Paper battery


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Paper battery

  2. 2. INTRODUCTION A Battery convert chemical energy into the electrical energy. The invention of the first battery in 1800 by Alessandro volta. Batteries have become a common power source for many household and many industrial application.
  3. 3. Symbolic conventional view battery(Electrons flow from the negative terminaltowards the positive terminal )
  4. 4. .Batteries Based on three types Based on the rechargeable nature :- 1.Non rechargeable or primary cells 2.rechargeable or secondary cellsBased on the size :- 1.Miniature batteries 2.Industrial batteriesBased on nature of electrolyte:- 1.Dry cell 2.Wet cell
  5. 5. Principle of operation of cell A battery is a device that converts chemical energydirectly to electrical energy. It consists of a number of voltaic cells.Each voltaic cell consists of two half cells connectedin series by a conductive electrolyte containing anionsand cations.
  6. 6. TYPES OF BATTERIESBatteries are classified into two broad categories:-1. Primary battery2. Secondary battery
  7. 7. PRIMARY BATTERYThis can produce current immediately on assemblyDisposable batteries are to be used once and discardedThese are most commonly used in portable devicesThe used in:-1. Alarm2. Communication circuit This primary battery not re charged
  8. 8. Common types of disposable batteries1. Zince –carbon batteries2. Alakine batteries Primary cell
  9. 9. SECONDARY BATTERY These batteries must be charged before use secondary cells can be recharged by applying electric current which reverses the chemical reactions that occur during its use.
  10. 10. Secondary cell
  11. 11. Recent developments Recent developments include batteries with embedded functionality such as USBCELL the battery to be charged by plugging into a USB port without a charger This battery produced by a company called Moixa Energy
  12. 12. USB cell
  13. 13. Life of batterydisposable (or "primary") batteries can lose 8 to 20percent of their original charge. A temperature of about 20 –30 C. This is known asthe "self-discharge" rate. High or low temperatures may reduce batteryperformance. This will affect the initial voltage of the battery. For an AA alkaline battery this initial voltage isapproximately normally around 1.6 volts.
  14. 14. Life cycle
  15. 15. Hazards related to batteries1) Explosion :-A battery explosion is caused by the misuse or malfunction of a battery or short circuiting a battery.2) Corrosion :-Many battery chemicals are corrosive, poisonous, or both the chemicals released may be dangerous.3) Environmental pollution :- The widespread use of batteries has created many environmental concerns, such as toxic metal pollution. Used batteries also contribute to electronic waste. Americans purchase nearly three billion batteries annually
  16. 16. Electronic waste
  17. 17. 4.Ingestion :- Small button/disk batteries can be swallowed by young children.
  18. 18. PAPER BATTERY A paper battery is a flexible, ultra-thin energy storage and production device formed by combining carbon nano tube with a conventional sheet of cellulose- based paper. Paper batteries may be folded, cut or otherwise shaped for different applications without any loss of integrity or efficiency. the device are able to produce 2.5 volts of electricity from a sample the size of a postage stamp. In paper batteries can between -75 and 150 degrees Celsius.
  20. 20. FABRICATION OF PAPERBATTERY The materials required for the preparation of paper battery are a. Copier paper b. Carbon nano ink c. Oven
  21. 21. The steps involved in the preparation of the paperbattery are as follows :-Step 1: The copier paper is taken.Step 2: carbon Nano ink which is black in color is taken.Carbon nano ink is a solution of nano rods, surface adhesiveagent and ionic salt solutions. Carbon nano ink is spread onone side of the paper.
  22. 22. Step 3: the paper is kept inside the oven at 150Ctemperature. This evaporates the water content on the paper.The paper and the nano rods get attached to each other.Step 4: place the multi meter on the sides of the paper andwe can see voltage drop is generated.
  23. 23. Fabrication process
  24. 24. WORKING OF PAPERBATTERY The battery produces electricity in the same way as the conventional lithium-ion batteries The devices are formed by combining cellulose with an infusion of aligned carbon nano tubes. The carbon gives the batteries their black color .
  25. 25. working of a paper battery
  26. 26. LIMITATIONS Carbon nano tubes are very expensive, and batteries with large enough power are unlikely to be cost effective. Cutting of trees leading to destroying of the nature.
  27. 27. APPLICATIONS Pace makers in heart (uses blood as electrolyte)Used as alternate to conventionalbatteries in gadgets
  28. 28. Powered smart cards RF id tagsSmart toys, childrensound booksE-cards, greetings, talkingposters