Pmac It Project Management 2010


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Guest presentation to PMAC`s SCMP course - tips on implementing the right technology effectively in you organization

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Pmac It Project Management 2010

  1. 1. Supply Chain Systems Implementations Presented to PMAC By Nicholas Seiersen Executive Editor, LQ Magazine [email_address] 647 299 8360
  2. 2. Logistics Technology - Agenda <ul><li>Trends in Technology & Logistics: Brief Overview </li></ul><ul><li>eProcurement – What it is, What Can it do for You </li></ul><ul><li>Putting Technology to Work for You </li></ul><ul><li>Leading for Success: Tips on Project Management </li></ul>
  3. 3. Underlying Technologies: Trend: Faster, Cheaper, Better <ul><li>Anyone </li></ul><ul><li>Anytime </li></ul><ul><li>Anywhere </li></ul><ul><li>Any Device </li></ul>User Interfaces Development Tools years Performance/$ Processors years Performance/$ Networks years Performance/$ Storage years Performance/$ Memory
  4. 4. The Trends- Technology Enablers Networking & Value Single Computing Added Information Services Data-bases Power Batch->“Real Time” Memory & Storage <ul><ul><li>User Interfaces Barcodes, A.E.I., Software development RFID tools </li></ul></ul>Integration Frameworks
  5. 5. eProcurement - What it is <ul><li>Spend Analysis – Job Number 1 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All sources of spend </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commodity classification schema </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Strategic Sourcing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>eAuctions, eRFPs, eBids, … </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Contract Management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Authoring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Approvals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reporting & Compliance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ePO </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Catalogue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>User Adoption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transaction Automation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Backend Integration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Supplier Relationship Management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supplier Performance Measurement & Scorecarding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relationship Governance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compliance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Innovation & Increasing Value </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. ePO Employee selects product from electronic catalog and creates requisition ePO application routes requisition to several approvers Application transmits PO and sends to supplier network (CXML, OBI, EDI, XML format, fax, e-mail) ePO Supplier ships product/electronically transmits invoice Invoice Match to receipt and purchase order Match invoice to check for supplier Start eProcurement - the business transactions between buyers and suppliers using the advanced electronic means of intranets, extranets and the internet.
  7. 7. Making ePO Work <ul><li>Selecting a system that will work for you: </li></ul><ul><li>Understand what you are trying to achieve through this exercise - trendy, catch-up competition, wring costs out of procure-to-pay cycle, empower users… </li></ul><ul><li>Work with suppliers that can make a difference for your pilot/proof of concept. </li></ul><ul><li>Make it easy to use: find products, codes, prices, approvals… </li></ul><ul><li>Event-based purchases: e.g. new hire’s phone, computer, network hookup, business cards,,,, or training workshop’s manuals, flip charts, overhead, markers, catering, room reservation… </li></ul><ul><li>Engage suppliers so they can get their offer to your people effectively. </li></ul><ul><li>30-second rule for a standard transaction - bookmarks of frequent and previously ordered items. </li></ul><ul><li>Integration into your systems - BOM, Catalogue, Budgeting, AP, GL… may require a Corporate Gateway system. </li></ul><ul><li>Easy administration for procurement & IT organization, auditing, business rules... </li></ul><ul><li>... </li></ul><ul><li>Catalogue Management: </li></ul><ul><li>Custom catalogue for internal offerings and small, local, service vendors. Combine with content aggregation (common look & feel) of electronic feed suppliers puts all vendors on same footing for your business. </li></ul><ul><li>Let users connect to supplier web-sites directly - back office integration a challenge, and may raise issues of user productivity and company control. </li></ul><ul><li>Open Buying over the Internet (OBI) generates a shopping cart at the supplier, transmitted for approval by the buyer’s management, then executed. </li></ul><ul><li>Use Web technology to update your intraweb catalogue from your vendors. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Supplier Malls” third party operated on fee-per-transaction basis, often by vertical market. </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic auctioning - put your requirements out for bid. Brings prices down. Quality and consistency are challenges. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t forget the contingency plan for non-catalogue items - 5-15%! </li></ul>Benefits: 5-10% reduction in prices, 7.3 day cycle time reduced to 2 days, $125 PO cost reduced to $35, 25-50% reduction in inventory costs. <ul><li>Components of ePO: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-service “requisition to payment” processing. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electronic catalogs and web search capabilities. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EDI, ASN and other automated data transmissions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EFT, P-Card and other efficient payment options. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reporting and decision support. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Collaboration & Integration - Driven by Business Needs <ul><li>Process change and integration is a business initiative that is enabled by technology. </li></ul><ul><li>Operating practices & policies stemming from integration are carried out with the aid of technology, not dictated by it. </li></ul><ul><li>Entrenching a process in technology is the like setting it in electronic stone </li></ul>Business Objectives Strategy Process Data & Tools
  9. 9. Exercise - Collaboration & Integration <ul><li>Federal Express, Dell Computers, Grocery Gateway, and Wal-Mart are often held up as benchmark companies within their industries. </li></ul><ul><li>What makes them so successful? </li></ul><ul><li>What strategies do they employ? </li></ul><ul><li>What processes are they exceptional at executing? </li></ul><ul><li>What sorts of tools must they be using to support their processes. </li></ul>Business Objectives Strategy Process Data & Tools
