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IPS 2008 N Scott

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Gesture use of chimpanzees: Effect of rank

Gesture use of chimpanzees: Effect of rank

Published in: Technology, Health & Medicine

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  • Transcript

    • 1. The Effect of Rank Nicole Scott & Stuart Semple Roehampton University IPS 2008: Edinburgh, UK Gesture Use of Chimpanzees ( Pan troglodytes ):
    • 2. Communicating social rank
      • Male charging display
        • Pounding on objects & other chimpanzees
        • Stamping feet & charging
      • Is it tailored to who is around?
      • Is it about volubility?
      • Is it aggressive?
      • Communicative style & rank
        • What is the tie-in
        • Does it matter?
    • 3. Communicating through gesture
      • Gesture – expressive movement of head/limbs and body postures used intentionally
        • Two criterion:
          • Sender directs a gesture towards a particular recipient
          • Flexible use of signs that distinguishes them from stereotypical behaviours and involuntary expressions of internal, emotional state
          • (Tomasello et al ., 1985)
      • Modalities
        • Visual
        • Tactile
        • Auditory – excluding vocalizations
      • Few studies on rank and gesture use in chimpanzees
    • 4. Rationalizing gesture use
      • High rank
        • High salience of aggression & reassurance contexts
        • Benefit from drawing attention to self; afford costs of auditory gestures
        • Interactions with close ranked others maintains personal rank
      • Low rank
        • High salience of submission & greeting contexts
        • Attention to self may draw punishment; cannot afford cost of auditory gestures
        • Interactions with distant ranked others increases personal rank
    • 5. Aim & Predictions
      • Aim : Find trends in gesture use according to social rank
      • The following hypotheses and predictions were derived and tested:
        • Hypothesis (1) : Individuals use gestures associated with their rank
          • the diversity of aggressive and reassurance gestures used by individuals will be positively related to rank, while the diversity of greeting and submissive gestures will be negatively related to rank
    • 6. Predictions (cont.)
        • Hypothesis (2) : Auditory gestures are costly to produce
          • the proportion of total interactions in which auditory gestures are given will be positively related to rank
        • Hypothesis (3) : Gestures are used to govern social roles
          • as rank difference between individuals increases, the proportion of interactions in which gestures are given will decrease
    • 7. Methods
      • Chester Zoo, UK – 30 chimpanzees
        • Lived entire lives in Chester Zoo (exceptions)
        • Aged 2 years to 41 years
        • Analyses focused on adult only interactions
      • Record by hand and video camera
        • Focal animal and scan sampling
          • 30 minute sessions
          • Simultaneous ad lib recording
        • 9 hours per animal
      • Observations between 1000 and 1700 hrs
      • March 1 to May 30, 2007
    • 8. Chester Zoo enclosure
    • 9. Chester Zoo enclosure
    • 10. Determining rank
      • # of wins in dyadic interactions
      • Interactions contexts include:
        • One –sided greetings
        • Directed displays
        • Agonistic interactions
      • Analyzed in Mat-Man 1.1
      • Male & Female hierarchies assumed stable
    • 11. How are gestures used?
      • Hypothesis : Individuals use gestures associated with their rank
      High rank Low rank Aggressive gestures Reassurance gestures Submission gestures ‘ Greeting’ gestures Give gestures:
    • 12. Diversity of gestures
      • Shannon Index
        • Spearman Rho
        • No significance for females
      Males -0.900* 0.037 C.C. Sig. (2-tailed) Aggression 0.667 0.219 C.C. Sig. (2-tailed) Submission -0.300 0.624 C.C. Sig. (2-tailed) Reassurance -0.200 0.747 C.C. Sig. (2-tailed) Greet RANK CONTEXT
    • 13. Evidence of male trends
    • 14. In what forms are gestures given?
      • Visual Auditory Tactile
      • Hypothesis : Auditory gestures are costly to produce
      Gestures given : Auditory gestures Social rank
    • 15. Auditory gestures
      • Spearman Rho
        • Rank
        • Proportion of total interactions with gestures
      0.861 18 0.044 Females 0.505 5 -0.400 Males Sig. N C.C.
    • 16. No rank effect - Males No. of interactions
    • 17. No rank effect - Females No. of interactions
    • 18. What is their function?
        • Individuals interact more frequently with others of similar rank
        • Hypothesis : Gestures are used to govern social roles
      Proportion interactions gesture given Difference in rank Same sex interactions :
    • 19. Distance between ranks
      • Spearman Rho
        • Rank difference
        • Proportion interactions between dyad
      • One Sample t-test
        • Mean of correlation coefficients
        • Compare means to zero
      0.564 17 0.588 Females 0.689 4 0.430 Males Sig. df t
    • 20. Conclusions
      • A portion of prediction (1) was supported
        • Males of high rank use more aggressive gestures than low ranked males
        • No such result was found for females interactions
      • Predictions (2) and (3) were not supported
    • 21. What does it all mean?
      • Rank has little effect on individual strategies of gestural communication
      • A relationship exists between an individual’s rank and the diversity of aggressive gestures in its communicative repertoire, at least in male chimpanzees
      • Communication style is more personal than socially assigned.
    • 22.
      • Joanna Bishop, Chest er Zoo
      • Clare Caws, Chester Zoo
      • Peter Litherland, Welsh Mountain Zoo
      • Prof. Frans B. M. de Waal
      Thank You! Any Questions?