Past, current and future developments    of modern forest fuel systems             Henrik von Hofsten
Utilization of forest biomass in Sweden                                                              23 %                 ...
Low fruits are already taken                                                    Small trees                               ...
So, what do we do?
Technical development – stump lifter                 2008       1978
Reduce transport costs
Net cost comparison  SKr/MWh    200    150                           Soil handling                           Transport    ...
Cost reduction of unrefined woodresidues in Sweden 1975-2003Euro(2002)/MWh      50      45      40      35      30      25...
Cost reduction in stump lifting 2006-2010 Costs,Skr/MWh160140120100 80                                              Sites ...
Environmental benefitInput/output ratio – fossil vs. forest fuel                     8,0                     7,0          ...
Felling methods   m3/hour    20    15    10     5     0             Today   Sweep   Tomorrow
Felling methods                   Diameter 4-8 cm                   Yield per corridor                      20-40 stems ...
Felling equipment                     Max. equipment weight 700 kg                     Min. height upper/lower          ...
Profitiability in small dia. standsm3/h       37,5                                                        Yielded       30...
Surplus and shortageareas   Railways ?   Logistic structure    – Terminals       Organization
Railway terminals
Logistics – what goes where andwhen        Need for optimization software
Logistics on site – GPS can help
Productivity & fuel consumption
Effect of screen size   Change,     %   40   30   20   10    0                                     60 ˣ 40 mm   -10       ...
Maintenance
Knife maintenance35                                        Knife wear30                             180%25                ...
Other topics of interest  Supply chain  Logistics  Transportation  Certification FSC, PEFC  Business and trade
Terminal solutions
Other topics of interest  Supply chain  Logistics  Transportation  Certification FSC, PEFC  Business and trade
ODt                               Oven dry tonnesMany trade units = confusion   MWh   Ton dry   Ton raw   Hectare   m...
Costs 2009                  Slash        Small diam. Round wood StumpsTo land owner             39          14          60...
Thank you!Henrik von Hofstenheho@skogforsk.se
Past, current and future developments of modern forest fuel systems
Past, current and future developments of modern forest fuel systems
Past, current and future developments of modern forest fuel systems
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Past, current and future developments of modern forest fuel systems

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Harvesting technique, logistic problems/solutions/economy/ecology. By Henrik von Hofsten, Skogforsk, for woodenergyproject.eu

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Past, current and future developments of modern forest fuel systems

  1. 1. Past, current and future developments of modern forest fuel systems Henrik von Hofsten
  2. 2. Utilization of forest biomass in Sweden 23 % Energy 46 % Pulpwood 36 % Paper & PulpAnnual felling 16 % 94 M m3 Pulp chips 46 % 20 % Sawlogs Sawn goods 10 % Bark & sawdust 8 % Traditional firewood Source: Skogsindustrierna, 2003 och SCB/SKS
  3. 3. Low fruits are already taken Small trees Stumps Slash Fire wood Bark Saw dust Black liquers
  4. 4. So, what do we do?
  5. 5. Technical development – stump lifter 2008 1978
  6. 6. Reduce transport costs
  7. 7. Net cost comparison SKr/MWh 200 150 Soil handling Transport 100 Comminution Lifting 50 0 Normal New
  8. 8. Cost reduction of unrefined woodresidues in Sweden 1975-2003Euro(2002)/MWh 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 Cumulative use of biofuels (TWh) Suorce: M.Junginger & Björheden 2005
  9. 9. Cost reduction in stump lifting 2006-2010 Costs,Skr/MWh160140120100 80 Sites 60 Average/yr 40 20 0 1 10 100 1000 10000 Accumulated area, ha
  10. 10. Environmental benefitInput/output ratio – fossil vs. forest fuel 8,0 7,0 North sea oil 6,0 Percent of output 5,0 Soil handling Transport 4,0 Comminution 3,0 Lifting 2,0 1,0 0,0 Normal New
  11. 11. Felling methods m3/hour 20 15 10 5 0 Today Sweep Tomorrow
  12. 12. Felling methods  Diameter 4-8 cm  Yield per corridor 20-40 stems  or 150-300 kg
  13. 13. Felling equipment  Max. equipment weight 700 kg  Min. height upper/lower accumulation arms 55 cm  Accumulating capacityTo accum 40 stems á 4 cm  0,078 m² or 30 cm dia 30 stems á 5 cm  0,09 m² or 35 cm dia
  14. 14. Profitiability in small dia. standsm3/h 37,5 Yielded 30,0 stems/hour 22,5 15,0 Break even 7,5 0 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Diameter, cm
  15. 15. Surplus and shortageareas Railways ? Logistic structure – Terminals Organization
  16. 16. Railway terminals
  17. 17. Logistics – what goes where andwhen Need for optimization software
  18. 18. Logistics on site – GPS can help
  19. 19. Productivity & fuel consumption
  20. 20. Effect of screen size Change, % 40 30 20 10 0 60 ˣ 40 mm -10 60 ˣ 240 mm -20 -30 Production Fuel consump.
  21. 21. Maintenance
  22. 22. Knife maintenance35 Knife wear30 180%25 160%20 140%15 120%10 100% Production 5 80% Fuel 0 60% -5 40%-10 20%-15 0% 0 100 200 300-20 New Bad Tonnes chipped
  23. 23. Other topics of interest  Supply chain  Logistics  Transportation  Certification FSC, PEFC  Business and trade
  24. 24. Terminal solutions
  25. 25. Other topics of interest  Supply chain  Logistics  Transportation  Certification FSC, PEFC  Business and trade
  26. 26. ODt Oven dry tonnesMany trade units = confusion MWh Ton dry Ton raw Hectare m3 loose chips m3 solid biom m3 solid round wood m3 solid ub incl. bark
  27. 27. Costs 2009 Slash Small diam. Round wood StumpsTo land owner 39 14 60 2Harvest ̶ 41 14 43Forwarding 33 26 19 25Other 8 6 9 3∑ at road side 80 87 102 73Comminution 44 31 16 40Terminal costs 7 6 12 8Road transport 34 34 29 46Administration 7 6 8 6∑ at heat plant 172 165 167 174All costs in SKr per m3loose
  28. 28. Thank you!Henrik von Hofstenheho@skogforsk.se

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