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Paper battery

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  • 1. SEMINAR TOPIC PAPER BATTERY
  • 2. INTRODUCTION A Battery convert chemical energy into the electrical energy. The invention of the first battery in 1800 by Alessandro volta. Batteries have become a common power source for many household and many industrial application.
  • 3. Symbolic conventional view battery(Electrons flow from the negative terminaltowards the positive terminal )
  • 4. .Batteries Based on three types Based on the rechargeable nature :- 1.Non rechargeable or primary cells 2.rechargeable or secondary cellsBased on the size :- 1.Miniature batteries 2.Industrial batteriesBased on nature of electrolyte:- 1.Dry cell 2.Wet cell
  • 5. Principle of operation of cell A battery is a device that converts chemical energydirectly to electrical energy. It consists of a number of voltaic cells.Each voltaic cell consists of two half cells connectedin series by a conductive electrolyte containing anionsand cations.
  • 6. TYPES OF BATTERIESBatteries are classified into two broad categories:-1. Primary battery2. Secondary battery
  • 7. PRIMARY BATTERYThis can produce current immediately on assemblyDisposable batteries are to be used once and discardedThese are most commonly used in portable devicesThe used in:-1. Alarm2. Communication circuit This primary battery not re charged
  • 8. Common types of disposable batteries1. Zince –carbon batteries2. Alakine batteries Primary cell
  • 9. SECONDARY BATTERY These batteries must be charged before use secondary cells can be recharged by applying electric current which reverses the chemical reactions that occur during its use.
  • 10. Secondary cell
  • 11. Recent developments Recent developments include batteries with embedded functionality such as USBCELL the battery to be charged by plugging into a USB port without a charger This battery produced by a company called Moixa Energy
  • 12. USB cell
  • 13. Life of batterydisposable (or "primary") batteries can lose 8 to 20percent of their original charge. A temperature of about 20 –30 C. This is known asthe "self-discharge" rate. High or low temperatures may reduce batteryperformance. This will affect the initial voltage of the battery. For an AA alkaline battery this initial voltage isapproximately normally around 1.6 volts.
  • 14. Life cycle
  • 15. Hazards related to batteries1) Explosion :-A battery explosion is caused by the misuse or malfunction of a battery or short circuiting a battery.2) Corrosion :-Many battery chemicals are corrosive, poisonous, or both the chemicals released may be dangerous.3) Environmental pollution :- The widespread use of batteries has created many environmental concerns, such as toxic metal pollution. Used batteries also contribute to electronic waste. Americans purchase nearly three billion batteries annually
  • 16. Electronic waste
  • 17. 4.Ingestion :- Small button/disk batteries can be swallowed by young children.
  • 18. PAPER BATTERY A paper battery is a flexible, ultra-thin energy storage and production device formed by combining carbon nano tube with a conventional sheet of cellulose- based paper. Paper batteries may be folded, cut or otherwise shaped for different applications without any loss of integrity or efficiency. the device are able to produce 2.5 volts of electricity from a sample the size of a postage stamp. In paper batteries can between -75 and 150 degrees Celsius.
  • 19. CARBON NANOTUBES
  • 20. FABRICATION OF PAPERBATTERY The materials required for the preparation of paper battery are a. Copier paper b. Carbon nano ink c. Oven
  • 21. The steps involved in the preparation of the paperbattery are as follows :-Step 1: The copier paper is taken.Step 2: carbon Nano ink which is black in color is taken.Carbon nano ink is a solution of nano rods, surface adhesiveagent and ionic salt solutions. Carbon nano ink is spread onone side of the paper.
  • 22. Step 3: the paper is kept inside the oven at 150Ctemperature. This evaporates the water content on the paper.The paper and the nano rods get attached to each other.Step 4: place the multi meter on the sides of the paper andwe can see voltage drop is generated.
  • 23. Fabrication process
  • 24. WORKING OF PAPERBATTERY The battery produces electricity in the same way as the conventional lithium-ion batteries The devices are formed by combining cellulose with an infusion of aligned carbon nano tubes. The carbon gives the batteries their black color .
  • 25. working of a paper battery
  • 26. LIMITATIONS Carbon nano tubes are very expensive, and batteries with large enough power are unlikely to be cost effective. Cutting of trees leading to destroying of the nature.
  • 27. APPLICATIONS Pace makers in heart (uses blood as electrolyte)Used as alternate to conventionalbatteries in gadgets
  • 28. Powered smart cards RF id tagsSmart toys, childrensound booksE-cards, greetings, talkingposters

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