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A               Paper Presentation                             On               “Embedded System”                         ...
transducers or commands from a human being such as pressing           Networked Information Appliances:of a button. The ou...
embedded systems. The limitations of the mobile devices-             attraction of open source software is that it is free...
biomedical    engineering,      wireless     communication,      data   Instrumentation:        Testing   and   measuremen...
processing, it is advisable to have an operating system. In such a      Input devices: Unlike the desktops, the input devi...
SPECIALITIES OF EMBEDDED SYSTEMS:                                     duration of the call from time to time, the telecom ...
developments are in turn paving way for making the dream of‘global village’ a reality.References:1.   Embedded Systems –Ar...
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  1. 1. A Paper Presentation On “Embedded System” Submitted for ANTRATECH – 2012 A National Technical Symposium Sant Gadge Baba Amravati University, Amravati Submitted By Mr. Ansari Shahabuddin Sarfuddin Mr. Tasleem Khan Nazim Khan Department of Computer Engineering & Electronics and TelecommunicationDr. Bhausaheb Nandurkar College of Engineering & Technology Yavatmal-445001(M.S.) 2011-12 Page 1
  2. 2. MODERN TRENDS IN EMBEDDED SYSTEM TASLEEM NAZIM KHAN SHAHABUDDIN SARFUDDIN ANSARI COMPUTER ENGINEERING SANT GADGE BABA AMRAVATI UNIVERSITY, AMRAVATI Dr. Bhausaheb Nandurkar College of Engineering and Technology Yavatmal-445001 (MAHARASHTRA) (+918421909869) (+919370405995)ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: An embedded system can be defined as the computing An embedded system can be defined as the computingdevice that has computer hardware with software embedded in it device that has computer hardware with software embedded in itas one of its most important component. It may be either an as one of its most important component. It may be either anindependent system or a part of a larger system. The emergence independent system or a part of a larger system. As its softwareof embedded systems is a recent development. As a scientific usually embeds in ROM (Read only Memory}, it does not needdiscipline it resembles the state of microelectronics (and VLSI secondary memories as in a computer. Nearly 99% of thedesign, in particular) around 1980. Todays challenge is similar processors manufactured end up in embedded back then, except that the stakes are probably higher. Embedded systems find applications in every industrialEmbedded systems will appear in virtually all devices, and segment. Embedded systems can be categorized as stand-aloneintelligent devices have the tendency to oust their "stupid" systems, real-time systems, networked information appliancescounterparts from the market place, just like CD players have and mobile devices. Just in the 10 years, such changes haveousted gramophone players. Thanks to developments in occurred more rapidly that they see more revolutionaries thanmicroelectronics, the computing power of the desktop evolutionary. As these systems have brought about radicalcomputers is now becoming available on the palmtops. changes in Electronics and Computer, they have also begun toEmbedded systems are heterogeneous. Since they are mixtures impact other human activities.of hardware and software, trade-off are important design This paper presents an overview of existing modes ofdecisions: do we realize a function in hardware or in software? Embedded Systems, architecture and their application. A lookBut embedded systems are more heterogeneous than just has also been given to future deployment of Embedded Systems.combining computer science and digital electronics. This paper presents an overview of existing modes of CATEGORIES OF EMBEDDED SYSTEMS:Embedded Systems, architecture and their application. A look Stand-alone Embedded Systems:has also been given to future deployment of Embedded Systems. As the name implies, stand-alone systems work in stand-alone mode. They take inputs, process them and produce the desired output. The input can be electrical signal from Page 2
  3. 3. transducers or commands from a human being such as pressing Networked Information Appliances:of a button. The output can be electrical signals to drive another Embedded systems that are provided with networksystem, an LED or LCD display for displaying of information to interfaces and accessed by networks such as Local Areathe users. Embedded Systems used in process control, Network or the Internet are called networked informationautomobiles, consumer electronic items etc. fall into this appliances. Such embedded systems are connected to a network,category in a process control system, the inputs are from sensors typically a network running TCP/IP (Transmission Controlthat convert a physical entity such as temperature or pressure Protocol/Internet protocol) protocol suite, such as the Internet orinto its equivalent electrical signal. These electrical signals are the Company’s Intranet. These systems have emerged in recentprocessed by the system and the appropriate electrical signals years.are produced. Few