Learning from Diversity
eTwinning professional development workshop
   Intercultural appreciation and inclusion:
         ...
High Comissioner for Immigration
 and Intercultural Dialogue (ACIDI)

(…)‘to fight all forms of discrimination,
  through ...
intercultural learning
   Condition of sustainability in our multicultural societies
  Changing Multicultural into Intercu...
common challenges faced by
      schools in Europe
. growing diversity
. a large number of students facing
  barriers
(par...
equity in education
• high expectations: every person is able
                     to learn and achieve
                  ...
inclusion:
a paradigm shift - From Them to Us


        Us           Them




                Us
challenging beliefs in school

  Opposite ways of looking at educational difficulties:

Perspective 1: Difficulties define...
example: Learning from Diversity
       a school development guide
Developing a School’s Network – Inclusive Education Pro...
example: developing a schools’
               network
        The project challenge for the schools
    developing a curri...
key lessons: developing more
          inclusive schools
• improvement has to be led from within
• it is a long developmen...
inclusive education:
      an organizational perspective
• The process of increasing the participation of
  students in, a...
developing more inclusive schools
 a process of removing barriers to learning and
 participation - specially those faced b...
learning from diversity in school
• looking at diversity as an opportunity for
  learning: developing intercultural skills...
building intercultural skills in school
• Intercultural competence as an essential tool for all
• Critical reflection: sha...
organizing school-based learning events
 •   Meeting different people with different roles
 •   Getting to know each other...
school context analysis through
         collaborative inquiry
•   Developing a focus
•   Inviting external elements as ‘c...
using evidence as a stimulus for
     change: overcoming barriers
    opportunities for joint planning and practice:
•   i...
“… if you think the subject of education is knowledge, then
to make it more powerful, wonderful and inclusive, it follows
...
bibliography
Ainscow, M. (1994) Special Needs in the Classroom: A Teacher Education
   Guide. Cambridge: UNESCO Publ.

