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Past, current and future developments of modern forest fuel systems
Past, current and future developments of modern forest fuel systems
Past, current and future developments of modern forest fuel systems
Past, current and future developments of modern forest fuel systems
Past, current and future developments of modern forest fuel systems
Past, current and future developments of modern forest fuel systems
Past, current and future developments of modern forest fuel systems
Past, current and future developments of modern forest fuel systems
Past, current and future developments of modern forest fuel systems
Past, current and future developments of modern forest fuel systems
Past, current and future developments of modern forest fuel systems
Past, current and future developments of modern forest fuel systems
Past, current and future developments of modern forest fuel systems
Past, current and future developments of modern forest fuel systems
Past, current and future developments of modern forest fuel systems
Past, current and future developments of modern forest fuel systems
Past, current and future developments of modern forest fuel systems
Past, current and future developments of modern forest fuel systems
Past, current and future developments of modern forest fuel systems
Past, current and future developments of modern forest fuel systems
Past, current and future developments of modern forest fuel systems
Past, current and future developments of modern forest fuel systems
Past, current and future developments of modern forest fuel systems
Past, current and future developments of modern forest fuel systems
Past, current and future developments of modern forest fuel systems
Past, current and future developments of modern forest fuel systems
Past, current and future developments of modern forest fuel systems
Past, current and future developments of modern forest fuel systems
Past, current and future developments of modern forest fuel systems
Past, current and future developments of modern forest fuel systems
Past, current and future developments of modern forest fuel systems
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Past, current and future developments of modern forest fuel systems

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Harvesting technique, logistic problems/solutions/economy/ecology. By Henrik von Hofsten, Skogforsk, for woodenergyproject.eu

Harvesting technique, logistic problems/solutions/economy/ecology. By Henrik von Hofsten, Skogforsk, for woodenergyproject.eu

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  • 1. Past, current and future developments of modern forest fuel systems Henrik von Hofsten
  • 2. Utilization of forest biomass in Sweden 23 % Energy 46 % Pulpwood 36 % Paper & PulpAnnual felling 16 % 94 M m3 Pulp chips 46 % 20 % Sawlogs Sawn goods 10 % Bark & sawdust 8 % Traditional firewood Source: Skogsindustrierna, 2003 och SCB/SKS
  • 3. Low fruits are already taken Small trees Stumps Slash Fire wood Bark Saw dust Black liquers
  • 4. So, what do we do?
  • 5. Technical development – stump lifter 2008 1978
  • 6. Reduce transport costs
  • 7. Net cost comparison SKr/MWh 200 150 Soil handling Transport 100 Comminution Lifting 50 0 Normal New
  • 8. Cost reduction of unrefined woodresidues in Sweden 1975-2003Euro(2002)/MWh 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 Cumulative use of biofuels (TWh) Suorce: M.Junginger & Björheden 2005
  • 9. Cost reduction in stump lifting 2006-2010 Costs,Skr/MWh160140120100 80 Sites 60 Average/yr 40 20 0 1 10 100 1000 10000 Accumulated area, ha
  • 10. Environmental benefitInput/output ratio – fossil vs. forest fuel 8,0 7,0 North sea oil 6,0 Percent of output 5,0 Soil handling Transport 4,0 Comminution 3,0 Lifting 2,0 1,0 0,0 Normal New
  • 11. Felling methods m3/hour 20 15 10 5 0 Today Sweep Tomorrow
  • 12. Felling methods  Diameter 4-8 cm  Yield per corridor 20-40 stems  or 150-300 kg
  • 13. Felling equipment  Max. equipment weight 700 kg  Min. height upper/lower accumulation arms 55 cm  Accumulating capacityTo accum 40 stems á 4 cm  0,078 m² or 30 cm dia 30 stems á 5 cm  0,09 m² or 35 cm dia
  • 14. Profitiability in small dia. standsm3/h 37,5 Yielded 30,0 stems/hour 22,5 15,0 Break even 7,5 0 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Diameter, cm
  • 15. Surplus and shortageareas Railways ? Logistic structure – Terminals Organization
  • 16. Railway terminals
  • 17. Logistics – what goes where andwhen Need for optimization software
  • 18. Logistics on site – GPS can help
  • 19. Productivity & fuel consumption
  • 20. Effect of screen size Change, % 40 30 20 10 0 60 ˣ 40 mm -10 60 ˣ 240 mm -20 -30 Production Fuel consump.
  • 21. Maintenance
  • 22. Knife maintenance35 Knife wear30 180%25 160%20 140%15 120%10 100% Production 5 80% Fuel 0 60% -5 40%-10 20%-15 0% 0 100 200 300-20 New Bad Tonnes chipped
  • 23. Other topics of interest  Supply chain  Logistics  Transportation  Certification FSC, PEFC  Business and trade
  • 24. Terminal solutions
  • 25. Other topics of interest  Supply chain  Logistics  Transportation  Certification FSC, PEFC  Business and trade
  • 26. ODt Oven dry tonnesMany trade units = confusion MWh Ton dry Ton raw Hectare m3 loose chips m3 solid biom m3 solid round wood m3 solid ub incl. bark
  • 27. Costs 2009 Slash Small diam. Round wood StumpsTo land owner 39 14 60 2Harvest ̶ 41 14 43Forwarding 33 26 19 25Other 8 6 9 3∑ at road side 80 87 102 73Comminution 44 31 16 40Terminal costs 7 6 12 8Road transport 34 34 29 46Administration 7 6 8 6∑ at heat plant 172 165 167 174All costs in SKr per m3loose
  • 28. Thank you!Henrik von Hofstenheho@skogforsk.se

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