Political Results • New Hampshire Primary • LBJ 49% • Senator Eugene McCarthy 48.6% (Minn) • Soon Robert Kennedy would enter the race for 1968.
Home Front • Hawks – pro-war • Doves – anti-war • Norman Morrison • Quaker, father of 3 threw child near the Pentagon • Then set himself on fire due to the war • March 31, 1968-LBJ announced that he would not run for a 2nd term & halt bombing • Alice Herz • 82 year old woman that burned herself alive-Detroit
E. Nixon• “I’m not going to end up like LBJ. I’m going to end that war fast.”• Can we win? Henry Kissinger told Nixon that Vietnam could be won in 8-13 years!
Peace w/Honor• How do we end the war in Vietnam? • Peace with Honor • Withdraw troops, negotiate, and when they do not accept bomb • Push USSR/China to help end the war… • Creighton Abrams replaces Westmoreland
Nixon Doctrine• 1. US shall keep all treaty commitments.• 2. US shall provide a shield of nuclear power to a country that is an ally or vital to our security.• 3. We will give $$ and military aid to others but they are responsible for their primary defense.
Madman Theory • Goal-Make the NV think that Nixon had lost his mind in order to end the war • Ex: Boxer Shorts • Operation Duck Hook- called for the possibility of dropping nuclear weapons across NV by Nov. 1, 1969
Operation Linebacker IApril 10, 1972 • LBJ-March 31, 1968 • End all bombing of North Vietnam • Restart the Air War against the North • Destroy anything that could be used as an offensive weapon • Dropped mines in harbors of NV • Destroyed 4 USSR ships
Operation Linebacker II • Known as the Christmas bombings • December 1972 • Round the clock bombings of civilian targets like hospitals and orphanages • Estimated 2000 Casualties on Day 1
Vietnamization• Plan by the Nixon administration to turn the fighting in Vietnam over to SV.• This lowered US military effectiveness.
Troop Withdrawal• Nixon uses his Peace with Honor approach• Starts to withdraw troops over a 14 pt. phased plan • 1968-560,000 • 1972-60,000
Domestic America• Nixon guards the White House (January 1970) - 300 soldiers • “Draft Beer, not Kids” • “1,2,3,4, we don’t want your ------- war” • “Hey, hey LBJ, how many kids did you kill today?”
Anti-War Protesting• The war wasn’t ending like most Americans had hoped. • Bombing escalated • Involvement in Laos & Cambodia increased • Congress is angered over the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution