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2007 Q1 L02 Creativity And Innovation
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2007 Q1 L02 Creativity And Innovation

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  • 1. Enterprise Collaboration and Innovation Support Systems (GE/IE 498 ECI): Creativity and Innovation Xavier Llorà Illinois Genetic Algorithms Lab & National Center for Supercomputing Applications University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign xllora@uiuc.edu
  • 2. Where did we leave it? • Course structure and grading • I want to learn about your background • Two innocent exercises • Something to watch GE/IE 498 ECI - Spring 2007 Xavier Llorà © Spring 2007 2
  • 3. What will be do today? • Review the lessons we learned from the exercises of the previous lecture • Explore creativity blocks • What were your answers to the open questions? • Creativity and innovation • Some homework GE/IE 498 ECI - Spring 2007 Xavier Llorà © Spring 2007 3
  • 4. Two innocent exercises (I/II) • Exercise 1: Using only four strokes, and without lifting the pen, connect all the dots (Michal Michalko (1994). Thinkertoys, Ten Speed Press, 1994) GE/IE 498 ECI - Spring 2007 Xavier Llorà © Spring 2007 4
  • 5. Two innocent exercises (I/II) Can you do it again only with 3 strokes? GE/IE 498 ECI - Spring 2007 Xavier Llorà © Spring 2007 5
  • 6. Two innocent exercises (I/II) GE/IE 498 ECI - Spring 2007 Xavier Llorà © Spring 2007 6
  • 7. Why was this exercise tricky? • Adams, J.L.(1986). “Conceptual blockbusting: A guide to better ideas”. Reading, MA:Adisson-Wesley. • Creativity blocks – Perceptual – Emotional – Cultural/environmental – Intellectual/expressive – … GE/IE 498 ECI - Spring 2007 Xavier Llorà © Spring 2007 7
  • 8. Perceptual blocks • Types of blocks – Stereotypes: seeing what is familiar – Isolating the problem – Delimiting the problem too closely – Inability to have multiple views of the problem – Saturation – … GE/IE 498 ECI - Spring 2007 Xavier Llorà © Spring 2007 8
  • 9. Perception Tricks http://www.washburn.edu/cas/psychology/pmacdonald/perceptiontricks.html GE/IE 498 ECI - Spring 2007 Xavier Llorà © Spring 2007 9
  • 10. Perception Tricks http://www.washburn.edu/cas/psychology/pmacdonald/perceptiontricks.html GE/IE 498 ECI - Spring 2007 Xavier Llorà © Spring 2007 10
  • 11. Perception Tricks http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Optical_illusion GE/IE 498 ECI - Spring 2007 Xavier Llorà © Spring 2007 11
  • 12. Emotional blocks • Sigmund Freud (May 6, 1856–September 23, 1939) Austrian neurologist and the co-founder of the psychoanalytic school of psychology. Key elements: – Unconscious – Repression – Transference – Dream interpretation – Sexual desire • Freud (1 minute, oversimplified explanation) – Id: instinctive part – Ego: Social aware – Superego: moral referee – Repression or neurosis GE/IE 498 ECI - Spring 2007 Xavier Llorà © Spring 2007 12
  • 13. Emotional blocks • Types of blocks – Fear of mistakes – Inability to tolerate ambiguity – Premature judgment – Inability to incubate – Change as a problem or an addiction – Relation between fantasy and reality GE/IE 498 ECI - Spring 2007 Xavier Llorà © Spring 2007 13
  • 14. Cultural and environmental blocks • Taboos (language usage, people interaction…) • Fantasy and reflections as marginal poor-valued activities • Children can play, adults cannot • Social pressure (remember your high school times?) • Plato acknowledge intuition; Descartes swiped it under the rug (too much brain, no heart) • Tradition is good (change is evil) • Capitalism (money can fix anything) • … GE/IE 498 ECI - Spring 2007 Xavier Llorà © Spring 2007 14
