1. Exigence: What happens or fails to happen? Why is onecompelled to speak out? 2. Persons: Who is involved in the exigence and what roles dothey play? 3. Relations: What are the relationships, especially thedifferences in power, between the persons involved? 4. Location: Where is the site of discourse? e.g. a podium,newspaper, web page, etc. 5. Speaker: Who is compelled to speak or write? 6. Audience: Who does the speaker address and why? 7. Method: How does the speaker choose to address theaudience? 8. Institutions: What are the rules of the game surrounding/constraining numbers 1 through 7.
1. Exigence: What happens or fails to happen? Why is onecompelled to speak out? Every Person 2. Persons: Who is involved in the exigence and what roles dothey play? 3. Relations: What are the relationships, especially the Realizes Lionsdifferences in power, between the persons involved? 4. Location: Where is the site of discourse? e.g. a podium,newspaper, web page, etc. 5. Speaker: Who is compelled to speak or write? Should Always 6. Audience: Who does the speaker address and why? 7. Method: How does the speaker choose to address theaudience? Move Indoors 8. Institutions: What are the rules of the game surrounding/constraining numbers 1 through 7.
Three Categories of ethos • phronesis - practical skills & wisdom • arete - virtue, goodness (disinterest) • eunoia - goodwill towards the audience
PhronesisThis moment in American history demands honesty and leadership. Ultimately we are all in this together. By working together, we can restore optimism in the business community and grow this economy by controlling spending and enacting common sense reforms. John King -- Republican Member of Congress
Arete But for those making more than $1 million — there were 236,883 such households in 2009 — I would raise rates immediately on taxable income in excess of $1 million, including, of course, dividends and capital gains. And forthose who make $10 million or more — there were 8,274 in 2009 — I would suggest an additional increase in rate. My friends and I have been coddled long enough by a billionaire-friendly Congress. It’s time for our government to get serious about shared sacriﬁce. Warren Buffett
If you could master one element of personal communications that ismore powerful than anything we’ve discussed, it is the quality of being likeable. I call it the magic bullet, because if your audience likes you, they’ll forgive just about anythingelse you do wrong. If they don’t likeyou, you can hit every rule on target and it doesn’t matter. --Roger Ailes
Code Grooming Using terms, phrases, allusions, andideas that your audience recognizes
Using references that ageneral audience believes are innocuous but thatsignal certain groups that you are one of them. Dog Whistling
Mitt Romney, not one of us. --Ad from President ObamaDog Whistling
"We are part of an Anglo-Saxon heritage, ...The White Housedidnt fully appreciate the shared history we have." --Aide to Gov. Romney Dog Whistling
Knowing yourAudience’s Assumptions
You shouldnot let little Jimmy playwith power toolsbecause . . .
Children are not as capable of maturejudgment as an adult.
Little Jimmy is an onlychild, and hisparents will beheartbrokenif he injures himself.
Joe Bob McGillicutty,the president of Jigsaw Powertools,Incorporated, forbidschildren fromusing them in the owners manual.
Invoking an audience’s identity
Reminding the audience of a particular role or membership.
Possible Roles Parent/Child American/Nationalistic Occupation The “Good” Side Male/Female Age Education Knowledgeable
"According to Aristotle, rhetors can invent a character suitable to an occasion--this is invented ethos. However, if rhetors are fortunate enough to enjoy a goodreputation in the community, they can use it as an ethical proof--this is situated ethos." (Sharon Crowley and Debra Hawhee, Ancient Rhetorics for Contemporary Students. Pearson, 2004)