International Space Station


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International Space Station

  2. 2. WHAT IS A SPACE STATION.<br />A space station is an artificial structure designed for humans to live and work in outer space for a period of time. A space station is distinguished from other manned spacecraft by its lack of major propulsion or landing facilities—instead, other vehicles are used as transport to and from the station. Current and recent-history space stations are designed for medium-term living in orbit, for periods of weeks, months, or even years. The only space station currently in use is the International Space Station. Previous stations include the Almaz and Salyut series, Skylab and Mir.<br />
  3. 3. Space stations are used to study for both military and civilian purposes. The last military-use space station was Salyut 5.<br />These are also used to study the effects of long-term space flight on the human body as well as to provide platforms for greater number and length of scientific studies than available on other space vehicles.<br />
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION to iss<br />The International Space Station is the largest and most complex international scientific project in history. And when it is complete just after the turn of the century, the the station will represent a move of unprecedented scale off the home planet. Led by the United States, the International Space Station draws upon the scientific and technological resources of 16 nations: Canada, Japan, Russia, 11 nations of the European Space Agency and Brazil.<br />
  5. 5. The International Space Station is the ninth inhabited space station to orbit Earth.The first such stations, consisting of six models of the Soviet Salyut station and the U.S. Skylab, were launched in the 1970's.<br />More than four times as large as the Russian Mir space station, the completed International Space Station will have a mass of about 1,040,000 pounds. It will measure 356 feet across and 290 feet long, with almost an acre of solar panels to provide electrical power to six state-of-the-art laboratories.<br />
  6. 6. <ul><li>The first part of station was launched in 1998, & the first full time crew—one American astronaut and two Russian cosmonauts—occupied the station in2000.</li></ul>The station will include about eight large cylindrical sections called modules.<br />Each module is being launched from Earth separately, and astronauts and cosmonauts are connecting the sections in space.<br />Eight solar panels will supply more than 100 kilowatts of electric power to the station.<br />The panels are being mounted on a metal framework 360 feet (109 meters) long.<br />
  7. 7. The station will include about eight large cylindrical sections called modules.<br />Each module is being launched from Earth separately, and astronauts and cosmonauts are connecting the sections in space.<br />Eight solar panels will supply more than 100 kilowatts of electric power to the station.<br />The panels are being mounted on a metal framework 360 feet (109 meters) long.<br />
  8. 8. THE MEMBERS OF ISS PROJECT<br />Basically there are 15 nations that are related to ISS project. These are-<br />United state of America<br />Russia<br />Japan<br />Canada<br />11 Nations of European space agency (ESA)<br />Brazil is also providing its services & equipments but on a agreement quoting Brazilian astronaut will also be sent to ISS for research purpose.<br />
  9. 9. More than 80 flights of U.S. space shuttles and Russian rockets will be necessary to complete the International Space Station.<br />The ESA and Japan plan to develop supply vehicles to be launched on the ESA's Ariane 5 and Japan's H-2A booster rockets. The space station was originally scheduled for completion in 2006, but unpredicted expenses have created major delays.<br />Two modules of the International Space Station were launched and assembled in 1998 by the United States and Russia.<br />
  10. 10. The station will be in an orbit with an altitude of 250 statute miles with an inclination of 51.6 degrees. This orbit allows the station to be reached by the launch vehicles of all the international partners to provide a robust capability for the delivery of crews and supplies. The orbit also provides excellent Earth observations with coverage of 85 percent of the globe and over flight of 95 percent of the population.<br />
  11. 11. ROLE OF DIFFERENT NATIONS-<br />The United States has the responsibility for developing and ultimately operating three connecting modules, four solar arrays & logistics carrier. The various systems being developed by the U.S. include thermal control; life support; guidance, navigation and control; data handling; power systems; communications and tracking; ground operations facilities and launch-site processing facilities.<br />Japan is building a laboratory with an attached exposed exterior platform for experiments as well as logistics transport vehicles.<br />
