EpizeuxisThree words in a row:Words, words, words!--Hamlet
AnaphoraRepeating the ﬁrst wordWith malice toward none;with charity for all;with ﬁrmness in the right,...— Abraham Lincoln, SecondInaugural Address
EpistropheRepeating the last word"Dont you ever talk about my friends!You dont know any of my friends. Youdont look at any of my friends. And youcertainly wouldnt condescend to speak toany of my friends."(Judd Nelson in The Breakfast Club)
SymploceRepeating the ﬁrst and last words"Much of what I say might sound bitter, but its thetruth. Much of what I say might sound like its stirringup trouble, but its the truth. Much of what I say mightsound like it is hate, but its the truth."-- Malcolm X
AnadiplosisRepeating the last part and the ﬁrst part"Fear is the path to the dark side. Fear leads to anger.Anger leads to hate. Hate leads to suffering. I sensemuch fear in you."(Yoda in Star Wars Episode 1: The Phantom Menance)
ChiasmusThe X-ﬁgure"I had a teacher I liked who used to say good ﬁctionsjob was to comfort the disturbed and disturb the comfortable."(David Foster Wallace)
AntithesisBalanced opposites"I would rather be ashes than dust! I would rather thatmy spark should burn out in a brilliant blaze than itshould be stiﬂed by dryrot. I would rather be a superbmeteor, every atom of me in magniﬁcent glow, than asleepy and permanent planet. The proper function ofman is to live, not to exist. I shall not waste my days intrying to prolong them. I shall use my time."(Jack London)
TricolonThree items in a series"You are talking to a man who has laughed in the faceof death, sneered at doom, and chuckled atcatastrophe."(The Wizard in The Wizard of Oz, 1939)
TricolonThree items in a series"I require three things in a man. He must be handsome,ruthless, and stupid."(Dorothy Parker)
LitotesUnderstatement that negates the positive"Are you also aware, Mrs. Bueller, that Ferris does nothave what we consider to be an exemplary attendancerecord?"(Jeffrey Jones as Principal Ed Rooney, Ferris BuellersDay Off, 1986)
Polysyndeton/AsyndetonMore Conjunctions/No ConjunctionsAnd every living substance was destroyed which wasupon the face of the ground, both man, and cattle, andthe creeping things, and the fowl of the heaven; andthey were destroyed from the earth: and Noah onlyremained alive, and they that were with him in the ark.Genesis
Polysyndeton/AsyndetonMore Conjunctions/No Conjunctions"He was a bag of bones, a ﬂoppy doll, a broken stick, amaniac."(Jack Kerouac, On the Road, 1957)
ZeugmaThe Yoking Figure--literal and ﬁgurative Your phone is off the hook, but youre not X,
ZeugmaThe Yoking Figure--literal and ﬁgurative My teeth and ambitions are bared; be prepared! - Scar, from The Lion King
Do logical appeals ever work?
An idea is a feat of association, and theheight of it is a good metaphor. Robert Frost
Her criticisms The Conceptual were right on target. Metaphor Argument is a WAR She shot downHe won the argument my arguments.
Soccer associations The Conceptual sprouted up all over Boston. Metaphor Social organizations are plantsThe math club withered after We need to let Mindy left. our school grow.
The Conceptual MetaphorLife is a Journey
The Conceptual MetaphorDemocrats = MomRepublicans = Dad
George LakoffFrank Luntz Word Associations
Government vs. Washington Tax Cuts vs. Tax Relief Inheritance Tax vs. Death TaxUndocumented Workers vs. Illegal Aliens Drilling for oil vs. Exploring for Energy
Imagine Words thatHastle-freeLifestyle workResultsCan-Do spiritInnovationRenewEfﬁciencyThe Right to...
Appeals to Emotion
If you don’t graduate from high school, you will end up a ditchdigger. fear
"Ladies and gentlemen of the jury, look atthis miserable man, in a wheelchair, unable to use his legs. Could such a man really be guilty of embezzlement?" Appeals to pity
Oh sure! Of course, evolution makes sense!It’s perfectly obvious that people are related to gorillas! Appeal to ridicule
"Free will must exist: if it didnt, we would all be machines." Appeal to consequences
Honors students such as yourselves are toosmart to be fooled by companies like Jostens that try to sell you ovepriced junk. Appeal to ﬂattery
"Stop recycling! Arent you tired ofHollywood celebrities preaching toeveryone about saving the Earth?" Appeal to spite