INTRODUCTION A Battery convert chemical energy into the electrical energy. The invention of the first battery in 1800 by Alessandro volta. Batteries have become a common power source for many household and many industrial application.
Symbolic conventional view battery(Electrons flow from the negative terminaltowards the positive terminal )
.Batteries Based on three types Based on the rechargeable nature :- 1.Non rechargeable or primary cells 2.rechargeable or secondary cellsBased on the size :- 1.Miniature batteries 2.Industrial batteriesBased on nature of electrolyte:- 1.Dry cell 2.Wet cell
Principle of operation of cell A battery is a device that converts chemical energydirectly to electrical energy. It consists of a number of voltaic cells.Each voltaic cell consists of two half cells connectedin series by a conductive electrolyte containing anionsand cations.
TYPES OF BATTERIESBatteries are classified into two broad categories:-1. Primary battery2. Secondary battery
PRIMARY BATTERYThis can produce current immediately on assemblyDisposable batteries are to be used once and discardedThese are most commonly used in portable devicesThe used in:-1. Alarm2. Communication circuit This primary battery not re charged
Common types of disposable batteries1. Zince –carbon batteries2. Alakine batteries Primary cell
SECONDARY BATTERY These batteries must be charged before use secondary cells can be recharged by applying electric current which reverses the chemical reactions that occur during its use.
Recent developments Recent developments include batteries with embedded functionality such as USBCELL the battery to be charged by plugging into a USB port without a charger This battery produced by a company called Moixa Energy
Life of batterydisposable (or "primary") batteries can lose 8 to 20percent of their original charge. A temperature of about 20 –30 C. This is known asthe "self-discharge" rate. High or low temperatures may reduce batteryperformance. This will affect the initial voltage of the battery. For an AA alkaline battery this initial voltage isapproximately normally around 1.6 volts.
Hazards related to batteries1) Explosion :-A battery explosion is caused by the misuse or malfunction of a battery or short circuiting a battery.2) Corrosion :-Many battery chemicals are corrosive, poisonous, or both the chemicals released may be dangerous.3) Environmental pollution :- The widespread use of batteries has created many environmental concerns, such as toxic metal pollution. Used batteries also contribute to electronic waste. Americans purchase nearly three billion batteries annually
4.Ingestion :- Small button/disk batteries can be swallowed by young children.
PAPER BATTERY A paper battery is a flexible, ultra-thin energy storage and production device formed by combining carbon nano tube with a conventional sheet of cellulose- based paper. Paper batteries may be folded, cut or otherwise shaped for different applications without any loss of integrity or efficiency. the device are able to produce 2.5 volts of electricity from a sample the size of a postage stamp. In paper batteries can between -75 and 150 degrees Celsius.
FABRICATION OF PAPERBATTERY The materials required for the preparation of paper battery are a. Copier paper b. Carbon nano ink c. Oven
The steps involved in the preparation of the paperbattery are as follows :-Step 1: The copier paper is taken.Step 2: carbon Nano ink which is black in color is taken.Carbon nano ink is a solution of nano rods, surface adhesiveagent and ionic salt solutions. Carbon nano ink is spread onone side of the paper.
Step 3: the paper is kept inside the oven at 150Ctemperature. This evaporates the water content on the paper.The paper and the nano rods get attached to each other.Step 4: place the multi meter on the sides of the paper andwe can see voltage drop is generated.
WORKING OF PAPERBATTERY The battery produces electricity in the same way as the conventional lithium-ion batteries The devices are formed by combining cellulose with an infusion of aligned carbon nano tubes. The carbon gives the batteries their black color .