Accessory Sex Glands › Prostate – secrete neutralizing liquid › Bulbourethral gland – secrete liquid lubricant or gelatinous plug › Seminal vesicles – secrete liquid lubricant › Ampulla – glandular enlargement of ductus deferens Thermoregulation controlled by Scrotum and blood supply
    • 7.  Musculocavernous penis – muscular tissue fills with blood during erection Fibroelastic penis – fibrous tissue elongates during erection by straightening of sigmoid flexure Bull, Stallion, Ram, Buck have all accessory sex glands Boar has corkscrew shaped penis and no ampulla
    • 8. 1. Ovulation2. Estrus3. Fertilization4. Gestation5. Parturition6. Lactation
    • 9.  Estrus (Follicular) – period when female is sexually receptive to male, the “heat” stage; growth, maturation, and ovulation of follicles Diestrus (Luteal) – period when female is not sexually receptive; growth and function of corpus luteum Helps the female physically prepare for conception Anestrus – no ovarian activity
    • 10. 1. Growing follicle2. Maturing follicle3. Ovulation4. Formation of Corpus Luteum5. Regressing Corpus Luteum
    • 11.  Estrogen – induces changes  Progesterone – induces associated with estrus changes associated with › Produced by follicles of pregnancy ovary › Produced by corpus luteum › Makes female more and placenta receptive toward male › Decreases the receptiveness of › Prepares female for the female to the male conception physically › Causes cervix to close › Increases cervical relaxation › At its lowest level during the and uterine resistance to estrus phase infection › Suppresses hormonal activity to › Peaks 1-2 days before maintain pregnancy (if female ovulation is pregnant) › If female is not pregnant, the estrous cycle will continue
    • 12.  Luteinizing hormone (LH) › Secreted by the pituitary › Assists the maturation of the follicle, ovulation and formation of corpus luteum Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) › Secreted by pituitary, transported through bloodstream to ovaries › Stimulates the production of follicles › Can be given to cause superovulaiton
    • 13.  Ovulation – follicle releases female gamete, the oocyte  Corpus Luteum – formed from the follicle after oocyte is released  Spontaneous Ovulator – ovulation controlled by estrus cycle  Induced ovulation - after copulation › Seasonal: cat › Non-seasonal: llama, rabbit Length of Estrus Timing of Ovulation Timing of InseminationCattle 12-19 hours 10-11 hours (after end of 7-18 hours (after onset of estrus) estrus)Horse 2-11 days 1-2 days (before end of estrus) 2nd day of estrus and every 2 days of rest of estrus.Sheep 24-36 hours 24-36 hours (after onset of 12-18 hours (after onset of estrus) estrus)Swine 48-72 hours 35-45 hours (after onset of 16-24 hours (after onset of estrus) then estrus) 8-24 hours later
    • 14.  Fertilized oocyte travels through oviduct, going through mitotic divisions Morula – solid ball of cells; stage where embryo enters the uterus Blastocyst – hollow ball of cells; stage where embryo attaches to wall of uterus Membranes of embryo interdigitate with endometrium to form placenta
    • 15.  Four Fetal Membranes – blood, nutrient and antibody transfer › Yolk sac – nutrient supply › Amnion –parturition lubrication › Allantois and Chorion fusion – uterus attachment
    • 16.  Epitheliochorial – maternal epithelium adjacent to embryonic chorion Diffuse – entire surface forms attachments: horse, pig Cotyledonary – placental attachements in specifc areas: ruminants Placentome – attachment of cotyledon and caruncle › Cotyledons – fetal side of placenta › Caruncles – maternal side of placenta
    • 17.  After Fertilization, embryo at blastocyst stage implants in uterine wall and develops placenta  Gestation is maintained by the hormone progesterone › Progesterone – produced by Corpus Luteum and Placenta Source of Progesterone GestationGoat All from CL 150 daysSheep CL to day 50 then placenta 150 daysCow CL throughout gestation. However, after ~ day 200 placenta 280 days and adrenal are producing enough progesterone to maintain pregnancy.Sow All from CL 114 daysMare 1st CL produces progesterone up to ~ 180 days, FSH stimulates follicle 335 days growth and eCG causes CLs to form from follicles. They secrete progesterone and are active from day 40-180. Progesterone is low until 270 days- rises in last 5 months due probably to placental progesterone production.
    • 18.  Parturition – Birth process › Stage 1 – Dilation of cervix › Stage 2 – Expulsion of fetus › Stage 3 – Expulsion of placenta Lactation – Mammary development and Milk secretion and ejection › Colostrum – first milk produced, containing high protein, fat, vitamin A, minerals, and antibodies Hormones › Prolactin – produced by pituitary; stimulates mammary gland formation and lactation › Oxytocin – produced by pituitary; stimulates milk let down, uterine contraction and prostaglandin release › Relaxin – produced by Corpus Luteum to relax cervix at parturition
    • 19.  Straight Breeding – produces purebred animals › Purebred › Inbreeding (closely related animals) › Line breeding (distant relatives) › Outcrossing (unrelated animals) › Grading up (purebred mated to crossbred) Cross Breeding – produces hybrid animals › Two Breed Cross › Three Breed Rotation (sires rotated)
    • 20.  Live Cover – methods in which male and female are physically brought together to breed › Natural Mating – random mating of males and females turned out together  Family Selection  Pedigree Selection  Progeny Selection
    • 21.  Artificial Insemination (AI) – female is inseminated by a veterinarian Embryo Transfer – removing the embryo from a female and transferring it to a surrogate female

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