On-going development of forest-based energy in Sweden  
Energy consumption in Sweden 2010 Hydropower Nuclear power Bioenergy Oil
Energy use in Sweden
Bioenergy development in Sweden 1970-2005 Share of domestic energy consumption <ul><li>1970:  9% </li></ul><ul><li>1980: 1...
Share of renewable energy in total energy consumption [%]
GHG emissions in Sweden 1990-2008
Main drivers affecting present changes towards renewable energy <ul><li>Carbon dioxide tax from 1991 </li></ul><ul><li>Cer...
Energy mix in district heating 1970-2008 oil coal biomass TWh
Example CHP in Ostersund
Energy in industry sector
Biopower 2002-2010 Waste Peat Other bio Pulp indu www.svebio.se
Wood use in the Swedish forest sector ~6-7 % of biomass harvest: energy (branches and tops (and stumps))  36 % Pulp & Pape...
Stemwood stock in Swedish forest <ul><li>1926 – c. 1780 m3 </li></ul><ul><li>1990 – c. 2800 m3 </li></ul><ul><li>2007 – c....
Positive effect for climate questioned…, however <ul><li>Branches and tops  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Highly positive in a 15-...
Development of regulations <ul><li>Forestry Act – improved 1998 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Damage  on soil or water  should  be...
Environmental goals – 16 areas <ul><li>Clean air, lakes, rivers, etc </li></ul><ul><li>Natural biodiversity in the sea, fo...
Coming.. <ul><li>Pine diesel (to be mixed with fossil diesel) </li></ul><ul><li>DME from black liquor gasification </li></...
Energy carriers in transportation
Sustainability = Ecology, economy, social values <ul><li>≥   Sustained level of biomass production </li></ul><ul><li>Biodi...
Who define sustainability for practical use? <ul><li>MCPFE (Pan-european forest policy process) </li></ul><ul><li>Montreal...
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Why it is important to recycle bioenergy ashes back to forest in Sweden, motives, ash pre-treatment, logistic and environmental aspects

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By Hillevi Eriksson, Swedish Forest Agency, for woodenergyproject.eu

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Why it is important to recycle bioenergy ashes back to forest in Sweden, motives, ash pre-treatment, logistic and environmental aspects

  1. 1. On-going development of forest-based energy in Sweden  
  2. 2. Energy consumption in Sweden 2010 Hydropower Nuclear power Bioenergy Oil
  3. 3. Energy use in Sweden
  4. 4. Bioenergy development in Sweden 1970-2005 Share of domestic energy consumption <ul><li>1970: 9% </li></ul><ul><li>1980: 11% </li></ul><ul><li>1990: 15% </li></ul><ul><li>2000: 20% </li></ul><ul><li>2009: 29% </li></ul>
  5. 5. Share of renewable energy in total energy consumption [%]
  6. 6. GHG emissions in Sweden 1990-2008
  7. 7. Main drivers affecting present changes towards renewable energy <ul><li>Carbon dioxide tax from 1991 </li></ul><ul><li>Certificates for renewable electricity production from 2001 </li></ul><ul><li>Political will – affecting community owned energy production units, vehicles </li></ul><ul><li>Emission trading in the EU </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals choices – green electricity, transports </li></ul>
  8. 8. Energy mix in district heating 1970-2008 oil coal biomass TWh
  9. 9. Example CHP in Ostersund
  10. 10. Energy in industry sector
  11. 11. Biopower 2002-2010 Waste Peat Other bio Pulp indu www.svebio.se
  12. 12. Wood use in the Swedish forest sector ~6-7 % of biomass harvest: energy (branches and tops (and stumps)) 36 % Pulp & Paper 16 % Pulp chips 13 % energy (bark, sawdust, etc) 20 % Sawn wood 46 % Saw logs 8 % energy (direct harvest) 23 % energy (black liqour, etc) 46 % pulpwood Annual cut ~ 90 mill m 3 Source: Skogsindustrierna, 2003 and Official Statistics of Sweden
  13. 13. Stemwood stock in Swedish forest <ul><li>1926 – c. 1780 m3 </li></ul><ul><li>1990 – c. 2800 m3 </li></ul><ul><li>2007 – c. 3240 m3 </li></ul>
  14. 14. Positive effect for climate questioned…, however <ul><li>Branches and tops </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Highly positive in a 15-20 yr time frame </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stumps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Highly positive in a 40-50 yr time frame </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Increased harvest </li></ul><ul><ul><li>stock loss = unknown ”payback time” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Higher value for wood => more silviculture + better damage protection + reforestation (”forest that pays stays”) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Harvest before large-scale damage (fire, stormfelling, insects, etc) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Still, peat drainage = negative for climate </li></ul>
  15. 15. Development of regulations <ul><li>Forestry Act – improved 1998 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Damage on soil or water should be avoided or limited </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measures should be taken to prevent damage on long-term nutrient status of forest soils </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Recomm 1998, new 2001, rev 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>Prel recomm conc stump harv 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>On-going research </li></ul>
  16. 16. Environmental goals – 16 areas <ul><li>Clean air, lakes, rivers, etc </li></ul><ul><li>Natural biodiversity in the sea, forest, wetlands, etc </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural heritage, aesthetic landscape values </li></ul><ul><li>=> Long-term goals, short-term goals, cost/benefit-evaluated action plans </li></ul>
  17. 17. Coming.. <ul><li>Pine diesel (to be mixed with fossil diesel) </li></ul><ul><li>DME from black liquor gasification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>adapted motors in Volvo trucks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Biorefineries </li></ul><ul><li>Methanol/biogas </li></ul><ul><li>-> Net export? </li></ul>
  18. 18. Energy carriers in transportation
  19. 19. Sustainability = Ecology, economy, social values <ul><li>≥ Sustained level of biomass production </li></ul><ul><li>Biodiversity preservation </li></ul><ul><li>Positive greenhouse gas balance </li></ul><ul><li>Sustained chemical environment </li></ul><ul><li>≥ Sustained cultural and social values </li></ul><ul><li>Σ ≥ for coming generations </li></ul>
  20. 20. Who define sustainability for practical use? <ul><li>MCPFE (Pan-european forest policy process) </li></ul><ul><li>Montreal process (North american -:-) </li></ul><ul><li>ITTO (Tropical -:-) </li></ul><ul><li>European Commission - RES Directive </li></ul><ul><li>National authorities </li></ul><ul><li>Certifiers, public procurement </li></ul><ul><li>and many others… </li></ul>

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