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Logos -toulmin.revised

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    Logos -toulmin.revised Logos -toulmin.revised Presentation Transcript

    • What we talk about when we talk about Argument
    • Let’s start with a claim
    • Women should be allowed to fight in US combat units
    • 1) They are physically capable. 2) Their presence would weaken gender stereotypes. 3) This would expand the opportunities for women in the military. Because...
    • 1) They are physically capable. What is the implied assumption? Because...
    • 2) Their presence would weaken gender stereotypes. What is the implied assumption? Because...
    • 3)This would expand the opportunities for women in the military. What is the implied assumption? Because...
    • Stephen Toulmin
    • Terms: Claim Reason Warrant Used to be called “implied assumption”
    • Example: Claim Reason Warrant I shouldn’t have to take Algebra because I want to be a lawyer career utility should be the main justification for class requirements
    • Your Turn: Claim Reason Warrant You should have to take algebra... ?????? ??????
    • An Argument: Parents should not allow their kids to own cellphones ...because they prevent kids from developing empathy. Reason Claim
    • An Argument: Parents should not allow their kids to own cellphones ...because they prevent kids from developing empathy. Reason Claim Grounds •testimony from kids •research connecting technology use with negative behavior on-and offline
    • So Far: Claim Reason Warrant Parents should not allow their kids to own cellphones ...because they prevent kids from developing empathy. Developing empathy is an crucial element of growing up that parents should nurture.
    • So Far: Claim Reason Backing Parents should not allow their kids to own cellphones ...because they prevent kids from developing empathy. Arguments that show how important empathy is a child/adult’s life.
    • Almost Done
    • Two More terms: Rebuttal Qualifier
    • Two More terms: Rebuttal The opposing argument against your claim
    • Two More terms: Rebuttal Cellphones should be allowed because they help kids connect with their peers.
    • Two More terms: The degree to which you are confident in your claim. Qualifier
    • Two More terms: Cellphones should DEFINITELY be banned Qualifier
    • Two More terms: Cellphones should POSSIBLY be banned Qualifier
    • Two More terms: We should consider whether cellphones should be banned. Qualifier
    • OK, your turn: Warrant Backing Grounds Reason Claim Rebuttal Qualifier
    • OK, your turn: Warrant Backing Grounds Reason Claim Rebuttal Qualifier All students should be required to take AP Language in order to graduate.