Embedded Systems used at home are shown WEATHERin fig: MONITORI INTERNET NG SYSTEM Digital Camera CD player COLOUR Fig: NETWORKED INFORMATION APPLIANCE TELEVISION Here are some examples of such systems:  A networked process control system consists of a number of embedded systems connected as a LAN. Each embedded system can send real-time data to a central location from where entire process control MICROWAVE OVEN system can be monitored. The monitoring can be done using a web browser such as the Internet Explorer.Real-time Systems:  The door-lock of your home can be a small-embedded system with TCP/IP and HTTP server software running Embedded Systems in which some specific work has to on it. When your children stand in front of the door-be done in specific time period are called real-time systems. For lock after they return from school, the web camera inexample- Consider a system that has to open a valve within 30 the door-lock will send an alert to your desktop overmilliseconds when the humidity crosses a particular threshold. If the Internet and then you can open the door-lock justthe valve is not opened within 30 milliseconds, a catastrophe by clicking the mouse.may occur. Such systems with strict deadlines are called hardreal-time systems. On the other hand, if we consider a DVD Mobile Devices:player and we give some command from a remote control, and Mobile devices such as mobile phones, Personalthere is a delay of a milliseconds in executing the command, but Digital Assistants, smart phones etc. are a special category of anthis delay won’t lead to a serious implication. Such systems are embedded system. Though the PDA do many general-purposecalled as soft real-time systems. tasks, they need to be designed just like the ‘conventional Page 3
  4. 4. embedded systems. The limitations of the mobile devices- attraction of open source software is that it is free and also thememory constraints, small size, display etc. are same as those complete source code is available to customize the software asfound in the embedded systems. Hence mobile devices are per your application needs.considered as embedded systems. Communication Interfaces and Networking Capability: With the availability of low-cost chips, embedded systems canRECENT TRENDS IN EMBEDDED SYSTEMS: be provided networking capability through communication In old good days, developing embedded systems was interfaces such as Ethernet, 802.11b wireless LAN and infrared.confined to very specialists. Most of the embedded systems are Network enabling of an embedded system has many advantages:written only in assembly language and hence writing, debugging it can be accessed over a network for remote control orand maintaining the code were very difficult and time monitoring.consuming. With the availability of powerful processors and Programming Languages: Development of embeddedadvanced development tools, embedded software development system was done mostly in assembly languages. However, dueis no longer ‘rocket science’. to the availability of cross-compilers, most of the developmentProcessor Power: The growing importance of is now done in high-level languages such as C. the object-embedded systems can be gauged by the availability of oriented languages like C++ and Java are now catching up.processors about 150 varieties of processors are available from Development Tools: Availability of a number of tools foraround 50 semiconductor vendors. Powerful 8-bit, 16-bit, 32-bit development, debugging and testing as well as for modeling theand 64-bit micro controllers, and microprocessors are available embedded systems is now paving way for the fast developmentto cater to the different market segments the clock speed and of robust and reliable systems. Development tools such asmemory addressing capability of these processors are also BREW (Binary Routine Environment for wireless), Wirelessincreasing. Very powerful digital signal processors are also Application Protocol (WAP) development tools facilitate easyavailable for real time analyses of audio and video signals. As a development of applications for mobile devices.result, the power of desktop computers is now available on palm Programmable Hardware: Programmable Logictops. Devices and Field Gate Arrays pave the way for reducing theOperating Systems: Unlike the desktop on which the options components on an embedded system, leading to small, low-costfor an operating system are limited, a very of operating systems systems. After developing the prototype of an embedded system,are available which can be ported on to the embedded system. for mass production, an FPGA can be developed which willThe advantage of embedding an operating system is that the have all the functionality of the processors, peripherals andsoftware development will be very fast and marinating the code application-specific very easy. The software can be developed in a high levellanguage such as “C”. So time to market the system gets APPLICATION AREAS:reduced. If real time performance is require a real time operating Nearly 99%of the processors manufactured end up insystem can be used. In addition too many commercial embedded embedded systems. The embedded system market is one of theoperating system open source software campaigned let to highest growth areas as these systems are used in very marketdevelopment of many open source operating system. The segment- consumer electronics, electronics, office automation, Page 4