  • 15. Intellectual and expressive blocks • Language (visual, rhetoric, formal…) • Language as responsible for the wiring of your brain (Feral children, François Truffaut's 1970 film L'Enfant Sauvage) • Language and it expressive boundaries • Assumptions for free (remember the bounding box in the dots exercise?) • Catastrophic: “The exact formulation is the only way to go” • … GE/IE 498 ECI - Spring 2007 Xavier Llorà © Spring 2007 15
  • 16. Two innocent exercises (II/II) • Exercise 2: Write down your answers to – Creativity is… – Innovation is… – What do I do to be more creative/innovative? • BTW, did you entry your thoughts about the talks? • So, what is your take on the questions above? GE/IE 498 ECI - Spring 2007 Xavier Llorà © Spring 2007 16
  • 17. Two real-examples • Text production – By hand (middle ages monks) – Revolution (Gutenberg's press) – Typewriter – Digital computers – Word processors and PCs • Automobile: Henry Ford “If I had asked people what they wanted, they would have said faster horses.” GE/IE 498 ECI - Spring 2007 Xavier Llorà © Spring 2007 17
  • 18. What is creativity? • Definitions: – My Mac: “The use of imagination or original ideas, especially in the production of artistic work.” – Wikipidea: “Creativity (or creativeness) is a mental process involving the generation of new ideas or concepts, or new associations between existing ideas or concepts.” – Google: • “Creativity is the ability to solve problems that are worth solving. It is the ability to create knowledge. Creativity is subject-specific: it is the meta-knowledge of how to solve a specific class of problems. So there is no such thing as raw, undifferentiated creativity.” GE/IE 498 ECI - Spring 2007 Xavier Llorà © Spring 2007 18
  • 19. What is creativity? • Definitions: – Google: • “Generating and sharing ideas is everyone's job.” • “The production of previously non-existent information. All new items of information are based on preceding ones, and they are new because they restructure the preceding items and/or insert foreign informational elements ("noises") into them.” • “The fact that endlessly the past is blended with the possible in order to make new units of reality.” • “A measure of an artist’s command over the tension in an artwork.” • “An increasingly rare crime.” GE/IE 498 ECI - Spring 2007 Xavier Llorà © Spring 2007 19
  • 20. Let’s break it down in to pieces • Imagination • Mental process • Ideas (original ideas) • New associations among existing ideas • Problem solving oriented (What about Jackson Pollock, Salvador Dalí, Edgar Degas?) • Problems worth to solve (Who decides?) • Only possible in presence of a problem (What about activities?) • Sharing! (social process) • Iterative process (old gets revamp into something new) • Reality construction • A criminal activity! • Diversity!!! (dancing and tomato chunks) GE/IE 498 ECI - Spring 2007 Xavier Llorà © Spring 2007 20
  • 21. Levels • Individual activity – How we can boost individuals creativity • Group activity – If it can be boosted in individuals, why not to boost it in groups • Social component – Creativity and its diffusion processes GE/IE 498 ECI - Spring 2007 Xavier Llorà © Spring 2007 21
  • 22. Creativity and innovation? • Let’s make one distinction • Creativity: Create a new idea, concept, or association, from pre- existing or specifically created ones. • Innovation: “Creativity + commercialization = innovation” GE/IE 498 ECI - Spring 2007 Xavier Llorà © Spring 2007 22
  • 23. What will we do in the next lecture? • Explore some models of creativity and innovation • Run a group brainstorming to define your projects • Review this week question GE/IE 498 ECI - Spring 2007 Xavier Llorà © Spring 2007 23
  • 24. Something to think about • Read the definitions of creativity again. Think about blockbusting. • Homework: Discus in the DISCUS communities system the post about what assumptions can you identify in each of these definitions. Feel free to bring other definitions to the table for discussion. GE/IE 498 ECI - Spring 2007 Xavier Llorà © Spring 2007 24