Additional strategy - make a 10. 7 were playing now there are 11 3 more equals 10 need 1 more than 10 so 1 more than 3 came. 4 children came
Differentiated Instruction Making Mathematics Accessible and Challenging to All Students CLEF - August 13, 2012
What is differentiation?• Modifying learning tasks to better fit the ability levels, interests, and learning styles of all students.• Providing high-quality, engaging, and challenging mathematics activities for all students.
Goals for this Session• Define differentiation• Examine several differentiation strategies with examples aligned to the CCSS for Mathematics• Create a mathematical task in grade level groups with at least 2 modifications to differentiate instruction• Examine strategies for differentiating assessment and tracking student growth.• This presentation can be accessed online at www.***
Grade 1-OA- Operations and Algebraic Thinking• 1 - Use addition and subtraction within 20 to solve word problems involving situations of adding to, taking from, putting together, taking apart, and comparing, with unknowns in all positions, e.g., by using objects, drawings, and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem.• 4 - Understand subtraction as an unknown-addend problem. For example, subtract 10 – 8 by finding the number that makes 10 when added to 8.
7 children were playing, ___ more came, now there are 11
7 children were playing, ___ more came, now there are 11
6 children were playing, ___ more came, now there are 14
Grades 3-5 Geometry• 3-G-1- Understand that shapes in different categories (e.g., rhombuses, rectangles, and others) may share attributes (e.g., having four sides), and that the shared attributes can define a larger category (e.g., quadrilaterals). Recognize rhombuses, rectangles, and squares as examples of quadrilaterals, and draw examples of quadrilaterals that do not belong to any of these subcategories.• 4-G-2 - Classify two-dimensional figures based on the presence or absence of parallel or perpendicular lines, or the presence or absence of angles of a specified size. Recognize right triangles as a category, and identify right triangles.• 5-G-3 - Understand that attributes belonging to a category of two- dimensional figures also belong to all subcategories of that category. For example, all rectangles have four right angles and squares are rectangles, so all squares have four right angles.
Grade 5NF 3 - Number and Operations - Fractions• Interpret a fraction as division of the numerator by the denominator (a/b = a ÷ b). Solve word problems involving division of whole numbers leading to answers in the form of fractions or mixed numbers, e.g., by using visual fraction models or equations to represent the problem. For example, interpret 3/4 as the result of dividing 3 by 4, noting that 3/4 multiplied by 4 equals 3, and that when 3 wholes are shared equally among 4 people each person has a share of size 3/4.
Questions to Consider When Designing Modifications
What makes the third question more difficult than the first two?What makes the last question the most difficult?
What makes the second question more difficult than the first one?What makes the last question the most difficult?
Guiding Questions WhenGuiding Questions When Designing Tasks Designing Tasks
HS-A-SSE-2-3-Seeing Structure in Expressions• 2. Use the structure of an expression to identify ways to rewrite it. For example, see x4 – y4 as (x2)2 – (y2)2, thus recognizing it as a difference of squares that can be factored as (x2 – y2)(x2 + y2).• 3. Choose and produce an equivalent form of an expression to reveal and explain properties of the quantity represented by the expression.• a. Factor a quadratic expression to reveal the zeros of the function it defines.
HS - A-CED-1 - Creating Expressions• Create equations and inequalities in one variable and use them to solve problems. Include equations arising from linear and quadratic functions, and simple rational and exponential functions.
questions you could ask tohelp students struggling with this task. Extensions?
5-MD-2 Measurement and Data - Make a line plot to display a data set of measurements in fractions of a unit (1/2, 1/4, 1/8). Use operations on fractions for this grade to solve problems involving information presented in line plots. For example, given different measurements of liquid in identical beakers, find the amount of liquid each beaker would contain if the total amount in all the beakers were redistributed equally.
6-SP-5 - Statistics and Probability• Summarize numerical data sets in relation to their context, such as by:• c - Giving quantitative measures of center (median and/or mean) and variability (interquartile range and/or mean absolute deviation), as well as describing any overall pattern and any striking deviations from the overall pattern with reference to the context in which the data were gathered.• d - Relating the choice of measures of center and variability to the shape of the data distribution and the context in which the data were gathered.
Your Turn• Each group will choose one of two standards. If your group finishes early, you may either think about other modifications or consider the other standard.• Design an engaging task for students to complete to help them develop or assess the level of proficiency in the standard• Create at least 2 modifications of the task to differentiate instruction. You might differentiate for ability levels, learning styles, interests, or problem solving strategy. Consider these questions when designing your task.
