Vietnam Nixon

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Vietnam Nixon

  1. 1. <ul><li>“ I’m not going to end up like LBJ. I’m going to end that war fast.” </li></ul><ul><li>Can we win? Henry Kissinger told Nixon that Vietnam could be won in 8-13 years! </li></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>How do we end the war in Vietnam? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Peace with Honor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Withdraw troops, negotiate, and when they do not accept bomb </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Push USSR/China to help end the war… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creighton Abrams replaces Westmoreland </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>1. US shall keep all treaty commitments. </li></ul><ul><li>2. US shall provide a shield of nuclear power to a country that is an ally or vital to our security. </li></ul><ul><li>3. We will give $$ and military aid to others but they are responsible for their primary defense. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Goal-Make the NV think that Nixon had lost his mind in order to end the war </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: Boxer Shorts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Operation Duck Hook-called for the possibility of dropping nuclear weapons across NV by Nov. 1, 1969 </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>LBJ-March 31, 1968 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>End all bombing of North Vietnam </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Restart the Air War against the North </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Destroy anything that could be used as an offensive weapon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dropped mines in harbors of NV </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Destroyed 4 USSR ships </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Known as the Christmas bombings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>December 1972 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Round the clock bombings of civilian targets like hospitals and orphanages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Estimated 2000 Casualties on Day 1 </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Focuses on Cambodia </li></ul><ul><li>Revolution in 1970 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>US secretly launches Menu </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use Cambodia to attack NV </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Public has no knowledge of bombings </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>US bombs VC strongholds </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Breakfast, Lunch, Dinner, Dessert, Snack, Supper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lasted for 4 years! </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Plan by the Nixon administration to turn the fighting in Vietnam over to SV. </li></ul><ul><li>This lowered US military effectiveness. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Nixon uses his Peace with Honor approach </li></ul><ul><li>Starts to withdraw troops over a 14 pt. phased plan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1968-560,000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1972-60,000 </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>US wanted to cut off Trail in SE Laos </li></ul><ul><li>SV army invades and succeeds for first 2 weeks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Why? Buy time for US withdrawal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Crushed by NV and Vietnamization is seen as a failure!! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SV ask for guns to kill themselves-caught on TV </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Nixon guards the White House (January 1970) - 300 soldiers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Draft Beer, not Kids” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ 1,2,3,4, we don’t want your ------- war” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Hey, hey LBJ, how many kids did you kill today?” </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>19 year olds would be called first…then 20, 21, 22, 18… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Numbers picked from huge glass bowl </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After 182-safe from war! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Highest TV ratings in 5 years </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>The war wasn’t ending like most Americans had hoped. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bombing escalated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Involvement in Laos & Cambodia increased </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Congress is angered over the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Leaked by Daniel Ellsberg </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Worked for the Defense Dept. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Report ordered by McNamara about the mistakes in Vietnam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Government frequently misled the public </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gulf of Tonkin </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Body Count </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>NY Times obtained 7000 pages of the report </li></ul><ul><li>**Nixon would not let this happen again! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plumbers set up to stop leaks (CIA/FBI) </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>“ US troops kill 128 Reds” </li></ul><ul><li>Lt. William Calley </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Company had lost 95/190 men in 3 months </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ran into village that was filled with mines and booby traps. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>567 people killed by the end of the day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calley himself killed 109. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 18. <ul><li>May 4, 1970 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4 Killed and 9 wounded on the Ohio Campus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sat. night </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parties, out from bars, breaking windows, fires </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sunday </li></ul><ul><ul><li>With administrative approval, lit ROTC building on fire, threw rocks @ firemen, cut their hoses </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Monday </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Students rang victory bell @ noon, Natl. Guardsman appeared, Evacuate the Commons, 12:24 shot 61 times into crowd </li></ul></ul>
  18. 20. <ul><li>May 14, 1970 </li></ul><ul><li>Students pelted white motorists w/rocks & bottles </li></ul><ul><li>2 killed, 12 wounded by police </li></ul><ul><li>Are colleges safe anymore? </li></ul>
  19. 21. <ul><li>April 23, 1971 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>700 vets stood in line and threw their medals over the fence into the Capitol. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>John Kerry was there??? </li></ul></ul>
  20. 22. <ul><li>January 27, 1973-ceasefire announced </li></ul><ul><ul><li>US withdrew last 27,000 troops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NV left 145,000 in SV </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All POW’s released </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>US would give $7.5 billion in aid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>5 Billion to SV </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2.5 Billion to NV </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>November 7, 1973-War Powers Act </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Congress repeals Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, regains power to declare war </li></ul></ul>
  21. 23. Why did the North win? <ul><li>1. North fought hard and well </li></ul><ul><li>2. Poor SV leadership </li></ul><ul><li>3. American tactics inappropriate </li></ul><ul><li>4. Long and draining war for the US </li></ul>

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