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The food science behind mozzarella cheese
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The food science behind mozzarella cheese

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Learn what happening in your pot when you make mozzarella cheese!

Learn what happening in your pot when you make mozzarella cheese!

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    The food science behind mozzarella cheese The food science behind mozzarella cheese Presentation Transcript

    • The Food Science Behind Mozzarella Facilitated By Norm Sutaria
    • Who is this Norm guy?
    • Not a chef by trade (but enjoys cooking) instructional designer middle school teacher AmeriCorps (twice) kayaker bike commuter curious foodie photojournalist Fringe NYC volunteer FIRST Robotics volunteer electronics hobbyist reader camper creative
    • Where did he learn to make mozzarella?
    • The Interwebs, of course.
    • Norm read a blog entry by Jenna Woginrich, a farmer, author and web designer who lives in upstate NY. http://coldantlerfarm.blogspot.com
    • This post, from September 2009, piqued his curiosity.
    • A week later….
    • he had a kit from Lehman’s, a homesteading supply shop. www.lehmans.com
    • He began making…
    • and….
    • As he was looking at this,
    • he began wondering: What is happening in my pot?
    • Which led him to research the food science behind the mozzarella he was making
    • Let’s begin with the chemical composition of milk
    • Milk is mostly made up of water, followed by non-fat solids (proteins and lactose) and then milkfat
    • 80% of the proteins found in milk are categorized as casein (kay-seen) proteins Most casein proteins exist in loose clusters known as micelles
    • 20% of the proteins found in milk are categorized as whey (way) proteins The water that is expelled in cheesemaking is called whey because it contains these proteins.
    • The chemical reaction of cheesemaking • binds proteins • encapsulates fat cells • expels whey • results in a yummy treat!
    • This is what milk looks like under a microscope at 1,000x magnification
    • Fat Globule Fat Globule Water Casein Micelles 1,000x
    • There are three elements we introduce to the milk
    • heat (to help break down proteins) food grade citric acid (to lower the pH and remove a negative charge) rennet (to break down a hairy exterior layer on the casein micelles)
    • Wait. What’s rennet?
    • Rennet is an enzyme, found in the stomach lining of mammals (typically young calves), or it can be derived from plants.
    • Chymosin (aka rennin) is the active enzyme in rennet.
    • Here’s what happens to the milk in your pot
    • The casein micelles, (simplified here), carry a negative charge and a pH of 6.5
    • Hey, you’re cute! Two Single Casein Micelles
    • Thanks! I think you are too. Two Single Casein Micelles
    • But there’s something holding me back…
    • … and I’m getting some negative vibes.
    •  
    • pH 6.5
    • Introduction of heat and food grade citric acid lowers the pH to 4.6
    • pH 4.6 heat food grade citric acid
    • Rennet (chymosin) is introduced and eliminates the hairy outside layer of the casein micelles
    • Chymosin Chymosin Chymosin Chymosin Chymosin Chymosin Chymosin Chymosin
    • Chymosin Chymosin Chymosin Chymosin Chymosin Chymosin Chymosin Chymosin Chymosin Chymosin Chymosin Chymosin Chymosin
    • Now there isn’t anything to keep us apart!
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    • Casein micelles bind together, encapsulate the fat cells and expel the whey.
    • Fat Globule Fat Globule Casein Micelles Whey (expelled)
    • Finally, the kneading and stretching elongate protein chains to achieve mozzarella’s “ stringiness”
    • Yum!
    • References University of Guelph Dairy Chemistry and Physics http://www.foodscience.uoguelph.ca/dairyedu/chem.html Dr. David B. Frankhauser University of Cincinnati - Claremont College http://biology.clc.uc.edu/fankhauser/Cheese/CHEESE.HTML
    • Resources (for supplies) Lehman’s http://www.lehmans.com/ New England Cheesemaking Supply Co. http://www.cheesemaking.com/ Murray’s Cheese http://www.murrayscheese.com/