  5. 5. biomedical engineering, wireless communication, data Instrumentation: Testing and measurement are thecommunication, military and so on. fundamental requirements in all scientific and engineeringConsumer appliances: At home we use a number of activities. The measuring equipment we use in laboratories toembedded systems that include digital camera, digital diary, measure parameters such as weight, temperature, voltage,DVD player, electronic toy, microwave oven, remote controls current etc. are all embedded systems. Test equipment such asfor TV and air conditioner etc. Today’s high-tech car has about oscilloscope, logic analyzer, protocol analyzer, radio20 embedded systems for transmission control, spark control, communication test set etc, are embedded systems built aroundnavigation etc. Even wristwatches are now becoming embedded powerful Security: Security of persons and information has always beenOffice automation: The office automation products using a major issue. We need to project our homes and offices, andembedded systems are copying machine, fax machine, key also the information we transmit and store. Developingtelephone, modem, printer, scanner etc. embedded systems for security applications is one of the mostIndustrial automation: Today a lot of industries use lucrative businesses nowadays.embedded systems for process control. These include Finance: Financial dealing through cash and cheques are nowpharmaceutical, cement, sugar, oil exploration, nuclear energy, slowly paving way for transactions using smart cards and ATMelectricity generation and transmission. The embedded systems (Automatic Teller Machine, also expanded as Any Timefor industrial use are designed to carry out the specific task such Money) machine. Smart card, of the size of a credit card, has aas monitoring the temperature, pressure, humidity, voltage, small micro-controller and memory; and it interacts with thecurrent etc. and then take appropriate action based on monitored smart card reader / ATM machine and acts as an electroniclevels to control other devices. wallet.Medical electronics: Almost every medical equipment in thehospital is an embedded system. These equipment’s include OVERVIEW OF EMBEDDED SYSTEMdiagnostic aids such as ECG, EEG, blood pressure measuring ARCHITECTURE:devices, X-ray scanners etc.Computer Networking: Computer networking products such Every embedded system consists of custom –built hardwareas bridges, routers, Integrated Services Digital Networks built around a Central Processing Unit (CPU). This hardware(ISDN), Asynchronous Transfer Mode and relay switches are also contains memory chips onto which software is loaded. Thethe embedded systems that implement the necessary data software residing on the memory chip is called the firmware.communication protocols. The embedded system architecture can be represented as aWireless technologies: Advances in mobile communications layered architecture as shown in figure. The operating systemare paving way for many interesting applications using runs above the hardware and the application software run aboveembedded systems. The mobile phone is one of the marvels of the operating system. It is not compulsory to have an operating ththe last decade of the 20 century. It is very powerful embedded system in every embedded system. For small appliances such assystem that provides voice communication while we are on the remote control units, air conditioner, toys etc., there is no needmove. for an operating system. For applications involving complex Page 5
  6. 6. processing, it is advisable to have an operating system. In such a Input devices: Unlike the desktops, the input devices to ancase, you need to integrate the application software with the embedded system have very limited capability. There will beoperating system and then transfer entire software into a keyboard or a mouse, and hence interacting with the embeddedmemory chip. Once the software is transferred to the memory system is no easy task. Many embedded systems will have achip, the software will continue to run for a long time and you small keypad- you press one key to give a specific command. Adon’t need to reload the new software. keypad may be used to input only the digits. Many embedded APPLICATIO system uses in process control do not have any input device for OPERATING N SOFTWARE SOFTWARE user interaction; they take inputs from sensors or transducers and produce electrical signals. Read-Only Memory Random Access Memory Output Central Processing Unit (CPU) Devices HARDWARE Application Communication Input Devices Specific Interfaces Circuitry Fig: LAYERED ARCHITECTURE OF AN EMBEDDED SYSTEM Fig: Simplified hardware Architecture of an embedded system Output devices: The output devices of the embedded systemsBuilding Block of hardware of an Embedded System: also have very limited capability. Some embedded systems willCentral Processing Unit (CPU): The Central Processing have a few Light Emitting Diodes to indicate the health status ofUnit can be of the following: micro-controller, microprocessor