  10. 10. Technology Projects - Key Elements <ul><li>Data </li></ul><ul><li>Applications </li></ul><ul><li>Technology Strategy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Operating Environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Infrastructure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Standards </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Project Management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Management Plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scope Control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Testing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Team </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Risk Management </li></ul><ul><li>Change Management </li></ul><ul><li>Project Execution </li></ul>
  11. 11. Data Architecture & Stewardship <ul><li>Integrated processes require integrated systems that must share data: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>not sharing data leads to redundancy, discrepancies, divergence, slow responses & poor decisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sharing data avoids manual intervention, data entry mistakes & compresses the cycle time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Capture data once at the source </li></ul><ul><ul><li>80% of all computer printed output is re-input </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 P.O. will generate 10 - 15 pieces of paper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10% of world trade value is in document processing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Data should support the key business metrics that drive the business </li></ul><ul><ul><li>data structure and elements </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Data is a major asset of any corporation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>protection & nurturing is required </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Data cleanliness alone can improve process (low hanging fruits in many companies) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>data cleanliness has three variables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>completeness, accuracy, timeliness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>data must also address proper content and presentation requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>requires well defined data ownership and responsibilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>healthy data bases require robust monitoring and measurement tools to ensure clean data </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Laws of Computing <ul><li>1. Technology breakthroughs require a surrounding infrastructure. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Size is the greatest determinant of implementation difficulty. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Enterprise solutions must be managed on an enterprise basis. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Things break! </li></ul><ul><li>5 Change causes the most downtime. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Industry standards channel innovation. </li></ul><ul><li>7. Market share wins, not technical eloquence. </li></ul><ul><li>8 Competitive advantage is hard to gain and maintain. </li></ul><ul><li>9. The scope of every computer project grows. </li></ul><ul><li>10. New computer technologies unveil new application opportunities. </li></ul><ul><li>11. Serendipity does not apply to computer systems. </li></ul><ul><li>12. If data resides in two places, it will be inconsistent. </li></ul><ul><li>… .You must have a technology strategy to ensure you do not defy the immutable laws of computing. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Best of Breed or Integrated Package? <ul><li>Benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Single purchase contract </li></ul><ul><li>Tightly integrated functionality </li></ul><ul><li>Consistent user interface </li></ul><ul><li>Cohesive data model </li></ul><ul><li>Single architecture & toolset </li></ul><ul><li>Coordinated release schedule </li></ul><ul><li>Unified product support </li></ul><ul><li>Risks </li></ul><ul><li>Inconsistent functional depth </li></ul><ul><li>Product scalability </li></ul><ul><li>Limited functional or industry domain expertise </li></ul><ul><li>Incompatibility with legacy or tactical point solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Long product development and release cycles </li></ul><ul><li>Major development investments with long amortization cycles </li></ul><ul><li>Slow response to technological or functional innovation </li></ul>Integrated Package Benefits Industry focus or functionally specialized expertise Faster time to market Lower development costs and reduced risk Customer buys only the applications they need Faster response to industry & technology changes Risks No common look & feel Conflicting or redundant data models Overlapping functionality Multiple vendor contracts No single point of support Release synchronization problems Frequently more expensive Niche vendors often lack geographic coverage Best of Breed
  14. 14. Technology Strategy - Guidelines <ul><li>Modularity & Scalability - The world changes, so should you </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Design with a modular approach. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design for the future, reduce the risk of obsolescence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design to minimize the cost of change for the users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design to middle ground, handle larger and smaller installations as one-offs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Standards -- Don’t reinvent the wheel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use industry standards & “off the shelf” solutions where possible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manage the trade off between standardization & unique requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If standards don’t exist, create and promote them </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Complexity -- KISS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Design to minimize the operational effort to run the system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simplicity is preferred over elegance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cost -- Engineering problems all have a cost component </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Design must be affordable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good technology is much cheaper than bad technology </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Project Management: IT Projects Have a Poor Track Record... Over budget exceed schedule 60% On time Within budget 15% Terminated, not completed 25% META Group, 4/15/97 85% IT projects fail to deliver on time and on budget! 32 5 2 7 17 20 17 1. Inadequate Project Management 3. Poorly defined objectives 2. Lack of communication 4. Organization not familiar with project scope and complexity The management of the project is largely at fault!
