Integrated circuits

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Integrated circuits

  1. 1. INTEGRATED CIRCUITS
  2. 2.  Introduction Brief history Scale of integration Types of IC’s Wafer fabrication process IC’s fabrication techniques Advantages Disadvantages Applications Conclusion References
  3. 3.  1940’S – Initial stage. 1945’s – Bell labs established a group to develop a semiconductor replacement for vacuum tubes. 1947’s – Transistor invented. 1951’s – Junction transistors invented. 1958’s – Integrated circuits invented.
  4. 4.  Small scale integration (SSI) Medium scale integration (MSI) Large scale integration (LSI) Very large scale integration (VLSI) Ultra large scale integration (ULSI)
  5. 5.  Wafer scale integration (WSI) System on a chip (SOC) 3D IC’s
  6. 6.  Analog IC’s Digital IC’s Mixed signal IC’s
  7. 7. Silicon shaping: Removal of ends Surface grinding Grounding of flats Slicing of ingots Lapping Edge contouring Chemical etching Polishing Chemical cleaning
  8. 8.  Silicon is a hard & brittle material. Industrial grade diamond is the most suitable material for shaping & cutting silicon.
  9. 9.  Remove seeds and tang ends. Metallurgical grade silicon (MGS). Cutting is done using a circular saw.
  10. 10.  Rotating diamond grinding tool. X-ray diffraction techniques.
  11. 11.  Primary flats Secondary flats
  12. 12.  Inner diameter sawing Diamond saw
  13. 13.  The wafer flatness produced at this step is better than 2 micro meter. Mixture of AL2O3 & glycerin.
  14. 14.  Diamond tool. Prevents defects. Helps in smooth deposition of photoresist.
  15. 15.  Acid etching:• acid bath• etchant Alkali etching: mixture of NaOH:H2O or KOH:H2O
  16. 16.  For smooth surface Batch wafer process Single wafer process Slurry
  17. 17.  Silicon wafers are cleaned chemically to remove organic films, heavy metals Aqueous solution of NH4OH-H2O2, HCL- H2O2.
  18. 18.  Diffusion and ion implantation Oxidation and film deposition Epitaxial growth Lithography Etching Photo resist Deposition
  19. 19.  Oxides are grown or deposited on the surface of the wafer Film deposition: thermal oxides dielectric layers polycrystalline oxides metal films
  20. 20.  The growth of ultra pure layer of crystalline silicon. Approx 3% of silicon wafer. Contaminate free for the subsequent construction of transistor.
  21. 21.  Small size Low weight Easy replacement High speed High temperature tolerance
  22. 22.  Lack of flexibility High power requirements
  23. 23.  Automobiles Appliances computers
  24. 24.  Modern computing, communication, manufacturing and transport system including the internet, all depends on the existence of integrated circuits.

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