  12. 12. Russia is providing two research modules; an early living quarters called the Service Module with its own life support and habitation systems; a science power platform of solar arrays that can supply about 20 kilowatts of electrical power; logistics transport vehicles; and Soyuz spacecraft for crew return and transfer.<br />In addition, Brazil and Italy are contributing some equipment to the station through agreements with the United States.<br />Canada is providing a 55-foot-long robotic arm to be used for assembly and maintenance tasks on the Space Station.<br />
  13. 13. HISTORY<br />The International Space Station is the ninth inhabited space station to orbit Earth. The first such stations, consisting of six models of the Soviet Salyut station and the U.S. Skylab, were launched in the 1970's.<br />In 1986, the Soviet Union began operating Mir, the first space station to use a modular design.<br />The Soviets developed a reliable, economical transportation system. The system enabled them to deliver supplies, equipment, and crew members to Mir.<br />
  14. 14. In late 1990’s there occurred many breakdowns in MIR which Russian astronauts handled but by 2001 MIR collapsed completely and Russian took MIR out of the orbit and left it floating into the space.<br />Russia had intended to construct a station known as Mir 2 in the 1990's. The United States had planned to build a station called Freedom in partnership with Europe, Canada, and Japan. But due to funding difficulties, the United States and Russia agreed in 1993 to build a combined station -- the International Space Station.<br />To prepare for the project, shuttles flew to Mir from 1995 to 1998. United States astronauts served on board the Russian station as researchers for as long as six months. A Russian Proton rocket finally launched the first module in November 1998. <br />
  15. 15. The module was a Russian-built and United States-funded unit called Zarya or the FGB. Zarya means sunrise in Russian, and FGB stands for functional cargo block. <br />The second module, Unity, was built by the United States. The space shuttle Endeavour carried Unity into orbit in December 1998, and it was then joined to Zarya. <br />In July 2000, a Proton rocket launched the Russian-built Zvezda (Star), or Service Module. Zvezda has living and working quarters for astronauts and cosmonauts. <br />In October 2000, the shuttle Discovery carried up several more pieces. Those included a support truss for solar panels.<br />
  16. 16. The first full-time crew, known as Expedition One, in November 2000. The crew commander was astronaut William Shepherd, and the other members were cosmonauts Yuri Gidzenko and Sergei Krikalev.<br />Later that month, Endeavour carried the first four U.S.-built solar panels into space to supplement the small panels on the Russian modules.<br />The first two modules of the International Space Station were assembled in December 1998. Behind Unity, with solar panels attached to it, is a Russian-built module named Zarya.<br />
  17. 17. THE ELECTRICAL SYSTEM OF ISS<br />The electrical system of the International Space Station is a critical resource for the International Space Station (ISS) because it allows the crew to live comfortably, to safely operate the station, and to perform scientific experiments.<br />The ISS electrical system uses solar cells to directly convert sunlight to electricity. Large numbers of cells are assembled in arrays to produce high power levels. This method of harnessing solar power is called photovoltaics.<br />
  18. 18. The ISS consist of mainly 5 componenets-<br />1-Solar array wing.<br />2-Batteries.<br />3-Power management and distribution.<br />4-Station to shuttle power transfer system<br />5-Radiators & Solar power.<br />
  19. 19. SOLAR ARRAY WING<br />Each ISS solar array wing (SAW) consists of two traceable "blankets" of solar cells with a gap between them.<br />Each wing uses nearly 33,000 solar cells and when fully extended is 35 m (115 ft) long and 12 m (38 ft) wide. The solar arrays normally track the Sun, with the ALPHA GIMBAL used as the primary rotation to follow the Sun as the space station moves around the Earth.<br />
  20. 20. BATTERIES<br />Since the station is often not in direct sunlight, it relies on rechargeable nickel-hydrogen batteries to provide continuous power during the "eclipse" part of the orbit (35 minutes of every 90 minute orbit).<br />The batteries ensure that the station is never without power to sustain life-support systems and experiments.<br />During the sunlit part of the orbit, the batteries are recharged. The batteries have a working life of 6.5 years which means that they must be replaced multiple times during the expected 20-year life of the station.<br />
  21. 21. POWER MANAGEMENT AND DISTRIBUTION.<br />The power management and distribution subsystem operates at a primary bus voltage set to the peak power point of the solar arrays. As of December 30, 2005, V was 160 volts DC (direct current). It can change over time as the arrays degrade from ionizing radiation. Microprocessor-controlled switches control the distribution of primary power throughout the station.<br />
