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. The Constitution of India is the supreme law of India. It came into existence on January 26, 1950. It is the longest written constitution of any sovereign country in the world, containing 444 articles, 12 schedules,22 parts and 94 amendments. Part IV (Article 36-51) deals with various Directive Principles of State Policy.
History•The concept of Directive Principles of State Policy wasborrowed from the Irish Constitution.•The makers of the Constitution of India were influencedby the Irish nationalist movement.•The principles have been inspired by the DirectivePrinciples given in the Constitution of Ireland and also bythe principles of Gandhism; and relate to social justice,economic welfare, foreign policy, and legal andadministrative matters.
DefinitionThe Directive Principles of State Policy are guidelinesto the central and state governments of India, to bekept in mind while framing laws and policies. Theseprovisions, contained in Part IV of the Constitution ofIndia, are not enforceable by any court, but theprinciples laid down therein are consideredfundamental in the governance of the country,making it the duty of the State to apply theseprinciples in making laws to establish a just society inthe country.
CharacteristicsDPSPs aim to-create social and economic conditions under which the citizenscan lead a good life.establish social and economic democracy through a welfare state.They act as a, yardstick in the hands of the people to measure theperformance of the government.The Directive Principles are non-justiciable rights of the people.The Directive Principles, though not justiciable, are fundamentalin the governance of the country.
DIRECTIVEs…. Article 36:-•Definition of state: “The State’’ includes the Government and Parliament of India and the Government and the Legislature of each of the States and all local or other authorities within the territory of India or under the control of the Government of India. Article 37:- •Application of the principles.
Contd…Article 38:-•State to secure a social order for the promotion of welfare of the people.Article 39:-•Certain principles of policy to be followed by the State. -equal rights to men and women. -ownership of resources. -equal pay for equal work. -protection of children………..
Contd…Article 39 A:-•Equal justice and free legal aid. - to citizens having economic or other disabilities. Article 40:-•Organisation of village panchayats.Article 41:• Right-to work, to education and to public assistance in certain cases.
Contd…Article 42:-•Provision for just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief .Article 43:-•Living wage, good working conditions etc. , for workers .Article 43 A:-•Participation of workers in managementof industries.
Contd…Article 44:-•Uniform civil code for the citizens. Article 45:-•Provision for free and compulsory education for children. Article 46:-•Promotion of educational and economic interests of Scheduled castes , Scheduled Tribes and other weaker sections.
Contd…Article 47:-•Duty of the State to raise the level of nutrition and thestandard of living and to improve public health.Article 48:-•Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry.Article 48 A:-•Protection and improvement of environment andsafeguarding of forests and wildlife.
Contd…Article 49:-•Protect ion of monuments and places and objects ofnational importance.Article 50:-•Separation of judiciary from executive.Article 51:-•Promotion of international peace and security. -just and honorable relations. -encourage settlement of international disputes by arbitration.
Implementation of DPSPs through…Land Reform Acts.Banking policy.Fixation minimum wages for employees engaged invarious employments.Welfare schemes for the weaker sections.Nuclear disarmament.
Contd...Panchayati Raj.The Equal Remuneration Act of 1976.Consumer Protection Act of 1986.The 86th constitutional amendment of 2002 inserted anew article, Article 21-A.
Amendments to DPSPsAn amendment requires the approval of two-thirds of themembers present and voting.Major amendmentsArticle 31-C, inserted into the Directive Principles ofState Policy by the 25th Amendment Act of 1971 seeks toupgrade the DPSPs.Article 48-A, which ensures Protection andimprovement of environment and safeguarding of forestsand wild life, was added by the 42nd Amendment Act,1976.
Contd…Article 45, which ensures Provision for free andcompulsory education for children, was added by the86th Amendment Act, 2002.
ConclusionDPSPs are-onon-justiciable rights of the people.o guidelines to the central and state govts of India.onot enforceable by any court.oconsidered fundamental in the governance of thecountry.It the duty of the State to apply these principles inmaking laws to establish a just society in thecountry.
Contd… In fact, it is the duty of the State to be kept inmind of DPSPs, while framing laws and policies to establish a just society in the country.