The1970s Carter Fo Po

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The1970s Carter Fo Po

  1. 1. Foreign Policy  Focus on the Defense/Expansion of Human Rights  No more Chiles/ Vietnams  Preventative Foreign Policy  A ssist S andanistas in Nicaragua & not back S omoza Expand Human Rights  B ring Home US Troops  Reduce Defense S pending  M ediate in 3 rd World  Peace in the Middle East 
  2. 2. Panama Canal Treaties  US owned the Canal since 1903  Panama would fully control the canal after 2000  US could defend the neutrality of the canal  Why give it up?  Guerilla warfare  Value diminished-aircraft carriers couldn’t fit  L ess that 10% of US trade used it  This helped relations w/3 rd world  Reagan called this gunboat diplomacy, “ A ppeasement”
  3. 3. China  Formal Recognition-Jan. 1, 1979  Containment-wanted to use China to contain US S R  Trade-replaced US S R as largest trading partner  Taiwan-severed defense pact & withdrew all forces  Other allies feared a retreat from Israel, Japan, and the Philipines
  4. 4. Camp David Accords  M arch 26, 1979  Israel-Menachem B egin  Egypt-A nwar S adat Carter offered huge amounts of  aid if the worked together  1. Phased withdrawal of Israeli troops from S inai 2. US forces stationed along the  border 3. Full Economic & Diplomatic  Relations 4. Openings of negotiations on  Palestinian rights in West B ank & Gaza Ended over 30 years of War! 
  5. 5. SALT II  A ttempt to get the US S R to cut their ICB M ’s  Limited Delivery Vehicles to 2400 US S R cut by 250-350  US built 250 more!   B rezhnev allowed more than 50,000 Jews to leave  A fghanistan killed S A LT II
  6. 6. Afghanistan  December 25, 1979  80,000 US S R troops invade  Carter said this was the “ greatest threat to peace” 1 st time since 1948 that US S R  moved beyond their borders A fghanistan did not want to  become like E . E urope US supported Islamic Rebels  (M ujhadeen) $40 billion to train Rebels  Osama B in L aden & Taliban 
  7. 7. Carter’s Reaction  1. Hotline-Carter used it to warn B rezhnev not to attack Persian Gulf  2. Withdrew from S A LT II from S enate  3. S topped tech & grain shipments  4. Pulled Olympic Team from 1980 Moscow Games  5. Rapid Deployment Force-ordered the draft to begin again  6. M ore aid to A fghanistan ($30 B illion)  7. Carter Doctrine-an attempt by any outside force to gain control of the Persian Gulf will be regarded as an assault on the vital interests of the US -We will repel by any means necessary.
  8. 8. Iranian Hostage Crisis  S hah Reza Pahlavi-installed by the US since 1954  Removed Mossadeq from power (Operation A jax)  1977-S hah was dying from cancer  1978-Riots began in Iran  1979-S hah forced to leave the country, no one would give him asylum A llowed into US to treat  malignant lymphona
  9. 9. Iranian Hostage Crisis cont  November 4-violence outside the US embassy “ Death to the S hah, Carter, A merica”  Ayatollah Khomeini branded the embassy “ a nest of spies”  66 A mericans captured and would be returned for the S hah 14 released because they were  black or women 52 would be held for 444 days 
  10. 10. Carter’s Reaction to Iran  Carter froze $8 B illion in Iranian assets  A pril 24, 1980-Operation Eagle Claw  The Plan-8 helicopters & 6 C-130 transports meet in the desert  A helicopter crashed into a transport and killed 8  Carter aborted the mission He asked for JFK’s B ay of Pigs  speech S ec. of S tate-Cyrus Vance  resigned
  11. 11. Conclusions  1. Empire S hock-For the first time, the US doubted our strength  M any A mericans believed that our world influence fell! No longer the world’s sheriff, banker, policeman   Pax A mericana that shaped the world after WWII was over  Decline was probably inevitable in an international world.  2. Carter’s Personality  He didn’t have it, whatever it was… FDR’s charm, JFK’s TV Presence, L B J’s ability to handle Congress, and  Nixon’s ability to handle the spectacular  3. A mericans are going to want a strong leader Politicians learned their lessons and will not act that way again.  S ee Reagan and B ush!!! 

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