Jfk Foreign Policy


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Jfk Foreign Policy

  1. 1. <ul><li>6 Stages to JFK’s Foreign Policy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Nukes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Conventional Weapons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Covert Operations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. Economic Aid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5. Peace Corps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6. Diplomacy </li></ul></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>JFK wanted a variety of options to deal with international conflicts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unlike Ike-didn’t want nukes to be the only option </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Failure of Brinkmanship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hungary (1956) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Missile Gap?? Were the Russians ahead? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1961-63 ICBM’s-could annihilate USSR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1963-424 ICBM’s </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>2. Conventional Weapons-Increase in Defense Budget by 15% </li></ul><ul><li>3. Green Berets created for covert operations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Special Military Units for wars of national liberation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vietnam, Cuba </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Alliance for Progress </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Marshall Plan for Latin America </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$20 Billion in aid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most of the $$ never got to the people that needed it! </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Sent Young volunteers to work in developing countries for 2 years </li></ul><ul><li>Taught people democracy and capitalism </li></ul><ul><li>First went to Ghana & Tanzania </li></ul><ul><li>Diplomacy-work through communication to solve international problems </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>1. Space Program </li></ul><ul><li>2. Bay of Pigs </li></ul><ul><li>3. Berlin Crisis </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>1959-USSR won space race with Sputnik </li></ul><ul><li>April 12, 1961 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Yuri Gagarin (USSR) completes first orbit of the Earth </li></ul></ul><ul><li>May 5, 1961 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alan Shepard is first American into outer space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>JFK’s Goal-To land a man on the moon and bring him back by the end of the decade. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>JFK criticized Ike for being soft on Cuba </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Afraid Communism might spread </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ike called for invasion worked in Guatemala </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>JFK hoped that the invasion would foster a revolution </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>CIA trains 1453 commandos (Cuban refugees) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Castro had 2500 in army & 200,000 in militia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In 72 hours, the invasion was over </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CIA wanted to respond with air strikes, JFK said no-feared a strike against West Berlin </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Unlike Ike, JFK took full responsibility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Popularity rose to 83% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>JFK sent $53 million to Cuba for 1100 prisoners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cuba became top US priority </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Operation Mongoose </li></ul><ul><ul><li>10 million set aside to kill Castro </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By 1975, US tried to kill Castro 24 times </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>JFK & Khruschev met for the 1 st time </li></ul><ul><li>Khruschev thought that he could push JFK around </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bay of Pigs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 Days of meetings </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Khruschev wants Berlin to be a “free city” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ If JFK wants a war, he’ll be the last President of the US” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Real Problem-2000 people leaving Berlin every day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>US Tanks faced off against USSR tanks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot; Freedom has many difficulties and democracy is not perfect, but we have never had to put a wall up to keep our people in.&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Ich bin ein Berliner.” </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Berlin Wall constructed by USSR </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Began August 12, 1961 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>JFK- “A wall is a hell of a lot better than a war” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wall seen as a failure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>89 people killed trying to cross the wall </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Vietnam is the Cornerstone of the Free World in SE Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Assassination of Diem-Nov. 1, 1963 </li></ul><ul><li>16,000 Advisors </li></ul><ul><li>Aid-$1.5 Billion </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>This is the closest that we have ever gotten to WWIII </li></ul><ul><li>Khruschev said that the only way to save Cuba was with nuclear weapons </li></ul><ul><li>Castro feared another US invasion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discussed by JFK in 1962 </li></ul></ul>
  16. 17. <ul><li>August 22 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>US confirms reports of increased USSR activity in & around Cuba </li></ul></ul><ul><li>October 14 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>U-2 Flights confirm missiles on launching pads all pointing at US </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>48 medium range (1000 miles) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>32 long range (2000 miles) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 18. <ul><li>What should JFK do? </li></ul><ul><li>October 22 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>JFK addressed the nation about USSR threat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Announced a quarantine of Cuba </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surrounded Cuba w/ 180 warships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>JFK demanded the immediate removal of the missiles </li></ul></ul>
  18. 20. <ul><li>USSR ships stop short of blockade </li></ul><ul><li>12/25 changed course </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rest had no missiles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rusk “We were eyeball to eyeball and I think that the other guy blinked” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>US ship dropped depth charges on USSR sub? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Orders to fire? </li></ul></ul>
  19. 21. <ul><li>Khruschev announces that the weapons will be returned to USSR </li></ul><ul><ul><li>JFK was best President since FDR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>USSR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>US removes all missiles from Turkey </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>US promises never to invade Cuba again </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>USA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>UN inspections to make sure all missiles are gone! </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 22. <ul><li>1. Limited Test Ban Treaty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>US, USSR, GB-limited tests of nukes in atmosphere, outer space, or underwater </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Hotline Established </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct, unbreakable connection between US/USSR </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3. Relations worse w/ USSR </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No trade at all w/ Cuba, failed assassination attempt on Castro in Paris-Nov. 22, 1963 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4. USSR builds up so that they never back down again </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focuses economy on weapons and military development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>JFK popularity up to 74% </li></ul></ul>
  21. 23. <ul><li>“ Let every nation know, whether it wishes us well or ill, that we shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe, in order to assure the survival and the success of liberty.” </li></ul><ul><li>It’s Us against them and we need to do whatever possible… </li></ul>
  22. 24. <ul><li>June 11, 1963 </li></ul><ul><li>JFK needed a way to try and bring the Russians to the peace table. </li></ul><ul><li>Opened the idea to relaxed tensions with the Russians </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Détente </li></ul></ul>