Robotics and collision detectionPresentation Transcript
* Robotics.Why robotics?Definition of robot.Types of robots.Law of robotics.Components of robots.Advantages.Future prospects.Conclusion.Queries.
*The Word Robotics is Used To Collectively Define A Field In Engineering That Covers The Mimicking Of Various Human Characteristics.Sound Concepts in Many Engineering Disciplines is Needed For Working in this Field.It Find Its Uses In All Aspects Of Our Life.
* DEFINITION OF A ROBOT• "A reprogrammable, multifunctional manipulator designed to move material, parts, tools, or specialized devices through various programmed motions for the performance of a variety of tasks" Or a simpler version.• An automatic device that performs functions normally ascribed to humans or a machine in the form of a human.
* An automatic industrial machine replacing the human in hazardous work. An automatic mobile sweeper machine at a modern home. An automatic toy car for a child to play with. A machine removing mines in a war field all by itself and many more….
* THE PURPOSE OF ROBOTS Repetitive tasks that robots can do 24X7. Robots never get sick or need time off. Robots can do tasks considered too dangerous for humans. Robots can operate equipment to much higher precision than humans. May be cheaper over the long term May be able to perform tasks that are impossible for humans
*THE PURPOSE OF ROBOTS(cont.) Dirty Tasks Repetitive tasks Dangerous tasks Impossible tasks Robots assisting the handicapped.
It is a field of engineering that covers themimicking of human behavior.. Robotics includes the knowledge of Mechanical,Electronics, Electrical & Computer ScienceEngineering.
*The term robotics was coined in the 1940s by science. fiction writer isaac asimov. Asimov‟s Law of Robotics:A robot may not injure a human being, or through inaction , allow a human being to come to harm.A robot must obey the orders given it by human beings excepts where such order would conflict with the first Law.A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with the first or second Law.
* ???Speed.It can work hazardous/dangerous environment.To perform repetitive task.Efficiency.Accuracy.Adaptability.
* Mobile robots. Land-based wheeled robot Land-based tracked robot Land-based legged robot Air-based: plane, helicopter, blimp Water-based; boat, submarine Misc. and combination robot Stationary robot (arm, manipulator etc.) Rolling robots.
* Autonomous robots QRIO AIBO HRP ASIMO
*Remote control robots Bucket Type Shovel Type Arm Type
* Virtual robot B.E.A.M
Stationary robots. Use in industry JCB machine
*Perceive –Sensors(Touch, Light , Ultrasonic, etc).Make Decisions-Logic(Computation).Take Action –Actuators.Interact-User interface and communication.Power unit
* Bumper MOTOR (Sensor) LOGIC InfraredACTUATORS CONTROL Detector LER (Sensor) Bumper MOTOR (Sensor)
*Collision avoidance is somewhat different from collision detection.Possible collisions will depend on the shape and size of both the object and robot as well as the position and motion.When making an attempt to avoid an obstacle, there are many decisions to face.
*The structure of a robot is usually mostly mechanical and can be called a kinematic chain.The chain is formed of links (its bones),actuators(its muscles),and joints which can allow one or more degrees of freedom.
*Suitable Power Supply Is Needed To Run The Motors And Associated Circuitry.Typical Power Requirement ranges from 3Vto 24V DC.220V AC supply must be modified to suit the needs of our machine.Batteries can also be used to run robots.Robots are driven by different motors:- DC motors Stepper Motors Servo Motors
*As the name suggests, a motors which uses a DC(Direct Current) power.Can run in both directions.Speed controllable
*Used For Measured Rotation.Can Be Held At A Particular Position Of The ShaftIdeal For Many Autonomous Robots Requiring Higher Precision.
*Used in closed loop control systems in which work is the control variable.An integral feedback deceive(resolver) or devices (encoder ) are either incorporated within the servo motor or are remotely mounted , often on the load itself.
*Actuators are the “muscles” of a robot , the parts which convert stored energy into movement.The most popular actuators are electric motors.
*Robots which must work in the real world require some way to manipulates objects ; pick up ,modify, destroy, or otherwise have an effect.Thus the „hands‟ of a robot are often referred to as end effectors ,while the arm is referred to as a manipulator.Some manipulators are:- Mechanical Grippers. vacuum Grippers. General purpose effectors.
*It is concerned with the motion of the robot.Robots contains different types of drives:- *Car type . *Skid drive. *Pivot drive. *Articulated drive.
*Revolution in medical science and health care systems.New & wide scope in Education & training.A good help in Nuclear industry.Used tremendously in sports activities.Play the role of an efficient assistance in Research and Development sciences.Can very well handle household business.
*Scientists say that it is possible that a robot brain will exist by 2019.Vernor Vinge has suggested that a moment may come when computers and robots are smarter than humans. In 2009,some robots acquired various forms of semi- autonomy, including being able to find power sources on their own.The Association for the Advancement of Article Intelligence has researched on this problem.