Byzantine or Early Christian art (Eastern Roman Empire now Turkey) is a long era from the death of Constantine in 337 to the invasion of the Turks in 1450, whose style is characterized by rich colors (including gold), flat, floating figures with large eyes, plain backgrounds, depicting religious stories as seen in the Justinian and apse mosaics (550 S. Vitale, Ravenna), Wall Mosaic (550 Sofia Hagia), and The Madonna and Child in Majesty Surrounded by Angels (1270) by Cimabue.
Gothic is a style of art characterized by the pain of being mortal, great attention to detail, almost theatrical staging, and disguised religious symbolism as seen in Les très riches heures du Duc de Berry (1415) by the Limbourg Brothers (Neth.), Merode Altarpiece (1425) by Robert Campin (Master of Flemalle) (Neth.), The Arnolfini Portrait (1430) by Jan van Eyck (Bel.), and the Extraction of the Stone of Madness (1475) by Hieronymous Bosch (Late Gothic)
The Early Renaissance is an art movement which began a rebirth of classic Greek and Roman ideals, more concern about non-religious activities, characterized by the man as creator of beauty, use of perspective that tricks the eye and unusual points of view, as seen in St. James led to his Execution (1455) and The Dead Christ (1490), Roundel with Putti and Ladies Looking Down (1465) by Andrea Mantegna, and St. Sebastian (1473) by Sandro Botticelli.
The High Renaissance of Italy was one of the most important periods in art history. It was the time of “Geniuses” who used perspective as never before as seen in the Mona Lisa (1503) and Last Supper (1498) by Leonardo da Vinci, The Creation of Adam (1510) by Michelangelo, and School of Athens (1510) by Raphael.
The Northern Renaissance (1500-1615) was a Dutch and German art movement influenced by modern science, precise observation and naturalism in landscapes and portraits, scenes of everyday life, and religious reform against the Church of Rome as seen in The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse (1498) Knight, Death, and the Devil (1510) by Albrecht Durer, Henry VIII (1540) by Hans Holbein the Younger, and Peasant Wedding (1568) by Pieter Bruegel the Elder.
Baroque is an art style or art movement of the Counter-Reformation in the seventeenth century characterized by emotion, movement, use of real people not models, and dramatic lighting as seen in The Calling of St. Matthew(1600), Supper at Emmaus, The Crucifixion of St. Andrew (1607) by Caravaggio (It) and Christ with St. Joseph in the Carpenter's Shop (1640) by Georges La Tour (Fr)
Rococo is an art movement, characterized by being light, decorative, and elaborate, focusing on landscapes, portraiture, mythology, flowers, playfulness, and the peacefulness of the country as seen in The Swing (1767) and The Shepardess (1750) by Jean-Honore Fragonard, A Pilgrimage to Cythera (1715) by Jean-Antoine Watteau, Sarah Barrett Moulton; Pinkie (1794) and Blue Boy (1770) by Thomas Gainsborough
Neo-Classicism is an art style characterized by a Greek and Roman revival, unemotional hard edged classical forms, staged religious poses, dealing with real events, courage, sacrifice, and love of country but not the monarchy especially during the French Revolution as seen in The Death of Socrates (1787), The Oath of the Horaitii (1784), and The Death of Marat (1793) by Jacques-Louis David and the Death of General Wolfe (1770) by Benjamin West (Amer.)
Romanticism is an art movement characterized by emotions and imagination, bold and dramatic use of paint, rejection of the calm and orderly classicism, rebeled against society, there was a deep appreciation of nature, the exotic, and far away as seen in Arab Horseman Attacked by a Lion (1850), Lion Hunting in Morocco (1854) by Eugene Delacroix, The Slave Ship (1840) by Joseph William Turner, and Sea of Ice (1823) by Caspar David Friedrich (Ger.)
The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood was a group of English artists whose art was characterized by realism, religious belief and mythological themes, and use of medieval and contemporary heroines as subject matter as seen in The Annunciation (1861) and Lady Lilith (1867) by Gabriel Rosetti, The Shadow of Death (1869) by William Holman Hunt, and The Golden Stair (1872) by Sir Edward Burne-Jones.
Realism is an art movement characterized by drawing what is actually there, and not what is in your imagination, common real life scenes of real people as seen in Burial at Ornans (1850) by Gustave Courbet, The Gross Clinic (1875) by Thomas Eakins (Amer.), The Gleaners (1857) by Jean Francois Millet, and Snap the Whip (1872) by Winslow Homer (Amer.)
Symbolism is an art movement, which is characterized by spooky mysticism, Greek Mythology, dream imagery, as seen in Eye Balloon (1878) and Crying Spider (1881) by Odilon Redon , The Island of the Dead (1883) by Arnold Bocklin (Sw.), and Oedipus and the Sphinx (1864) by Gustave Moreau.
Pointillism, also known as divisionism and neo-impressionism is a style of painting that originated from impressionism in France characterized by small brush strokes points or that form a picture when looked at from a distance based on the science of optics and divided color, as seen in The Bathers (1883) and Sunday Aftenoon on the Isle of La Grande Jatte (1885) by George Seurat, Port St. Tropez (1899) and The Dining Room (1887) by Paul Signac.
Impressionism is an art movement started in France, characterized by a lighter color palette, and showing the effects of sunlight on things at different times of day as seen in Japanese Bridge (1899) by Claude Monet and is also shown in The Dance Class (1874) by Edgar Degas, The Bath (1892) by Mary Cassatt (Amer.) and Luncheon of the Boating Party (1876) by Auguste Renoir.