  16. 16. Project Management - The Management Plan <ul><li>Describes the project strategy and approach. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is driven by the business case (benefits & costs). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes the project vision and governing principles. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Establish success criteria. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Picture of how success will be recognized. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Exit” criteria for each phase. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Develop a Robust and Flexible Management Process. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Key milestones with Team & Executive reviews. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each task has a deliverable that is reviewed, tested and accepted. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be ready for surprises & the “never thought of's - plan some slack for these. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remember things never work quite as planned, make sure you have a contingency plan and budget. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Planning tools. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Balance between control & seat-of-the-pants. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t let managing the tools become the project. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reread your business case and scope every week! </li></ul>
  17. 17. Project Management - Scope Control <ul><li>The Sand Box: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Draw the line, discuss. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dig the trench, discuss. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pour the concrete, discuss. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Let the concrete harden. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Impose evaluated change orders for every request. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make the Steering Committee approve them. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Document and date each scope change and the forecasted implications. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Project review meetings must have a published agenda and a clear articulation of decisions needed at each meeting. </li></ul><ul><li>Manual workarounds can defer last minute requirements until the system is functional and stabilized. </li></ul><ul><li>Make the project phases work for you. </li></ul><ul><li>The Pi law of Information Technology projects. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Project Management - Testing <ul><li>Why Test? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To make sure you get what you want </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To make sure it works the way you want </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To make sure it performs well enough to support your business </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implication: Each of these must be articulated! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Test What? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Installation testing – that installation was properly performed on this platform, with most recent version </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parallel testing – of Functionality, Integration and Regression with current systems to ensure the results are consistent with your current systems’ logic, and if not, why not. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Volume & performance testing – ensures the systems support your business effectively (response times, cycle run-times) and expected peaks (raw compute capacity, update & data entry times, back-up times, print runs,…) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security – ensure confidentiality (e.g. “ethical hacking”) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Testing is a major expense. Do not be a “cost cutting hero” by cutting back here. </li></ul><ul><li>Plan and organize testing to catch problems early. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Project Management - Project Team <ul><li>Ensure your Champion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>executive level sponsor ensures executive concurrence and focus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Establish a Steering Committee </li></ul><ul><ul><li>provide a strategic sounding board & allocate corporate resources </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Get the Right Leader </li></ul><ul><ul><li>leadership, direction, accountability </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Focus the Business Process, not the Functional Organization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ensure that all affected groups are properly represented </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Human Resources, Finance, Sales, Marketing, IS, etc </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ensure the right experience & skill set </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>field & staff personnel </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Risk Management <ul><li>Technologies can and will fail to perform as expected. </li></ul><ul><li>New technologies can and will always fail to perform as expected. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Look for risks in functionality, adaptability, obsolescence, secondary effects, deadlines, after sales service, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensure problem definition and evolution, standards, speed of innovation have been understood. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Publicly publish the project plan, document variances to the plan and committed corrective actions. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep an issue log and document resolution of each issue. </li></ul><ul><li>IT projects are exposed to technical and conversion risks, organizational and resource risks, financial and funding risks, and supplier failure risks. </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize the risks you will have to face, prepare contingency plans. </li></ul><ul><li>Be realistic, you will usually have to deploy these at some point. </li></ul><ul><li>Plan project “off-ramps” if the project gets out of control, communicate and publish the criteria that will trigger an off-ramp. </li></ul><ul><li>Review and revise your risk analysis and contingency plans, at least once a month, and More Frequently just before go-live. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Change Management <ul><li>Successful management of change requires several key elements: </li></ul>Successful Change Conflict & Little Change Confusion “ Do it when we have spare time” Gradual Change Frustration False Starts Sponsor-ship Vision High Priority Business imperative Resources Action Plan                                    
  22. 22. Identify the key players ..and rumours are always 10 times worse than the truth!!! Rumour, myth, horror stories will emerge unless you tell people what is going on... Communicate Recognize Resistance Deal With Resistance Change Management - Communication Status, Timelines, Risks, Wins! Formal/informal, letters/events/posters/ videos/logos... Sponsors “ Targets” Change Agents Project X The Future The Benefits Over my dead body! £ Benefits Risks WIIFM?