  22. 22. THE POWER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONSIST OF 2 PROCESS-<br /> 1-SSU<br />Eighty-two separate solar array strings feed a sequential shunt unit (SSU) that provides coarse voltage regulation at the desired Vmp. The SSU applies a "dummy" (resistive) load that increases as the station's load decreases (and vice versa) so the array operates at a constant voltage and load.<br />
  23. 23. 2-DC-TO-DC CONVERSION<br /> DC-to-DC converter units supply the secondary power system at a constant 124.5 volts DC, allowing the primary bus voltage to track the peak power point of the solar arrays.<br />
  24. 24. STATION TO SHUTTLE POWER TRANSFER SYSTEM.<br />The Station-to-Shuttle Power Transfer System (SSPTS; pronounced spits) allows a docked Space Shuttle to make use of power provided by the International Space Station'ssolar arrays.<br />Using this system reduces usage of a shuttle's on-board power-generating fuel cells, allowing it to stay docked to the space station for an additional four days.<br />
  25. 25. SSPTS is a shuttle upgrade that replaces the Assembly Power Converter Unit (APCU) with a new device called the Power Transfer Unit (PTU).<br />With this upgrade both the shuttle and the ISS are now able to use each other's power systems when needed, although it is not expected that the ISS will ever again require the use of an orbiter's power systems.<br />Currently only Discovery and Endeavour are equipped with the SSPTS.<br />
  26. 26. SOLAR POWER & RADIATORS<br />The most powerful solar arrays ever to orbit Earth capture the sun's elusive energy and begin the process of converting it into power for the International Space Station.<br />Eight solar array wings will supply an unprecedented 124 volts dc to crew and equipment in the U.S. segment of the ISS. The Space Shuttle and most other spacecraft use 28 volts dc, as will the Russian ISS segment. The higher voltage will meet the higher overall ISS power requirements while permitting use of smaller, lighter-weight power lines<br />
  27. 27. RADIATORS<br />The process of collecting sunlight, converting it to electricity, and managing and distributing this electricity builds up excess heat that can damage spacecraft equipment. This heat must be eliminated for reliable operation of the space station in orbit. The ISS power system uses radiators to dissipate the heat away from the spacecraft. The radiators are shaded from sunlight and aligned toward the cold void of deep space.<br />
  28. 28. LIVING AT ISS<br />CLOTHING----The astronauts wear the same types of clothes that we usually wear on Earth. Inside the Space Shuttle, the air pressure is kept at 1 atmosphere, which is the same level as on earth. The temperature and humidity are controlled, so that, the astronauts can live comfortably. Therefore, except for the orange flight suits that are worn during launch and reentry, the astronauts do not need any special clothes. When the astronauts venture outside the space shuttle to work in space, they wear spacesuits. These spacesuits are high performance suits with various functions that are designed to protect the astronauts from an environment that is too harsh for a human being to live under, such as space radiation and the vacuum of space.<br />
  29. 29. CLOTHING-Since water does not flow in a zero-gravity environment, the astronauts cannot wash their hands as we do on Earth. So, there are no sinks or showers inside the space shuttle .There is no refrigeration on the space station, so all food must be canned, dehydrated, or preserved in other non-perishable ways. An oven is available for heating food. Astronauts add water to packets of powdered tea, coffee, juice, or milk, then sip with a straw. Shipments of food arrive periodically on an unmanned space freighter called a Progress.<br />
  30. 30. LONG TERM EFFECTS OF LIVING IN SPACE<br />The most significant adverse effects of long-term weightlessness are muscle atrophy and deterioration of the skeleton, or spaceflight osteopenia.<br />Other significant effects include fluid redistribution, a slowing of the cardiovascular system, decreased production of red blood cells, balance disorders, and a weakening of the immune system.<br />Lesser symptoms include loss of body mass, nasal congestion, sleep disturbance, excess flatulence, and puffiness of the face. These effects begin to reverse quickly upon return to the Earth.<br />
  31. 31. Long-term weightlessness causes bones to lose mass and muscles to atrophy, thus requiring frequent rigorous exercise to help counteract. Zero gravity also changes the shape of the lungs, which affects respiration.<br />To prevent some of these adverse physiological effects, the station is equipped with two treadmills and a stationary bicycle; each astronaut spends at least two hours per day exercising on the equipment.<br />Research also shows a decrease in production of both red and white blood cells, leading to anemia and lowered immunity. After returning to Earth, astronauts may experience dizziness and balance disorders until the inner ear read justs to gravity.<br />
  32. 32. THANK YOU<br />
  33. 33. QUESTIONS<br />