Why Municipalities Replace Fossil Fuels with Bioenergy
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Why Municipalities Replace Fossil Fuels with Bioenergy

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By Cecilia Ambjörn, Norrköping Municipality

By Cecilia Ambjörn, Norrköping Municipality

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Why Municipalities Replace Fossil Fuels with Bioenergy Presentation Transcript

  • 1. 2011-04-11Cecilia Ambjörn
  • 2. Norrköping
  • 3. Municipality of Norrköping Total Area: 2 048 km2 (water 551 m2, land 1 497 m2)Inhabitants: 129 770 (August 31st, 2010); Number of emplyees: approx 9 000 Yearly turnover 2010: 6.8 billion SEK
  • 4. How did this road from fossil fuels towardsrenewable fuels start in Sweden?70’ies Oil crises90’ies Climate change awareness
  • 5. http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/ccgg/trends/
  • 6. CO2 developmentTarget level to stop at 2 degrees
  • 7. Mean temperature of the earth 1880-2010 Global Annual Mean Surface Air Temperature Change http://data.giss.nasa.gov/gistemp/graphs/
  • 8. Half-lifeCO2: Several hundred yearsMethane: About 10 years1 kg methane = 21 kg CO2
  • 9. Sweden - national levelIn the early 90’ies Sweden started a nationalgrant to convert from fossil fules towardsrenewables1995 we started a CO2 tax, which covered allfossil fules2003 electricity certificate (to encouragerenewable energy)KLIMP, national grant to the municipalities, forsustainable development and private personsLIP
  • 10. Examples for municipalitiesConvert buses to use biogasBuild biogas plants (use of organic sewage)District heating, combined heat and powerplant (bioenergy; wood, sewage, wires,..)Build passive houses / low energy (how?)More public transportsSave money by using energy more efficient –self finansed loansLED (Light Emitting Diod) lamps, not Hg lowenergy lamps in streets and housesWind power
  • 11. Examples privateConvert carsSolar energyTo heat houses with wood or wood chips andaccumulation water tankHeat pumpsConvert direct electrict heating into heatpumps, solar energy..Better house isolation3 glass windows
  • 12. Not sustainable renewable fuelsSweden is successively leaving ethanol driven carsbehind, instead biogas, electricityNot to use palm oil for central heating or otherpurposes
  • 13. To make everybody engagedPolitical ambitionsFinancial resourcesAlternativesKnowledgeInformationMediaFilms (Al Gore, The day after tomorrow,…)BooksEnvironmental NGOsAgenda21
  • 14. How do the inhabitants influence the politicians•NGOs•Open meetings when new plans are made•Own suggestions to the highest political level,they are also invited to explain their ideas
  • 15. Politics•The ambitions vary between thepolitical parties•Build bridges•Listen to or join the NGOs
  • 16. NorrköpingFirst energy plan 1996, possibilitiesSecond energy plan 2009, diminish need for energy50 % 2030 in our municipal activities30 % 2030 in the whole municipalityThe plan is followed by an Action plan where everypart of the municipality is engaged.
  • 17. 1. What can I do as a local politician to decrease fuel energy?Urban long term planning more then 10 years - vice chairmanBuild in climate smart areas, not towards the northPassive housesEnergy efficiency in existing buildingsEnergy planKind of heating in new housesNew buildings close to public transportationMore train tracks for cargoCar pools, with renewable fuels
  • 18. 2. What can I do as a local politician to decraese fuel energy?Technical since 3 months – vice chairmanMore public transportaion and increase efficiency, speed and comfortTraffic plan, priority public transportation, walking and cycling before carsBicycle lanesMore Nature Reserves (biological diversity)Biogas plant from organic wasteTake care of different fractions of all garbageEnergy advicer for the inhabitantsParking outside the city, close to the train stn
  • 19. Long tradition of district heating Fuel mix at CHP plant on Händelö GWh 2 000 1 800 1 600 1 400 Waste 1 200 Wooden chips 1 000 800 Waste wood 600 Oil 400 Coal 200 Used Tires 0 Year 90 92 94 96 98 00 02 04 06 08 19 19 19 19 19 20 20 20 20 20
  • 20. Energy efficiency in municipal buildings Separate investment budget for energy efficiency investments having a pay-off time of less than 1,5 years Use of Energy in the Municipal OrganisationkWh/m2 200 150 Use of Energy in the Municipal Organisation 100 Energy used (kWh/m2) 50 700 0 600 Electricity 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Year 500 400 Electricity for heating 300 District heating 200 Oil 100 0 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Year Changing from fossile to renewable fuels for heating purposes
  • 21. Händelö – An eco-industrial park• Centre for Logistics• Heavy Process industry• Several eco-industrial clusters• Natura 2000 areas wirh old oak trees• Holmen wood and paper
  • 22. Transportation•Biogas production for vehiclefuel at the sewage treatmentplant• Public transportation (buses)using biogas• Trams run on renewableelectricity• Biogas-fuelled garbagetrucks• Car pool consisting of ecocars
  • 23. The Municipalities of Linköping and Norrköpingare taking the Lead by a Common Climate Policy:• Ensuring that all municipal planning is environmentallyresponsible, focusing on reducing emissions of greenhousegases and adapting society to meet future climate changes• Always choosing renewable sources of energy for transportand energy systems• Applying climate and environmental requirements to allpurchases• Increasing climate commitment and communicating aboutclimate issues with employees, elected representatives,residents and businesses in the municipality• Supporting business-driven environmental technologydevelopment
  • 24. Political management system
  • 25. Energy plan Adopted by the City Council 2009-03-30Objectives in the Energy Plan By 2030 Norrköping has an energy system that Is efficient and focuses on decreasing the amount of energy used by 30% until 2030 as compared to 2005 Only uses renewable fuels Is robust and can handle the consequences brought on by climate change
  • 26. An Energy Action Plan for the municipal organisation by the end of 2010 Objectives for the municipal organisation in Norrköping 2009 2013 2017 2021 2015 2030 Decrease the 15 % 30 % 40 % 45 % 48 % 50 % use of energy Renewable 15 % 50 % 70 % 80 % 90 % 100 % fuels
  • 27. Work in two stepsStep 1• Both the municipal organisation and municipal enterprises areinvolved: environment- and health dept, city planning dept,technical dept, dept of commerce and industry, center for publicprocurement, IT office, public housing and housing having specialfunctionsStep 2Focuses on attitudes and behaviour• Involves all employees
  • 28. Stairway of communication Action Engagement Understanding InterestKnowledge
  • 29. Targets groups according to the Swedish EPA Climate change is natural and a trend that soon will Sceptics, 8% pass I cannot influence this situation, so I don’t need to Passive, 23% do anything This is worrying and Newly awakened, 28% somebody should do something This is a complicated issue Reasonable, 26% and I would like to do something This is worrying and I am Engaged, 18% doing as much as I can
  • 30. Use of Energy in Norrköping MunicipalityBuildings and street lights (MWh) 2005 2008 2009District heating 249 616 257 392 262 966Oil 12 301 3 661 3 328Electricity (heating) 10 705 8 369 7 623Electricity (building) 84 626 84 804 84 714Street Lights 13 000 13 000 13 000Total 370 248 367 226 371 631
  • 31. Use of Energy Norrköping MunicipalityMWh400 000350 000300 000 Street Lights250 000 Electricity (building)200 000 Electricity (heating)150 000 Oil100 000 District heating 50 000 0 2005 2008 2009 Year
  • 32. Thank you for your attention!