Cuban Missile Crisis (August-October 1962)• This is the closest that we have ever gotten to WWIII• Khruschev said that the only way to save Cuba was with nuclear weapons• Castro feared another US invasion • Discussed by JFK in 1962
CMC cont • August 22 • US confirms reports of increased USSR activity in & around Cuba • October 14 • U-2 Flights confirm missiles on launching pads all pointing at US • 48 medium range (1000 miles) • 32 long range (2000 miles)
CMC cont• What should JFK do?• October 22 • JFK addressed the nation about USSR threat • Announced a quarantine of Cuba • Surrounded Cuba w/ 180 warships • JFK demanded the immediate removal of the missiles
Judgment Day (October 24)• USSR ships stop short of blockade• 12/25 changed course • Rest had no missiles • Rusk “We were eyeball to eyeball and I think that the other guy blinked”• US ship dropped depth charges on USSR sub? • Orders to fire?
The End (October 28) • Khruschev announces that the weapons will be returned to USSR • JFK was best President since FDR • USSR • US removes all missiles from Turkey • US promises never to invade Cuba again • USA • UN inspections to make sure all missiles are gone!
Results of the Cuban Missile Crisis• 1. Limited Test Ban Treaty • US, USSR, GB-limited tests of nukes in atmosphere, outer space, or underwater• 2. Hotline Established • Direct, unbreakable connection between US/USSR• 3. Relations worse w/ USSR • No trade at all w/ Cuba, failed assassination attempt on Castro in Paris-Nov. 22, 1963• 4. USSR builds up so that they never back down again • Focuses economy on weapons and military development • JFK popularity up to 74%
Kennedy Doctrine• “Let every nation know, whether it wishes us well or ill, that we shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe, in order to assure the survival and the success of liberty.”• It’s Us against them and we need to do whatever possible…
Speech at American University • June 11, 1963 • JFK needed a way to try and bring the Russians to the peace table. • Opened the idea to relaxed tensions with the Russians • Détente