Grades K-2• 2-NBT-5 - Fluently add and subtract within 100 using strategies based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction.• 1-MD-2 - Express the length of an object as a whole number of length units, by laying multiple copies of a shorter object (the length unit) end to end; understand that the length measurement of an object is the number of same-size length units that span it with no gaps or overlaps. Limit to contexts where the object being measured is spanned by a whole number of length units with no gaps or overlaps
Grades 3-5• 4-NF-2 - Compare two fractions with different numerators and different denominators, e.g., by creating common denominators or numerators, or by comparing to a benchmark fraction such as 1/2. Recognize that comparisons are valid only when the two fractions refer to the same whole. Record the results of comparisons with symbols >, =, or <, and justify the conclusions, e.g., by using a visual fraction model.• 5-MD-3 - Recognize volume as an attribute of solid figures and understand concepts of volume measurement.• - A cube with side length 1 unit, called a “unit cube,” is said to have “one cubic unit” of volume, and can be used to measure volume.• - A solid figure which can be packed without gaps or overlaps using n unit cubes is said to have a volume of n cubic units.
Grades 6-8• 6-RP-3 - Use ratio and rate reasoning to solve real-world and mathematical problems, e.g., by reasoning about tables of equivalent ratios, tape diagrams, double number line diagrams, or equations.• b - Solve unit rate problems including those involving unit pricing and constant speed. For example, if it took 7 hours to mow 4 lawns, then at that rate, how many lawns could be mowed in 35 hours? At what rate were lawns being mowed?• c - Find a percent of a quantity as a rate per 100 (e.g., 30% of a quantity means 30/100 times the quantity); solve problems involving finding the whole, given a part and the percent.• 8-NS-2 - Use rational approximations of irrational numbers to compare the size of irrational numbers, locate them approximately on a number line diagram, and estimate the value of expressions (e.g., π^2). For example, by truncating the decimal expansion of √2, show that √2 is between 1 and 2, then between 1.4 and 1.5, and explain how to continue on to get better approximations.
High School• F-BF3- Building Functions- Identify the effect on the graph of replacing f(x) by f(x) + k, k f(x), f(kx), and f(x + k) for specific values of k (both positive and negative); find the value of k given the graphs. Experiment with cases and illustrate an explanation of the effects on the graph using technology. Include recognizing even and odd functions from their graphs and algebraic expressions for them.• G-SRT-7 - Similarity, Right Triangles, and Trigonometry- Explain and use the relationship between the sine and cosine of complementary angles
Choice Activities• Math/Science-experiment or research project with mathematics embedded into it• Math/Social Studies- problem embedded into a cultural, historical, or social context• Writing about mathematics - problem solving strategies, explaining relationships, etc...• Math/Literature connection - set the stage for a problem or introduce a concept• Game - practice skills or problem solving, analyze strategies• Logic problem - puzzles, Venn diagrams• Building project- Kinesthetic learners, paper folding, block building, models with manipulatives• Problem solving - May target a specific strategy, ex. look for a pattern, start w/simple example, work backwards• Data Project - collect, analyze, display data to explore a topic
Criteria for Selecting Choice Activities• Activity requires investigation• Can be solved in multiple ways• Complex, requires a variety of skills, develops perseverance• Designed so students of a variety of abilities can begin the problem at their own level; some may need more guidance• Activity may provide practice or fresh insight into skills/concepts in unit• Engaging activity• Can be completed individually or in small groups• Encourages reflection and communication about key mathematical ideas• Activities reflect a variety of learning styles• Activities reflect a variety of levels on Blooms Taxonomy
Sample Chart to Record Student Progress Toward Meeting the Standard
Other Examples of Activities Grade 6-EE-2 Expressions and Equations• c - Evaluate expressions at specific values of their variables. Include expressions that arise from formulas used in real-world problems. Perform arithmetic operations, including those involving whole-number exponents, in the conventional order when there are no parentheses to specify a particular order (Order of Operations). For example, use the formulas V = s3 and A = 6 s2 to find the volume and surface area of a cube with sides of length s = 1/2.
Teacher Reflection Order of Operations Activity
1-OA-6 Operations and Algebraic Thinking• Add and subtract within 20, demonstrating fluency for addition and subtraction within 10. Use strategies such as counting on; making ten (e.g., 8 + 6 = 8 + 2 + 4 = 10 + 4 = 14); decomposing a number leading to a ten (e.g., 13 – 4 = 13 – 3 – 1 = 10 – 1 = 9); using the relationship between addition and subtraction (e.g., knowing that 8 + 4 = 12, one knows 12 – 8 = 4); and creating equivalent but easier or known sums (e.g., adding 6 + 7 by creating the known equivalent 6 + 6 + 1 = 12 + 1 = 13).
References• Bray, W. S. (2009, October). The power of choice. Teaching Children Mathematics, 178-183.• Chval, K. B., & Davis, J. A. (2009, January). The gifted student. Mathematics Teaching in the Middle School, 14(5), 267-274.• Little, C. A., Hauser, S., & Corbishley, J. (2009, August) Constructing complexity for differentiated learning. Mathematics Teaching in the Middle School, 15(1). 34-42.• Pierce, R. L., & Adams, C. L. (2005, October). Using tiered lessons in mathematics. Mathematics Teaching in the Middle School, 11(3). 143-149.• Wilkins, M. M., Wilkins, J. M., & Oliver, T. (2006, August). Differentiating the curriculum for elementary gifted mathematics students. Teaching Children Mathematics, 6-13.