They can make notes and organize (esp. color code) their learning materials
They can decorate learning areas
They are taught through visualization and the use of diagrams, charts and maps
They are presented with complex, abstract information
They can apply their abstract reasoning skills
They participate in visual art activities
They study alone in quiet environments
They participate in power tests (vs. speed tests)
(Silverman & Freed, 1996)
Visual Learners learn and perform best when (cont.)
They understand the objective(s) of any given learning experience
Information is presented visually and in writing e.g. written instructions are given for assignments; photography and illustrations come with printed content; they attend presentations using overhead transparencies, handouts, Power Point slide shows
They can form pictures of things being described orally
There is a time line to aid retention of historical events
They have an opportunity to observe the physical elements in a classroom (real, and online)
Visual Literacy is “a group of vision competencies a human being can develop by seeing and at the same time having and integrating other sensory experiences. The development of these competencies is fundamental to normal human learning. When developed, they enable a visually literate person to discriminate and interpret the visual actions, objects, and/or symbols, natural or man-made, that are [encountered] in [the] environment. Through the creative use of these competencies, [we are] able to communicate with others. Through the appreciative use of these competencies, [we are] able to comprehend and enjoy the masterworks of visual communications."
In the context of human , intentional visual communication visual literacy refers to a group of largely acquired abilities , i.e. the abilities to understand (read) , and to use (write) images , as well as to think and learn in terms of images.
If Visual Literacy is to be rescued as a term (and I think it may still have some life in it), we need to interpret it more generously. ... VL is any sustained activity that treats visual material and its uses as worthy of intelligent consideration . This is the heart of the matter and the reason for retaining the metaphor.
Points of Convergence among VL Theorists I (Avgerinou, 2001)
A Visual Language exists.
Visual Language parallels Verbal Language.
Visual Literacy is a cognitive ability but also draws on the affective domain.
The terms “ability”, “skill”, and “competency” have been invariably and interchangeably used to describe Visual Literacy.
The VL skills have been specified as (a) to read/decode/interpret visual statements, and (b) to write/encode/create visual statements.
Points of Convergence among VL Theorists II (Avgerinou, 2001)
The VL skills are (a) learnable, (b) teachable, (c) capable of development and improvement.
The VL skills are not isolated from other sensory skills.
Visual Communication, Visual Thinking, and Visual Learning are inextricably linked to VL.
VL has accepted and incorporated theoretical contributions from other disciplines.
Visual Literacy’s main focus is intentional communication in an instructional context.
9. (Sensitivity to) Visual Association: the ability to link visual images that display a unifying theme. Also: (Sensitivity to) Verbo-Visual Association: the ability to link verbal messages and their visual representations (and vice versa) to enhance meaning
The world has changed… (Brown & Adler, 2008, p. 30)
In the 20 th century, the dominant approach to education focused on helping students acquire knowledge and develop cognitive skills that could be deployed later in appropriate situations. This approach to education worked well in a relatively stable, slowly changing world in which careers typically lasted a lifetime.
But the 21 st century is quite different. The world is evolving at an increasing pace. When jobs change, as they are likely to do, we can no longer expect to send someone back to school to be retrained… We now need a new approach to learning-one characterized by a demand-pull mode … (Brown & Adler, 2008, p. 30)
The Business and Higher Education Forum (2005) stated that workers of the 21st Century must have science and mathematics skills , creativity , information and communication technologies (ICT) skills , and the ability to solve complex problems .
21 st Century Skills- expanded I (H. Jenkins, MIT, 2007)
Play : The capacity to experiment with one’s surroundings as a form of problem solving
Performance : The ability to adopt alternative identities for the purpose of improvisation and discovery
Simulation : The ability to interpret and construct dynamic models of real-world processes
Appropriation : The ability to meaningfully sample and remix media content
21 st Century Skills- expanded II (H. Jenkins, MIT, 2007)
Multitasking : The ability to scan one’s environment and shift focus as needed to salient details.
Distributed Cognition : The ability to interact meaningfully with tools that expand mental capacities
Collective Intelligence : The ability to pool knowledge and compare notes with others toward a common goal
Judgment : The ability to evaluate the reliability and credibility of different information sources
21 st Century Skills- expanded III (H. Jenkins, MIT, 2007)
Trans-media Navigation : The ability to follow the flow of stories and information across multiple modalities
Networking : The ability to search, synthesize, and disseminate information
Negotiation : The ability to travel across diverse communities, discerning and respecting multiple perspectives, and grasping and following alternative norms.
The nature of information… (Jakes & Brennan, 2006)
Has changed, and
Is defined by a new set of characteristics: information is digital , networked , overwhelming , immediate , manipulatable , participatory , and visual…
Web 2.0 as a participatory medium (Brown & Adler, 2008, p. 18)
The latest evolution of the Internet, the so-called Web 2.0, has blurred the line between producers and consumers of content and has shifted attention from access to information toward access to other people. … Indeed, the Web 2.0 is creating a new kind of participatory medium that is ideal for supporting multiple modes of learning.
Learning has changed from to (Brown & Adler, 2008, pp. 18-19) Learning 2.0= social learning + learning to be
Visual Literacy has been identified as the essential literacy by the Partnership for 21 st century skills; and with the development of Web 2.0, it is critical that schools focus on helping students acquire the skills necessary to navigate, evaluate, and to communicate with visual information.
Students will create content, including visual content with or without schools (consider MySpace). Successful schools will take advantage of this interest and the technological mastery of today’s student, and will seek methodologies and opportunities for incorporating visual literacy instruction into the everyday curriculum.