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Learning from difference

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by Isabel Paes

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Learning from difference

  1. 1. Learning from Diversity eTwinning professional development workshop Intercultural appreciation and inclusion: challenging schools Isabel Paes ACIDI, IP – Portugal
  2. 2. High Comissioner for Immigration and Intercultural Dialogue (ACIDI) (…)‘to fight all forms of discrimination, through positive actions of awareness, education and training, and to promote interculturality, through intercultural and inter-religious dialogue, based on the respect of the Constitution, the Law and recognising the value of cultural diversity and mutual respect.’
  3. 3. intercultural learning Condition of sustainability in our multicultural societies Changing Multicultural into Intercultural Contexts Multicultural Intercultural Culture as a static concept Culture as a dynamic concept Difference is recognized Understanding of Difference Poor management of diversity Constant efforts to deal with diversity Differences coexist Differences interact: people learning from each other and changing together
  4. 4. common challenges faced by schools in Europe . growing diversity . a large number of students facing barriers (particularly regarding opportunities for full participation and low achievement) • How to respond to diversity? • How to promote equity in education?
  5. 5. equity in education • high expectations: every person is able to learn and achieve something and • relevant opportunities for all: - participation - learning
  6. 6. inclusion: a paradigm shift - From Them to Us Us Them Us
  7. 7. challenging beliefs in school Opposite ways of looking at educational difficulties: Perspective 1: Difficulties defined in terms of student characteristics (deficit perspective) Perspective 2: Difficulties defined in terms of organizational conditions (curricular perspective) From Ainscow, M. (1994) Special Needs in the Classroom: A Teacher Education Guide. Cambridge: UNESCO Publ.
  8. 8. example: Learning from Diversity a school development guide Developing a School’s Network – Inclusive Education Project (ME) Disseminating a Guide for School Development (ACIDI/ME) key issues • collaboration • coordination teams • shared leadership • joint problem solving • managing time for development activities • action learning • external elements • school’s networks Learning from Diversity (Caldeira et al., 2004) www.acidi.gov.pt
  9. 9. example: developing a schools’ network The project challenge for the schools developing a curricular perspective approach: ● How can we make a better use of the resources available for learning and participation? - students - teachers and their partners in school - parents and other partners in the community - other schools and external elements ● How can we reorganize the curriculum and school’s policies in order to improve opportunities for all students in the local community? Using the INDEX FOR INCLUSION (Booth e Ainscow, 2001, CSIE)
  10. 10. key lessons: developing more inclusive schools • improvement has to be led from within • it is a long development process requiring leaders committed and fixed in a school • ‘building bridges’, an effective role for leaders: - shared leadership - involving different people - developing new values and a shared commitment towards equity - encouraging experimentation Collaboration in school and supportive school’s networks are the best means of mobilising available expertise. (Mel Ainscow, 2008)
  11. 11. inclusive education: an organizational perspective • The process of increasing the participation of students in, and reducing their exclusion from the curricula, cultures and communities of local schools • Restructuring the cultures, policies and practices of schools so that they respond to the diversity of students in their locality • The presence, participation and achievement of all students vulnerable to exclusionary pressures, not only those with impairments or those who are categorised as ‘having special educational needs’ From Ainscow, M., Booth, T. and Dyson, A. (2006) ‘Improving Schools, Developing Inclusion’. London: Routledge
  12. 12. developing more inclusive schools a process of removing barriers to learning and participation - specially those faced by the students most vulnerable to marginalization... ... starting with removing the obstacles buried in our own minds: learning to live together - learning from diversity The best way to reach new values: involving all people in a school’s community in successful initiatives that bring innovation
  13. 13. learning from diversity in school • looking at diversity as an opportunity for learning: developing intercultural skills • building welcoming cooperative learning environments that fosters collaboration: partnerships/organizing learning events • developing research skills through collaborative inquiry – analysis of the school context • using evidence as an engine for change
  14. 14. building intercultural skills in school • Intercultural competence as an essential tool for all • Critical reflection: sharing different views/challenging beliefs: a cross curricular task Creating conditions for personal and social change looking at oneself as a learner It requires: • Modifying the process of knowledge construction: learning through cooperation; creating conditions for cooperative learning • Giving students a more active role in their own learning • Changings in the hidden curriculum, in classroom management and interaction and in the teacher’s role. (From Díaz-Aguado, 2000)
  15. 15. organizing school-based learning events • Meeting different people with different roles • Getting to know each other • Sharing good practices and achievements • Providing and getting feedback • Discussing the details of practice with peers • Developing self-confidence • Building new tools and strategies • Creating a common language • Sustaining communities of practice Learning to work in collaboration Learning together in school
  16. 16. school context analysis through collaborative inquiry • Developing a focus • Inviting external elements as ‘critical friends’ • Involving students as researchers • Listening to different / hidden voices • Classroom / school observation • Writing ‘stories’ an action learning approach (Mel Ainscow, 2008)
  17. 17. using evidence as a stimulus for change: overcoming barriers opportunities for joint planning and practice: • involving different people from every group in the local community • developing a common sense of purpose • engaging with evidence • leading change step by step The most important factor: the collective will to make it happen (Ainscow, 2008)
  18. 18. “… if you think the subject of education is knowledge, then to make it more powerful, wonderful and inclusive, it follows that knowledge should get more general, that some knowledge should illuminate other knowledge. Perhaps that is why the idea of ‘theory’ is so appealing. But the subject of education isn't knowledge - it's people. To make them more powerful, wonderful, and inclusive, we can only help create with them circumstances in which they can gradually transform their own needs, knowledgeability, and grasp of their future possibilities.” (Lave, 2001)
  19. 19. bibliography Ainscow, M. (1994) Special Needs in the Classroom: A Teacher Education Guide. Cambridge: UNESCO Publ. Ainscow, M.; Booth, T. (2001) Index for Inclusion. Bristol: CSIE. Ainscow, M., Booth, T. and Dyson, A. (2006) Improving Schools, Developing Inclusion. London: Routledge. Caldeira, E.; Micaelo, M.; Paes, I.; Vitorino, T. (2004) Learning from Difference. A School Development Guide (Portuguese version). Lisboa: ACIME/DEB (ME) Díaz-Aguado, M.J. (1996) Programa de Educación para la Tolerancia y Prevención de la Violencia en los Jóvenes. Madrid: Ministerio del TAS Lave, J. (2001) Learning in Practice: The Kalundborg Production School. CUP
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