the system modules. A small Liquid Crystal Display may alsoor Digital Signal Processor (DSP). A micro-controller is a low- be used to display some important parameters.cost processor. Its main attraction is that on the chip itself, there Communication interfaces: The embedded systems maywill be many other components such as memory, analog-to- need to interact with other embedded systems or they may havedigital controller etc. on the other hand, microprocessors are to transmit data to a desktop.more powerful, but you need to use many eternal computers Application-specific circuitry: Sensors, transducers, specialwith them. DSP is mainly used for applications in which signal processing and control circuitry may be required for anprocessing is involved. embedded system, depending on its application. The circuitryMemory: The memory is categorized as Random Access interacts with the processor to carry out the necessary work.Memory (RAM) and Read Only Memory (ROM). The contentsof RAM will be erased if power is switched off. So, thefirmware is stored in the ROM. When the power is switched on,the CPU reads the ROM, the program is transferred to RAM andprogram is executed. Page 6
  7. 7. SPECIALITIES OF EMBEDDED SYSTEMS: duration of the call from time to time, the telecom operator willWhile designing the embedded systems, developers have to change the algorithm for the calculation of the bill amount.. Thiskeep the below specialties in mind: - is very cumbersome, considering that a memory chip will havePerformance: Many embedded systems have time constraints. to replace in thousands of PCO.For instance, in a process control system, a constraint can be: “ifthe temperature exceeds 40 degrees, open a valve within 10 FUTURE TRENDS:milliseconds.” The system meets such deadlines. If the deadlines The landscape of embedded system technology is changingare missed, it may result in a catastrophe. You can imagine the rapidly. Developments in microelectronics are paving way fordamage that can be done if such deadlines are not met in a miniaturized powerful computing devices. And, these devicessafety system of a nuclear plant. can be used for a variety of applications bringing inPower Consumption: Most of the embedded systems operate revolutionary changes in all walks of human life. The future ofthrough a battery. To reduce the battery drain and avoid frequent embedded systems mainly lies on System-on chip and Network-recharging of the battery, the power consumption of an on chip to minimize the design cycle time. Researchers areembedded system has to be very low. working on these two basic implementation strategies. This isCost: For an embedded system used in safety applications of a advancement of microelectronics, which has led to integrate microprocessor, ASIC, and memory components all on a singlenuclear plant or in a spacecraft, cost may not be a very integrated circuit to constitute a system-on chip. Further scopeimportant factor. However, for an embedded system used in of work remains wide open in design for Internet infrastructure,consumer electronics or office automation, the cost is of utmost broadband and wireless network, and consumer electronicimportance. Suppose you have designed a toy in which the products.electronics will cost US$20. By a careful analysis design, if youcan find a way to reduce the cost to US$19, it will be a greatjob. Conclusions:Size: Size is certainly a factor for many embedded systems. We The requirement of high performance intelligent subsystems todo not like a mobile phone that has to be carried on our backs. realize control, monitoring and signal processing functions for aThe size and the weight are the important parameters in wide variety of applications ranging from home appliances toembedded systems used in aircraft, missiles etc. because in such real-time satellite control has highly influence the design andcases, every inch and every grain matters. development of embedded system. The popularity of embeddedSoftware Up gradation capability: Embedded systems are systems is growing at a fast rate along with growing applications, advancement in hardware, software and othermeant for a very specific task. So, once the software is related technology. Thanks to developments in microelectronics,transferred to the embedded system, the same software will run the computing power of the desktop computers is now becomingthroughout its life. However, in some cases, it may be necessary available on the palmtops. This handheld computing technology,its upgrade the software. Consider the example of a Public Call in conjunction with wireless communication, is leadingOffice (PCO). At the PCO, an embedded system is used which anywhere-anytime multimedia communication. Thesedisplays the amount to be paid by a telephone user. The amountis calculated by a firmware, based on the calling number and the Page 7
  8. 8. developments are in turn paving way for making the dream of‘global village’ a reality.References:1. Embedded Systems –Architecture and Design by “Raj Kamal”.2. Real time Embedded Systems by “K.V.K.K. Prasad”3. Journal of the CSI- Embedded System Design by “ Dr Pramod Kumar Meher”.4. P. Koopman, “Embedded System Design Issues – The rest of the story”.5. Page 8