  23. 23. Change Management - Training <ul><li>Different audiences can require different messages & methods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>main users & indirect users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>coaches & managers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>support staff </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Delivery method </li></ul><ul><ul><li>hands on classroom instruction Vs Computer based training (CBT) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>real data Vs test data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in house trainer Vs outsourcing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Train them, train them again, & then train them again </li></ul><ul><ul><li>training is a journey </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>will spend 2X to 4X per person on training as software </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Project Execution – Data & Infrastructure Readiness <ul><li>Data Cleansing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cleaning it up </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Filling in the gaps </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Data Conversion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moving data from the old world to the new </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Double your estimate of what you think it will take </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Infrastructure Readiness: often a stumbling block instead of a building block </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Far too many projects fail because requirements were “revised” at budget time. Do not skimp! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reality: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No one wants to invest in infrastructure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cautions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LANs & WANs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>new wiring, bandwidth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hardware upgrades </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>clients, servers, etc </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inter-operability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>will it work with all of the other things </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Set up a test environment </li></ul>
  25. 25. Project Execution - Process Integration <ul><li>Process integration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Business & management practices: remember: the business, not the technology is the driver </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tie reward & recognition to key metrics of the new process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance measurement should be used as a key driver of change </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Does the new process require a different way of organizing? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Project success </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who has most to gain by a successful implementation? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who might perceive they will lose out in the new order of things? </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Project Execution - Pilot <ul><li>Pilots are an invaluable proving ground for all of the project elements: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Infrastructure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Process Integration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Functionality </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Choosing the right pilot group is critical: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Big enough to prove, small enough to contain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attitude and aptitude </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Don’t underestimate the support requirements during start-up, and after </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Application </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Infrastructure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Project team must have a dedicated support representative </li></ul><ul><li>Desk side support is critical during the pilot phase </li></ul>
  27. 27. Leading for Success - Lessons Learned <ul><li>Leadership and effective communication is critical </li></ul><ul><li>Data cleanliness is a key success factor </li></ul><ul><li>Systems literacy is a prerequisite </li></ul><ul><li>Stand up classroom training is most effective, but hands-on doing is also needed </li></ul><ul><li>Where possible have real data loaded before training </li></ul><ul><li>Development group must be responsive to resolving issues </li></ul><ul><li>Early productivity gains will be marginal due to learning curve </li></ul><ul><li>Application & infrastructure must be reliability </li></ul><ul><li>Users must believe that there is value </li></ul><ul><li>Metrics must be tied to management processes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In process metrics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Results metrics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Assess the risks & be up front in communicating </li></ul><ul><li>Quick hits vs the big bang </li></ul><ul><li>Commitment to pre & post launch support </li></ul>
  28. 28. Closing Thoughts <ul><li>Fallacies: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Field of Dreams” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Bulldog with Lipstick” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Me Too” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Once and For All” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Islands of Collaboration” </li></ul><ul><li>Prerequisites: </li></ul><ul><li>Vision driven </li></ul><ul><li>Clear, customer driven value proposition </li></ul><ul><li>Innovative business model </li></ul><ul><li>Ruthless execution (phasing) </li></ul><ul><li>Real-time responsiveness </li></ul><ul><li>The Big Challenges: </li></ul><ul><li>Data </li></ul><ul><li>Discipline </li></ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Funding </li></ul>