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Pathos.nra

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Pathos.nra Presentation Transcript

  • 1. How to Analyze anArgument’s Pathos
  • 2. Start with theRhetorical Triangle
  • 3. AuthorMessage Audience
  • 4. Author Remarks from the NRA press conference about the Sandy Hook shootingMessage Audience http://goo.gl/zSuYs
  • 5. Wayne LaPierreArmed guards in every classroom Americans
  • 6. What do we look for when we analyze pathos?
  • 7. Remember the three parts of pathos
  • 8. Rhetorical figures Appeals to emotionFraming devices
  • 9. First,let’s look as specific rhetorical devices
  • 10. Rhetorical DevicesThe only thing that stops a bad guy with a gun is a good guy with a gun. Antithesis
  • 11. Rhetorical DevicesWith all the foreign aid the United States does, with all the money in the federal budget, can’t we afford to put a police officer in everysingle school? Even if they did that, politicians have no business and noauthority denying us the right, the ability, and the moral imperative to protect ourselves and our loved ones from harm. Anaphora
  • 12. Rhetorical DevicesWith all the foreign aid the United States does, with all the money in the federal budget, can’t we afford to put a police officer in everysingle school? Even if they did that, politicians have no business and noauthority denying us the right, the ability, and the moral imperative to protect ourselves and our loved ones from harm. Anaphora + Tricolon
  • 13. Rhetorical DevicesI call on every parent. I call on every teacher. I call on every school administrator, every law enforcement officer in this country, to join with us and help create a national schools shield safety program to protect our children with the only positive line of defense that’s tested and proven to work.Anaphora + Tricolon
  • 14. Then,framing
  • 15. ReasonPot will disproportionately hurt the lives of the poor and dispossessed.
  • 16. Framing Rather than face -- rather than face their own moral failings themedia demonize lawful gun owners, amplify their cries for more laws,and fill the national media with misinformation and dishonest thinkingthat only delay meaningful action, and all but guarantee that the next atrocity is only a news cycle away. Media = liars, gun owners = truth tellers
  • 17. Framing But since when did “gun” automatically become a bad word? A gun in the hands of a Secret Service agent protecting our president isn’t a bad word. A gun in the hands of asoldier protecting the United States of America isn’t a bad word. And when you hear yourglass breaking at three a.m. and you call 911, you won’t be able to pray hard enough for a gun in the hands of a good guy to get there fast enough to protect you. guns = protection devices
  • 18. Framing We care about our president, so we protect him with armed Secret Service agents. Members of Congress work in offices surrounded by Capitol Police officers. Yet, when it comes to our most beloved, innocent, and vulnerable members of the American family, ourchildren, we as a society leave them every day utterly defenseless, and the monsters and the predators of the world know it, and exploit it. we protect what we care about...
  • 19. Appeal to Emotion
  • 20. Appeals to Emotion There exists in this country, sadly, a callous, corrupt and corrupting shadow industry that sells and stows violence against its own people. Through vicious, violent video games withnames like “Bullet Storm,” “Grand Theft Auto,” “Mortal Combat,” and “Splatterhouse.” Appeal to disgust
  • 21. Appeals to Emotion But what if -- what if when Adam Lanza started shooting his way into Sandy Hook Elementary School last Friday, he’d been confronted by qualified armed security? Will you at least admit it’s possible that 26 little kids, that 26 innocent lives might have been sparedthat day? Is it so important to you (inaudible) would rather continue to risk the alternative? Is the press and the political class here in Washington D.C. so consumed by fear and hatred of the NRA and American gun owners, that you’re willing to accept the world, where real resistance to evil monsters is alone, unarmed school principal left to surrender her life, her life, to shield those children in her care. Appeal to fear
  • 22. Appeals to Emotion This is a time this is a day for decisive action. We can’t wait for the next unspeakablecrime to happen before we act. We can’t lose precious time debating legislation that won’t work. We mustn’t allow politics or personal prejudice to divide us. We must act now for the sake of every child in America. Appeal to patriotism
  • 23. Now, what do we want toanalyze here?
  • 24. Take the partsand connect tothe Rhetorical Triangle
  • 25. Topic SentenceWayne Lapierre in his remarks for the NRA at aDecember 21st press conference tried toreframe the debate about guns in society asnecessary tools for self-protection.
  • 26. Set-upAs LaPierre imagines the media’s response tohis argument, he uses a series of examples todemonstrate why guns are useful tools.
  • 27. But since when did “gun” automatically becomea bad word? A gun in the hands of a SecretService agent protecting our president isn’t abad word. A gun in the hands of a soldierprotecting the United States of America isn’t abad word. And when you hear your glassbreaking at three a.m. and you call 911, youwon’t be able to pray hard enough for a gun inthe hands of a good guy to get there fast enoughto protect you.
  • 28. We can see that all three examples are of peopleprotecting valuable people with armed weapons.LaPierre’s major rhetorical hurdle here is that guns areassociated in many minds with violence and murder. Inorder to counter that, he reframes the word “gun” as aprotective device, one that good men need to resist theevil men. Guns provide us with us safety in an unsafeworld. The natural fear that surrounds thecircumstances of the Sandy Hook killings can only becountered by appealing to an action-movie imagery--secret service agents, war veterans, regular guy heroes.
  • 29. LaPierre wants us to see guns as the solution ratherthan the problem to violence in America. Hisargument--as aggressive as the weapons he supports--lacks any concession at all, but instead contends thatonly with a hyper-masculine re-arming of America willwe be able to protect ourselves from the monsters whostalk us.
  • 30. Other notes: Changing the subject Finding other villains Ethos--honest law-abiders vs. corrupt Eastern-ers